Summary: Transcription initiation factor TFIID component TAF4 family
Pfam includes annotations and additional family information from a range of different sources. These sources can be accessed via the tabs below.
This is the Wikipedia entry entitled "TAF4". More...
The Wikipedia text that you see displayed here is a download from Wikipedia. This means that the information we display is a copy of the information from the Wikipedia database. The button next to the article title ("Edit Wikipedia article") takes you to the edit page for the article directly within Wikipedia. You should be aware you are not editing our local copy of this information. Any changes that you make to the Wikipedia article will not be displayed here until we next download the article from Wikipedia. We currently download new content on a nightly basis.
Does Pfam agree with the content of the Wikipedia entry ?
Pfam has chosen to link families to Wikipedia articles. In some case we have created or edited these articles but in many other cases we have not made any direct contribution to the content of the article. The Wikipedia community does monitor edits to try to ensure that (a) the quality of article annotation increases, and (b) vandalism is very quickly dealt with. However, we would like to emphasise that Pfam does not curate the Wikipedia entries and we cannot guarantee the accuracy of the information on the Wikipedia page.
Editing Wikipedia articles
Before you edit for the first time
Wikipedia is a free, online encyclopedia. Although anyone can edit or contribute to an article, Wikipedia has some strong editing guidelines and policies, which promote the Wikipedia standard of style and etiquette. Your edits and contributions are more likely to be accepted (and remain) if they are in accordance with this policy.
You should take a few minutes to view the following pages:
How your contribution will be recorded
Anyone can edit a Wikipedia entry. You can do this either as a new user or you can register with Wikipedia and log on. When you click on the "Edit Wikipedia article" button, your browser will direct you to the edit page for this entry in Wikipedia. If you are a registered user and currently logged in, your changes will be recorded under your Wikipedia user name. However, if you are not a registered user or are not logged on, your changes will be logged under your computer's IP address. This has two main implications. Firstly, as a registered Wikipedia user your edits are more likely seen as valuable contribution (although all edits are open to community scrutiny regardless). Secondly, if you edit under an IP address you may be sharing this IP address with other users. If your IP address has previously been blocked (due to being flagged as a source of 'vandalism') your edits will also be blocked. You can find more information on this and creating a user account at Wikipedia.
If you have problems editing a particular page, contact us at firstname.lastname@example.org and we will try to help.
The community annotation is a new facility of the Pfam web site. If you have problems editing or experience problems with these pages please contact us.
|, TAF2C, TAF2C1, TAF4A, TAFII130, TAFII135, TATA-box binding protein associated factor 4|
Initiation of transcription by RNA polymerase II requires the activities of more than 70 polypeptides. The protein that coordinates these activities is transcription factor IID (TFIID), which binds to the core promoter to position the polymerase properly, serves as the scaffold for assembly of the remainder of the transcription complex, and acts as a channel for regulatory signals. TFIID is composed of the TATA-binding protein (TBP) and a group of evolutionarily conserved proteins known as TBP-associated factors or TAFs. TAFs may participate in basal transcription, serve as coactivators, function in promoter recognition or modify general transcription factors (GTFs) to facilitate complex assembly and transcription initiation. This gene encodes one of the larger subunits of TFIID that has been shown to potentiate transcriptional activation by retinoic acid, thyroid hormone and vitamin D3 receptors. In addition, this subunit interacts with the transcription factor CREB, which has a glutamine-rich activation domain, and binds to other proteins containing glutamine-rich regions. Aberrant binding to this subunit by proteins with expanded polyglutamine regions has been suggested as one of the pathogenetic mechanisms underlying a group of neurodegenerative disorders referred to as polyglutamine diseases.
TAF4 has been shown to interact with:
crystal structure of the human taf4-taf12 (tafii135-tafii20) complex
Yeast TFIID comprises the TATA binding protein and 14 TBP-associated factors (TAFIIs), nine of which contain histone-fold domains (INTERPRO). The C-terminal region of the TFIID-specific yeast TAF4 (yTAF4) containing the HFD shares strong sequence similarity with Drosophila (d)TAF4 and human TAF4. A structure/function analysis of yTAF4 demonstrates that the HFD, a short conserved C-terminal domain (CCTD), and the region separating them are all required for yTAF4 function. This region of similarity is found in Transcription initiation factor TFIID component TAF4.
