Summary: Intermediate filament head (DNA binding) region
Pfam includes annotations and additional family information from a range of different sources. These sources can be accessed via the tabs below.
This is the Wikipedia entry entitled "Intermediate filament". More...
The Wikipedia text that you see displayed here is a download from Wikipedia. This means that the information we display is a copy of the information from the Wikipedia database. The button next to the article title ("Edit Wikipedia article") takes you to the edit page for the article directly within Wikipedia. You should be aware you are not editing our local copy of this information. Any changes that you make to the Wikipedia article will not be displayed here until we next download the article from Wikipedia. We currently download new content on a nightly basis.
Does Pfam agree with the content of the Wikipedia entry ?
Pfam has chosen to link families to Wikipedia articles. In some case we have created or edited these articles but in many other cases we have not made any direct contribution to the content of the article. The Wikipedia community does monitor edits to try to ensure that (a) the quality of article annotation increases, and (b) vandalism is very quickly dealt with. However, we would like to emphasise that Pfam does not curate the Wikipedia entries and we cannot guarantee the accuracy of the information on the Wikipedia page.
Editing Wikipedia articles
Before you edit for the first time
Wikipedia is a free, online encyclopedia. Although anyone can edit or contribute to an article, Wikipedia has some strong editing guidelines and policies, which promote the Wikipedia standard of style and etiquette. Your edits and contributions are more likely to be accepted (and remain) if they are in accordance with this policy.
You should take a few minutes to view the following pages:
How your contribution will be recorded
Anyone can edit a Wikipedia entry. You can do this either as a new user or you can register with Wikipedia and log on. When you click on the "Edit Wikipedia article" button, your browser will direct you to the edit page for this entry in Wikipedia. If you are a registered user and currently logged in, your changes will be recorded under your Wikipedia user name. However, if you are not a registered user or are not logged on, your changes will be logged under your computer's IP address. This has two main implications. Firstly, as a registered Wikipedia user your edits are more likely seen as valuable contribution (although all edits are open to community scrutiny regardless). Secondly, if you edit under an IP address you may be sharing this IP address with other users. If your IP address has previously been blocked (due to being flagged as a source of 'vandalism') your edits will also be blocked. You can find more information on this and creating a user account at Wikipedia.
If you have problems editing a particular page, contact us at firstname.lastname@example.org and we will try to help.
The community annotation is a new facility of the Pfam web site. If you have problems editing or experience problems with these pages please contact us.
Intermediate filament Edit Wikipedia article
|Intermediate filament tail domain|
structure of lamin a/c globular domain
|Intermediate filament protein|
human vimentin coil 2b fragment (cys2)
|Intermediate filament head (DNA binding) region|
Intermediate filaments (IFs) are cytoskeletal components found in metazoan cells. They are composed of a family of related proteins sharing common structural and sequence features. Intermediate filaments have an average diameter of 10 nanometers, which is between that of 7 nm actin (microfilaments), and that of 25 nm microtubules, although they were initially designated 'intermediate' because their average diameter is between those of narrower microfilaments (actin) and wider myosin filaments found in muscle cells. Most types of intermediate filaments are cytoplasmic, but one type, the lamins, are nuclear.
- 1 Structure
- 2 Biomechanical properties
- 3 Types
- 4 Cell adhesion
- 5 Associated proteins
- 6 Diseases arising from mutations in IF genes
- 7 References
- 8 Further reading
- 9 External links
The structure of proteins that form IF was first predicted by computerized analysis of the amino acid sequence of a human epidermal keratin derived from cloned cDNAs. Analysis of a second keratin sequence revealed that the two types of keratins share only about 30% amino acid sequence homology but share similar patterns of secondary structure domains. As suggested by the first model, all IF proteins appear to have a central alpha-helical rod domain that is composed of four alpha-helical segments (named as 1A, 1B, 2A and 2B) separated by three linker regions. 
The N and C-termini of IF proteins are non-alpha-helical regions and show wide variation in their lengths and sequences across IF families. The basic building-block for IFs is a parallel and in-register dimer. The dimer is formed through the interaction of the rod domain to form a coiled coil. Cytoplasmic IF assemble into non-polar unit-length filaments (ULF), which then assemble into longer structures. Part of the assembly process includes a compaction step, in which ULF tighten and assume a smaller diameter. The reasons for this compaction are not well understood, and IF are routinely observed to have diameters ranging between 6 and 12 nm.