- ENSG00000130699 GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000280529, ENSG00000130699 - Ensembl, May 2017
- GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000039117 - Ensembl, May 2017
- "Human PubMed Reference:".
- "Mouse PubMed Reference:".
- Tanese N, Saluja D, Vassallo MF, Chen JL, Admon A (1996). "Molecular cloning and analysis of two subunits of the human TFIID complex: hTAFII130 and hTAFII100". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 93 (24): 13611–6. doi:10.1073/pnas.93.24.13611. PMC . PMID 8942982.
- Mengus G, May M, Carré L, Chambon P, Davidson I (July 1997). "Human TAF(II)135 potentiates transcriptional activation by the AF-2s of the retinoic acid, vitamin D3, and thyroid hormone receptors in mammalian cells". Genes Dev. 11 (11): 1381–95. doi:10.1101/gad.11.11.1381. PMID 9192867.
- "Entrez Gene: TAF4 TAF4 RNA polymerase II, TATA box binding protein (TBP)-associated factor, 135kDa".
- Vassallo MF, Tanese N (April 2002). "Isoform-specific interaction of HP1 with human TAFII130". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99 (9): 5919–24. doi:10.1073/pnas.092025499. PMC . PMID 11959914.
- Pointud JC, Mengus G, Brancorsini S, Monaco L, Parvinen M, Sassone-Corsi P, Davidson I (May 2003). "The intracellular localisation of TAF7L, a paralogue of transcription factor TFIID subunit TAF7, is developmentally regulated during male germ-cell differentiation". J. Cell Sci. 116 (Pt 9): 1847–58. doi:10.1242/jcs.00391. PMID 12665565.
- Bellorini M, Lee DK, Dantonel JC, Zemzoumi K, Roeder RG, Tora L, Mantovani R (June 1997). "CCAAT binding NF-Y-TBP interactions: NF-YB and NF-YC require short domains adjacent to their histone fold motifs for association with TBP basic residues". Nucleic Acids Res. 25 (11): 2174–81. doi:10.1093/nar/25.11.2174. PMC . PMID 9153318.
- Brand M, Moggs JG, Oulad-Abdelghani M, Lejeune F, Dilworth FJ, Stevenin J, Almouzni G, Tora L (June 2001). "UV-damaged DNA-binding protein in the TFTC complex links DNA damage recognition to nucleosome acetylation". EMBO J. 20 (12): 3187–96. doi:10.1093/emboj/20.12.3187. PMC . PMID 11406595.
- Thuault S, Gangloff YG, Kirchner J, Sanders S, Werten S, Romier C, Weil PA, Davidson I (November 2002). "Functional analysis of the TFIID-specific yeast TAF4 (yTAF(II)48) reveals an unexpected organization of its histone-fold domain". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (47): 45510–7. doi:10.1074/jbc.M206556200. PMID 12237303.
- Zhou Q, Sharp PA (1995). "Novel mechanism and factor for regulation by HIV-1 Tat". EMBO J. 14 (2): 321–8. PMC . PMID 7835343.
- Parada CA, Yoon JB, Roeder RG (1995). "A novel LBP-1-mediated restriction of HIV-1 transcription at the level of elongation in vitro". J. Biol. Chem. 270 (5): 2274–83. doi:10.1074/jbc.270.5.2274. PMID 7836461.
- Ou SH, Garcia-Martínez LF, Paulssen EJ, Gaynor RB (1994). "Role of flanking E box motifs in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 TATA element function". J. Virol. 68 (11): 7188–99. PMC . PMID 7933101.
- Kashanchi F, Piras G, Radonovich MF, Duvall JF, Fattaey A, Chiang CM, Roeder RG, Brady JN (1994). "Direct interaction of human TFIID with the HIV-1 transactivator tat". Nature. 367 (6460): 295–9. doi:10.1038/367295a0. PMID 8121496.
- Wang Z, Morris GF, Rice AP, Xiong W, Morris CB (1996). "Wild-type and transactivation-defective mutants of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Tat protein bind human TATA-binding protein in vitro". J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. Hum. Retrovirol. 12 (2): 128–38. doi:10.1097/00042560-199606010-00005. PMID 8680883.