The N-terminal "head domain" binds DNA. Vimentin heads are able to alter nuclear architecture and chromatin distribution, and the liberation of heads by HIV-1 protease may play an important role in HIV-1 associated cytopathogenesis and carcinogenesis. Phosphorylation of the head region can affect filament stability. The head has been shown to interact with the rod domain of the same protein.
The anti-parallel orientation of tetramers means that, unlike microtubules and microfilaments, which have a plus end and a minus end, IFs lack polarity and cannot serve as basis for cell motility and intracellular transport.
IFs are rather deformable proteins that can be stretched several times their initial length. The key to facilitate this large deformation is due to their hierarchical structure, which facilitates a cascaded activation of deformation mechanisms at different levels of strain.
There are about 70 different genes coding for various intermediate filament proteins. However, different kinds of IFs share basic characteristics: In general, they are all polymers that measure between 9-11 nm in diameter when fully assembled.
IF are subcategorized into six types based on similarities in amino acid sequence and protein structure.
Types I and II - Acidic and Basic Keratins
- epithelial keratins (about 20) in epithelial cells (image to right)
- trichocytic keratins (about 13) (hair keratins), which make up hair, nails, horns and reptilian scales.
Regardless of the group, keratins are either acidic or basic. Acidic and basic keratins bind each other to form acidic-basic heterodimers and these heterodimers then associate to make a keratin filament.
- Desmin IFs are structural components of the sarcomeres in muscle cells.
- GFAP (glial fibrillary acidic protein) is found in astrocytes and other glia.
- Peripherin found in peripheral neurons.
- Vimentin, the most widely distributed of all IF proteins, can be found in fibroblasts, leukocytes, and blood vessel endothelial cells. They support the cellular membranes, keep some organelles in a fixed place within the cytoplasm, and transmit membrane receptor signals to the nucleus.
- Neurofilaments - the type IV family of intermediate filaments that is found in high concentrations along the axons of vertebrate neurons.
Type V - nuclear lamins
Lamins are fibrous proteins having structural function in the cell nucleus.
In metazoan cells, there are A and B type lamins, which differ in their length and pI. Human cells have three differentially regulated genes. B-type lamins are present in every cell. B type lamins, B1 and B2, are expressed from the LMNB1 and LMNB2 genes on 5q23 and 19q13, respectively. A-type lamins are only expressed following gastrulation. Lamin A and C are the most common A-type lamins and are splice variants of the LMNA gene found at 1q21.
These proteins localize to two regions of the nuclear compartment, the nuclear lamina—a proteinaceous structure layer subjacent to the inner surface of the nuclear envelope and throughout the nucleoplasm in the nucleoplasmic "veil".
Comparison of the lamins to vertebrate cytoskeletal IFs shows that lamins have an extra 42 residues (six heptads) within coil 1b. The c-terminal tail domain contains a nuclear localization signal (NLS), an Ig-fold-like domain, and in most cases a carboxy-terminal CaaX box that is isoprenylated and carboxymethylated (lamin C does not have a CAAX box). Lamin A is further processed to remove the last 15 amino acids and its farnesylated cysteine.
During mitosis, lamins are phosphorylated by MPF, which drives the disassembly of the lamina and the nuclear envelope.
Filaggrin binds to keratin fibers in epidermal cells. Plectin links vimentin to other vimentin fibers, as well as to microfilaments, microtubules, and myosin II. Kinesin is being researched and is suggested to connect vimentin to tubulin via motor proteins.
Keratin filaments in epithelial cells link to desmosomes (desmosomes connect the cytoskeleton together) through plakoglobin, desmoplakin, desmogleins, and desmocollins; desmin filaments are connected in a similar way in heart muscle cells.
Diseases arising from mutations in IF genes
- Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC), mutations in the DES gene.
- Epidermolysis bullosa simplex; K5 or K14 mutation
- Laminopathies are a family of diseases caused by mutations in nuclear lamins and include Hutchinson Gilford Progeria Syndrome and various lipodystrophies and cardiomyopathies among others.
- Human Intermediate Filament Database(HIFD), a comprehensive database of human intermediate filament proteins, their associated variations and diseases.
- Ishikawa H, Bischoff R, Holtzer H (September 1968). "Mitosis and intermediate-sized filaments in developing skeletal muscle". J. Cell Biol. 38 (3): 538–55. doi:10.1083/jcb.38.3.538. PMC 2108373. PMID 5664223.
- Herrmann H, Bär H, Kreplak L, Strelkov SV, Aebi U (July 2007). "Intermediate filaments: from cell architecture to nanomechanics". Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 8 (7): 562–73. doi:10.1038/nrm2197. PMID 17551517.
- Hanukoglu I, Fuchs E (November 1982). "The cDNA sequence of a human epidermal keratin: divergence of sequence but conservation of structure among intermediate filament proteins". Cell 31 (1): 243–52. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(82)90424-X. PMID 6186381.
- Hanukoglu I, Fuchs E (July 1983). "The cDNA sequence of a Type II cytoskeletal keratin reveals constant and variable structural domains among keratins". Cell 33 (3): 915–24. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(83)90034-X. PMID 6191871.
- Lee CH, Kim MS, Chung BM, Leahy DJ, Coulombe PA (July 2012). "Structural basis for heteromeric assembly and perinuclear organization of keratin filaments". Nat. Struct. Mol. Biol. 19 (7): 707–15. doi:10.1038/nsmb.2330. PMID 22705788.
- Qin Z, Kreplak L, Buehler MJ (2009). "Hierarchical structure controls nanomechanical properties of vimentin intermediate filaments". PLoS ONE 4 (10): e7294. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0007294. PMC 2752800. PMID 19806221.
- Wang Q, Tolstonog GV, Shoeman R, Traub P (August 2001). "Sites of nucleic acid binding in type I-IV intermediate filament subunit proteins". Biochemistry 40 (34): 10342–9. doi:10.1021/bi0108305. PMID 11513613.
- Shoeman RL, Huttermann C, Hartig R, Traub P (January 2001). "Amino-terminal polypeptides of vimentin are responsible for the changes in nuclear architecture associated with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease activity in tissue culture cells". Mol. Biol. Cell 12 (1): 143–54. PMC 30574. PMID 11160829.
- Takemura M, Gomi H, Colucci-Guyon E, Itohara S (August 2002). "Protective role of phosphorylation in turnover of glial fibrillary acidic protein in mice". J. Neurosci. 22 (16): 6972–9. PMID 12177195.
- Parry DA, Marekov LN, Steinert PM, Smith TA (2002). "A role for the 1A and L1 rod domain segments in head domain organization and function of intermediate filaments: structural analysis of trichocyte keratin". J. Struct. Biol. 137 (1-2): 97–108. doi:10.1006/jsbi.2002.4437. PMID 12064937.
- Quinlan R, Hutchison C, Lane B (1995). "Intermediate filament proteins". Protein Profile 2 (8): 795–952. PMID 8771189.
- Herrmann H, Bär H, Kreplak L, Strelkov SV, Aebi U (July 2007). "Intermediate filaments: from cell architecture to nanomechanics". Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 8 (7): 562–73. doi:10.1038/nrm2197. PMID 17551517.Qin Z, Kreplak L, Buehler MJ (2009). "Hierarchical structure controls nanomechanical properties of vimentin intermediate filaments". PLoS ONE 4 (10): e7294. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0007294. PMC 2752800. PMID 19806221.Kreplak L, Fudge D (January 2007). "Biomechanical properties of intermediate filaments: from tissues to single filaments and back". BioEssays 29 (1): 26–35. doi:10.1002/bies.20514. PMID 17187357.Qin Z, Buehler MJ, Kreplak L (January 2010). "A multi-scale approach to understand the mechanobiology of intermediate filaments". J Biomech 43 (1): 15–22. doi:10.1016/j.jbiomech.2009.09.004. PMID 19811783.Qin Z, Kreplak L, Buehler MJ (October 2009). "Nanomechanical properties of vimentin intermediate filament dimers". Nanotechnology 20 (42): 425101. doi:10.1088/0957-4484/20/42/425101. PMID 19779230.
- Steinert PM, Chou YH, Prahlad V, Parry DA, Marekov LN, Wu KC, Jang SI, Goldman RD (April 1999). "A high molecular weight intermediate filament-associated protein in BHK-21 cells is nestin, a type VI intermediate filament protein. Limited co-assembly in vitro to form heteropolymers with type III vimentin and type IV alpha-internexin". J. Biol. Chem. 274 (14): 9881–90. doi:10.1074/jbc.274.14.9881. PMID 10092680.