- Pendergrast PS, Morrison D, Tansey WP, Hernandez N (1996). "Mutations in the carboxy-terminal domain of TBP affect the synthesis of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 full-length and short transcripts similarly". J. Virol. 70 (8): 5025–34. PMC . PMID 8764009.
- Kashanchi F, Khleif SN, Duvall JF, Sadaie MR, Radonovich MF, Cho M, Martin MA, Chen SY, Weinmann R, Brady JN (1996). "Interaction of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Tat with a unique site of TFIID inhibits negative cofactor Dr1 and stabilizes the TFIID-TFIIA complex". J. Virol. 70 (8): 5503–10. PMC . PMID 8764062.
- Zhou Q, Sharp PA (1996). "Tat-SF1: cofactor for stimulation of transcriptional elongation by HIV-1 Tat". Science. 274 (5287): 605–10. doi:10.1126/science.274.5287.605. PMID 8849451.
- García-Martínez LF, Ivanov D, Gaynor RB (1997). "Association of Tat with purified HIV-1 and HIV-2 transcription preinitiation complexes". J. Biol. Chem. 272 (11): 6951–8. doi:10.1074/jbc.272.11.6951. PMID 9054383.
- Saluja D, Vassallo MF, Tanese N (1998). "Distinct subdomains of human TAFII130 are required for interactions with glutamine-rich transcriptional activators". Mol. Cell. Biol. 18 (10): 5734–43. doi:10.1128/mcb.18.10.5734. PMC . PMID 9742090.
- Brand M, Yamamoto K, Staub A, Tora L (1999). "Identification of TATA-binding protein-free TAFII-containing complex subunits suggests a role in nucleosome acetylation and signal transduction". J. Biol. Chem. 274 (26): 18285–9. doi:10.1074/jbc.274.26.18285. PMID 10373431.
- Inada A, Someya Y, Yamada Y, Ihara Y, Kubota A, Ban N, Watanabe R, Tsuda K, Seino Y (1999). "The cyclic AMP response element modulator family regulates the insulin gene transcription by interacting with transcription factor IID". J. Biol. Chem. 274 (30): 21095–103. doi:10.1074/jbc.274.30.21095. PMID 10409662.
- Gangloff YG, Werten S, Romier C, Carré L, Poch O, Moras D, Davidson I (2000). "The human TFIID components TAF(II)135 and TAF(II)20 and the yeast SAGA components ADA1 and TAF(II)68 heterodimerize to form histone-like pairs". Mol. Cell. Biol. 20 (1): 340–51. doi:10.1128/MCB.20.1.340-351.2000. PMC . PMID 10594036.
- Martinez E, Palhan VB, Tjernberg A, Lymar ES, Gamper AM, Kundu TK, Chait BT, Roeder RG (2001). "Human STAGA complex is a chromatin-acetylating transcription coactivator that interacts with pre-mRNA splicing and DNA damage-binding factors in vivo". Mol. Cell. Biol. 21 (20): 6782–95. doi:10.1128/MCB.21.20.6782-6795.2001. PMC . PMID 11564863.
- Guermah M, Tao Y, Roeder RG (2001). "Positive and negative TAF(II) functions that suggest a dynamic TFIID structure and elicit synergy with traps in activator-induced transcription". Mol. Cell. Biol. 21 (20): 6882–94. doi:10.1128/MCB.21.20.6882-6894.2001. PMC . PMID 11564872.
- Felinski EA, Quinn PG (2001). "The coactivator dTAF(II)110/hTAF(II)135 is sufficient to recruit a polymerase complex and activate basal transcription mediated by CREB". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 98 (23): 13078–83. doi:10.1073/pnas.241337698. PMC . PMID 11687654.
This tab holds the annotation information that is stored in the Pfam database. As we move to using Wikipedia as our main source of annotation, the contents of this tab will be gradually replaced by the Wikipedia tab.
Transcription initiation factor TFIID component TAF4 family Provide feedback
This region of similarity is found in Transcription initiation factor TFIID component TAF4 .
Thuault S, Gangloff YG, Kirchner J, Sanders S, Werten S, Romier C, Weil PA, Davidson I; , J Biol Chem 2002;277:45510-45517.: Functional analysis of the TFIID-specific yeast TAF4 (yTAF(II)48) reveals an unexpected organization of its histone-fold domain. PUBMED:12237303 EPMC:12237303
Internal database links
External database links
This tab holds annotation information from the InterPro database.
InterPro entry IPR007900
Accurate transcription initiation at protein-coding genes by RNA polymerase II requires the assembly of a multiprotein complex around the mRNA start site. Transcription factor TFIID is one of the general factors involved in this process. Yeast TFIID comprises the TATA binding protein and 14 TBP-associated factors (TAFIIs), nine of which contain histone-fold domains. The C-terminal region of the TFIID-specific yeast TAF4 (yTAF4) containing the HFD shares strong sequence similarity with Drosophila (d)TAF4 and human TAF4. A structure/function analysis of yTAF4 demonstrates that the HFD, a short conserved C-terminal domain (CCTD), and the region separating them are all required for yTAF4 function. This region of similarity is found in Transcription initiation factor TFIID component TAF4 [PUBMED:12237303].
The mapping between Pfam and Gene Ontology is provided by InterPro. If you use this data please cite InterPro.
|Cellular component||transcription factor TFIID complex (GO:0005669)|
|Biological process||DNA-templated transcription, initiation (GO:0006352)|
Below is a listing of the unique domain organisations or architectures in which this domain is found. More...
The graphic that is shown by default represents the longest sequence with a given architecture. Each row contains the following information:
- the number of sequences which exhibit this architecture
a textual description of the architecture, e.g. Gla, EGF x 2, Trypsin.
This example describes an architecture with one
Gladomain, followed by two consecutive
EGFdomains, and finally a single
- a link to the page in the Pfam site showing information about the sequence that the graphic describes
- the UniProt description of the protein sequence
- the number of residues in the sequence
- the Pfam graphic itself.
Note that you can see the family page for a particular domain by clicking on the graphic. You can also choose to see all sequences which have a given architecture by clicking on the Show link in each row.
Finally, because some families can be found in a very large number of architectures, we load only the first fifty architectures by default. If you want to see more architectures, click the button at the bottom of the page to load the next set.
Loading domain graphics...
Members of this clan all possess a histone fold. Generally proteins in this clan are DNA binding.
The clan contains the following 15 members:Bromo_TP Bromo_TP_like CBFD_NFYB_HMF CENP-S CENP-T_C CENP-W CENP-X DUF1931 Histone TAF TAF4 TAFII28 TFIID-18kDa TFIID-31kDa TFIID_20kDa
We store a range of different sequence alignments for families. As well as the seed alignment from which the family is built, we provide the full alignment, generated by searching the sequence database (reference proteomes) using the family HMM. We also generate alignments using four representative proteomes (RP) sets, the UniProtKB sequence database, the NCBI sequence database, and our metagenomics sequence database. More...
There are various ways to view or download the sequence alignments that we store. We provide several sequence viewers and a plain-text Stockholm-format file for download.
We make a range of alignments for each Pfam-A family:
- the curated alignment from which the HMM for the family is built
- the alignment generated by searching the sequence database using the HMM
- Representative Proteomes (RPs) at 15%, 35%, 55% and 75% co-membership thresholds
- alignment generated by searching the UniProtKB sequence database using the family HMM
- alignment generated by searching the NCBI sequence database using the family HMM
- alignment generated by searching the metagenomics sequence database using the family HMM
You can see the alignments as HTML or in three different sequence viewers:
- a Java applet developed at the University of Dundee. You will need Java installed before running jalview
- an HTML page showing the whole alignment.Please note: full Pfam alignments can be very large. These HTML views are extremely large and often cause problems for browsers. Please use either jalview or the Pfam viewer if you have trouble viewing the HTML version
- an HTML-based representation of the alignment, coloured according to the posterior-probability (PP) values from the HMM. As for the standard HTML view, heatmap alignments can also be very large and slow to render.
You can download (or view in your browser) a text representation of a Pfam alignment in various formats:
You can also change the order in which sequences are listed in the alignment, change how insertions are represented, alter the characters that are used to represent gaps in sequences and, finally, choose whether to download the alignment or to view it in your browser directly.
You may find that large alignments cause problems for the viewers and the reformatting tool, so we also provide all alignments in Stockholm format. You can download either the plain text alignment, or a gzipped version of it.
We make a range of alignments for each Pfam-A family. You can see a description of each above. You can view these alignments in various ways but please note that some types of alignment are never generated while others may not be available for all families, most commonly because the alignments are too large to handle.