- Klauke B, Kossmann S, Gaertner A, Brand K, Stork I, Brodehl A, Dieding M, Walhorn V, Anselmetti D, Gerdes D, Bohms B, Schulz U, Zu Knyphausen E, Vorgerd M, Gummert J, Milting H (December 2010). "De novo desmin-mutation N116S is associated with arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy". Hum. Mol. Genet. 19 (23): 4595–607. doi:10.1093/hmg/ddq387. PMID 20829228.
- Brodehl A, Hedde PN, Dieding M, Fatima A, Walhorn V, Gayda S, Šarić T, Klauke B, Gummert J, Anselmetti D, Heilemann M, Nienhaus GU, Milting H (May 2012). "Dual color photoactivation localization microscopy of cardiomyopathy-associated desmin mutants". J. Biol. Chem. 287 (19): 16047–57. doi:10.1074/jbc.M111.313841. PMC 3346104. PMID 22403400.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Intermediate filament protein, coiled coil region.|
- Intermediate Filament Proteins at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH)
This tab holds the annotation information that is stored in the Pfam database. As we move to using Wikipedia as our main source of annotation, the contents of this tab will be gradually replaced by the Wikipedia tab.
Intermediate filament head (DNA binding) region Provide feedback
This family represents the N-terminal head region of intermediate filaments. Intermediate filament heads bind DNA . Vimentin heads are able to alter nuclear architecture and chromatin distribution, and the liberation of heads by HIV-1 protease liberates may play an important role in HIV-1 associated cytopathogenesis and carcinogenesis . Phosphorylation of the head region can affect filament stability . The head has been shown to interaction with the rod domain of the same protein .
Shoeman RL, Huttermann C, Hartig R, Traub P; , Mol Biol Cell 2001;12:143-154.: Amino-terminal polypeptides of vimentin are responsible for the changes in nuclear architecture associated with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease activity in tissue culture cells. PUBMED:11160829 EPMC:11160829
Takemura M, Gomi H, Colucci-Guyon E, Itohara S; , J Neurosci 2002;22:6972-6979.: Protective role of phosphorylation in turnover of glial fibrillary acidic protein in mice. PUBMED:12177195 EPMC:12177195
Parry DA, Marekov LN, Steinert PM, Smith TA; , J Struct Biol 2002;137:97-108.: A Role for the 1A and L1 Rod Domain Segments in Head Domain Organization and Function of Intermediate Filaments: Structural Analysis of Trichocyte Keratin. PUBMED:12064937 EPMC:12064937
External database links
This tab holds annotation information from the InterPro database.
InterPro entry IPR006821
This entry represents the N-terminal head domain of intermediate filaments. Intermediate filament heads bind DNA [PUBMED:11513613]. Vimentin heads are able to alter nuclear architecture and chromatin distribution, and the liberation of heads by HIV-1 protease liberates may play an important role in HIV-1 associated cytopathogenesis and carcinogenesis [PUBMED:11160829]. Phosphorylation of the head region can affect filament stability [PUBMED:12177195]. The head has been shown to interaction with the rod domain of the same protein [PUBMED:12064937].
The mapping between Pfam and Gene Ontology is provided by InterPro. If you use this data please cite InterPro.
|Cellular component||intermediate filament (GO:0005882)|
Below is a listing of the unique domain organisations or architectures in which this domain is found. More...
The graphic that is shown by default represents the longest sequence with a given architecture. Each row contains the following information:
- the number of sequences which exhibit this architecture
a textual description of the architecture, e.g. Gla, EGF x 2, Trypsin.
This example describes an architecture with one
Gladomain, followed by two consecutive
EGFdomains, and finally a single
- a link to the page in the Pfam site showing information about the sequence that the graphic describes
- the UniProt description of the protein sequence
- the number of residues in the sequence
- the Pfam graphic itself.
Note that you can see the family page for a particular domain by clicking on the graphic. You can also choose to see all sequences which have a given architecture by clicking on the Show link in each row.
Finally, because some families can be found in a very large number of architectures, we load only the first fifty architectures by default. If you want to see more architectures, click the button at the bottom of the page to load the next set.
Loading domain graphics...
We store a range of different sequence alignments for families. As well as the seed alignment from which the family is built, we provide the full alignment, generated by searching the sequence database using the family HMM. We also generate alignments using four representative proteomes (RP) sets, the NCBI sequence database, and our metagenomics sequence database. More...
There are various ways to view or download the sequence alignments that we store. We provide several sequence viewers and a plain-text Stockholm-format file for download.
We make a range of alignments for each Pfam-A family:
- the curated alignment from which the HMM for the family is built
- the alignment generated by searching the sequence database using the HMM
- Representative Proteomes (RPs) at 15%, 35%, 55% and 75% co-membership thresholds
- alignment generated by searching the NCBI sequence database using the family HMM
- alignment generated by searching the metagenomics sequence database using the family HMM
You can see the alignments as HTML or in three different sequence viewers:
- a Java applet developed at the University of Dundee. You will need Java installed before running jalview
- an HTML page showing the whole alignment.Please note: full Pfam alignments can be very large. These HTML views are extremely large and often cause problems for browsers. Please use either jalview or the Pfam viewer if you have trouble viewing the HTML version
- an HTML-based representation of the alignment, coloured according to the posterior-probability (PP) values from the HMM. As for the standard HTML view, heatmap alignments can also be very large and slow to render.
- Pfam viewer
- an HTML-based viewer that uses DAS to retrieve alignment fragments on request
You can download (or view in your browser) a text representation of a Pfam alignment in various formats:
You can also change the order in which sequences are listed in the alignment, change how insertions are represented, alter the characters that are used to represent gaps in sequences and, finally, choose whether to download the alignment or to view it in your browser directly.
You may find that large alignments cause problems for the viewers and the reformatting tool, so we also provide all alignments in Stockholm format. You can download either the plain text alignment, or a gzipped version of it.
We make a range of alignments for each Pfam-A family. You can see a description of each above. You can view these alignments in various ways but please note that some types of alignment are never generated while others may not be available for all families, most commonly because the alignments are too large to handle.
1Cannot generate PP/Heatmap alignments for seeds; no PP data available
Key: available, not generated, — not available.
Format an alignment
We make all of our alignments available in Stockholm format. You can download them here as raw, plain text files or as gzip-compressed files.
You can also download a FASTA format file containing the full-length sequences for all sequences in the full alignment.
MyHits provides a collection of tools to handle multiple sequence alignments. For example, one can refine a seed alignment (sequence addition or removal, re-alignment or manual edition) and then search databases for remote homologs using HMMER3.
HMM logos is one way of visualising profile HMMs. Logos provide a quick overview of the properties of an HMM in a graphical form. You can see a more detailed description of HMM logos and find out how you can interpret them here. More...
If you find these logos useful in your own work, please consider citing the following article:
This page displays the phylogenetic tree for this family's seed alignment. We use FastTree to calculate neighbour join trees with a local bootstrap based on 100 resamples (shown next to the tree nodes). FastTree calculates approximately-maximum-likelihood phylogenetic trees from our seed alignment.
Note: You can also download the data file for the tree.
Curation and family details
This section shows the detailed information about the Pfam family. You can see the definitions of many of the terms in this section in the glossary and a fuller explanation of the scoring system that we use in the scores section of the help pages.
|Number in seed:||45|
|Number in full:||462|
|Average length of the domain:||84.80 aa|
|Average identity of full alignment:||31 %|
|Average coverage of the sequence by the domain:||16.72 %|
|HMM build commands:||
build method: hmmbuild -o /dev/null HMM SEED
search method: hmmsearch -Z 23193494 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq
|Family (HMM) version:||9|
|Download:||download the raw HMM for this family|
Weight segments by...
Change the size of the sunburst
selected sequences to HMM
a FASTA-format file
- 0 sequences
- 0 species
This visualisation provides a simple graphical representation of the distribution of this family across species. You can find the original interactive tree in the More....
This chart is a modified "sunburst" visualisation of the species tree for this family. It shows each node in the tree as a separate arc, arranged radially with the superkingdoms at the centre and the species arrayed around the outermost ring.
How the sunburst is generated
The tree is built by considering the taxonomic lineage of each sequence that has a match to this family. For each node in the resulting tree, we draw an arc in the sunburst. The radius of the arc, its distance from the root node at the centre of the sunburst, shows the taxonomic level ("superkingdom", "kingdom", etc). The length of the arc represents either the number of sequences represented at a given level, or the number of species that are found beneath the node in the tree. The weighting scheme can be changed using the sunburst controls.
In order to reduce the complexity of the representation, we reduce the number of taxonomic levels that we show. We consider only the following eight major taxonomic levels:
Colouring and labels
Segments of the tree are coloured approximately according to their superkingdom. For example, archeal branches are coloured with shades of orange, eukaryotes in shades of purple, etc. The colour assignments are shown under the sunburst controls. Where space allows, the name of the taxonomic level will be written on the arc itself.
As you move your mouse across the sunburst, the current node will be highlighted. In the top section of the controls panel we show a summary of the lineage of the currently highlighed node. If you pause over an arc, a tooltip will be shown, giving the name of the taxonomic level in the title and a summary of the number of sequences and species below that node in the tree.
Anomalies in the taxonomy tree
There are some situations that the sunburst tree cannot easily handle and for which we have work-arounds in place.
Missing taxonomic levels
Some species in the taxonomic tree may not have one or more of the main eight levels that we display. For example, Bos taurus is not assigned an order in the NCBI taxonomic tree. In such cases we mark the omitted level with, for example, "No order", in both the tooltip and the lineage summary.
Unmapped species names
The tree is built by looking at each sequence in the full alignment for the family. We take the name of the species given by UniProt and try to map that to the full taxonomic tree from NCBI. In some cases, the name chosen by UniProt does not map to any node in the NCBI tree, perhaps because the chosen name is listed as a synonym or a misspelling in the NCBI taxonomy.
So that these nodes are not simply omitted from the sunburst tree, we group them together in a separate branch (or segment of the sunburst tree). Since we cannot determine the lineage for these unmapped species, we show all levels between the superkingdom and the species as "uncategorised".
Since we reduce the species tree to only the eight main taxonomic levels, sequences that are mapped to the sub-species level in the tree would not normally be shown. Rather than leave out these species, we map them instead to their parent species. So, for example, for sequences belonging to one of the Vibrio cholerae sub-species in the NCBI taxonomy, we show them instead as belonging to the species Vibrio cholerae.
Too many species/sequences
For large species trees, you may see blank regions in the outer layers of the sunburst. These occur when there are large numbers of arcs to be drawn in a small space. If an arc is less than approximately one pixel wide, it will not be drawn and the space will be left blank. You may still be able to get some information about the species in that region by moving your mouse across the area, but since each arc will be very small, it will be difficult to accurately locate a particular species.
The tree shows the occurrence of this domain across different species. More...
We show the species tree in one of two ways. For smaller trees we try to show an interactive representation, which allows you to select specific nodes in the tree and view them as an alignment or as a set of Pfam domain graphics.
Unfortunately we have found that there are problems viewing the interactive tree when the it becomes larger than a certain limit. Furthermore, we have found that Internet Explorer can become unresponsive when viewing some trees, regardless of their size. We therefore show a text representation of the species tree when the size is above a certain limit or if you are using Internet Explorer to view the site.
If you are using IE you can still load the interactive tree by clicking the "Generate interactive tree" button, but please be aware of the potential problems that the interactive species tree can cause.
For all of the domain matches in a full alignment, we count the number that are found on all sequences in the alignment. This total is shown in the purple box.
We also count the number of unique sequences on which each domain is found, which is shown in green. Note that a domain may appear multiple times on the same sequence, leading to the difference between these two numbers.
Finally, we group sequences from the same organism according to the NCBI code that is assigned by UniProt, allowing us to count the number of distinct sequences on which the domain is found. This value is shown in the pink boxes.
We use the NCBI species tree to group organisms according to their taxonomy and this forms the structure of the displayed tree. Note that in some cases the trees are too large (have too many nodes) to allow us to build an interactive tree, but in most cases you can still view the tree in a plain text, non-interactive representation. Those species which are represented in the seed alignment for this domain are highlighted.
You can use the tree controls to manipulate how the interactive tree is displayed:
- show/hide the summary boxes
- highlight species that are represented in the seed alignment
- expand/collapse the tree or expand it to a given depth
- select a sub-tree or a set of species within the tree and view them graphically or as an alignment
- save a plain text representation of the tree
Please note: for large trees this can take some time. While the tree is loading, you can safely switch away from this tab but if you browse away from the family page entirely, the tree will not be loaded.