1Cannot generate PP/Heatmap alignments for seeds; no PP data available
Key: available, not generated, — not available.
Format an alignment
We make all of our alignments available in Stockholm format. You can download them here as raw, plain text files or as gzip-compressed files.
You can also download a FASTA format file containing the full-length sequences for all sequences in the full alignment.
HMM logos is one way of visualising profile HMMs. Logos provide a quick overview of the properties of an HMM in a graphical form. You can see a more detailed description of HMM logos and find out how you can interpret them here. More...
If you find these logos useful in your own work, please consider citing the following article:
This page displays the phylogenetic tree for this family's seed alignment. We use FastTree to calculate neighbour join trees with a local bootstrap based on 100 resamples (shown next to the tree nodes). FastTree calculates approximately-maximum-likelihood phylogenetic trees from our seed alignment.
Note: You can also download the data file for the tree.
Curation and family details
This section shows the detailed information about the Pfam family. You can see the definitions of many of the terms in this section in the glossary and a fuller explanation of the scoring system that we use in the scores section of the help pages.
|Seed source:||Wood V|
|Number in seed:||80|
|Number in full:||1027|
|Average length of the domain:||253.80 aa|
|Average identity of full alignment:||23 %|
|Average coverage of the sequence by the domain:||40.52 %|
|HMM build commands:||
build method: hmmbuild -o /dev/null HMM SEED
search method: hmmsearch -Z 26740544 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq
|Family (HMM) version:||13|
|Download:||download the raw HMM for this family|
Weight segments by...
Change the size of the sunburst
selected sequences to HMM
a FASTA-format file
- 0 sequences
- 0 species
This visualisation provides a simple graphical representation of the distribution of this family across species. You can find the original interactive tree in the More....
This chart is a modified "sunburst" visualisation of the species tree for this family. It shows each node in the tree as a separate arc, arranged radially with the superkingdoms at the centre and the species arrayed around the outermost ring.
How the sunburst is generated
The tree is built by considering the taxonomic lineage of each sequence that has a match to this family. For each node in the resulting tree, we draw an arc in the sunburst. The radius of the arc, its distance from the root node at the centre of the sunburst, shows the taxonomic level ("superkingdom", "kingdom", etc). The length of the arc represents either the number of sequences represented at a given level, or the number of species that are found beneath the node in the tree. The weighting scheme can be changed using the sunburst controls.
In order to reduce the complexity of the representation, we reduce the number of taxonomic levels that we show. We consider only the following eight major taxonomic levels:
Colouring and labels
Segments of the tree are coloured approximately according to their superkingdom. For example, archeal branches are coloured with shades of orange, eukaryotes in shades of purple, etc. The colour assignments are shown under the sunburst controls. Where space allows, the name of the taxonomic level will be written on the arc itself.
As you move your mouse across the sunburst, the current node will be highlighted. In the top section of the controls panel we show a summary of the lineage of the currently highlighed node. If you pause over an arc, a tooltip will be shown, giving the name of the taxonomic level in the title and a summary of the number of sequences and species below that node in the tree.
Anomalies in the taxonomy tree
There are some situations that the sunburst tree cannot easily handle and for which we have work-arounds in place.
Missing taxonomic levels
Some species in the taxonomic tree may not have one or more of the main eight levels that we display. For example, Bos taurus is not assigned an order in the NCBI taxonomic tree. In such cases we mark the omitted level with, for example, "No order", in both the tooltip and the lineage summary.
Unmapped species names
The tree is built by looking at each sequence in the full alignment for the family. We take the name of the species given by UniProt and try to map that to the full taxonomic tree from NCBI. In some cases, the name chosen by UniProt does not map to any node in the NCBI tree, perhaps because the chosen name is listed as a synonym or a misspelling in the NCBI taxonomy.
So that these nodes are not simply omitted from the sunburst tree, we group them together in a separate branch (or segment of the sunburst tree). Since we cannot determine the lineage for these unmapped species, we show all levels between the superkingdom and the species as "uncategorised".
Since we reduce the species tree to only the eight main taxonomic levels, sequences that are mapped to the sub-species level in the tree would not normally be shown. Rather than leave out these species, we map them instead to their parent species. So, for example, for sequences belonging to one of the Vibrio cholerae sub-species in the NCBI taxonomy, we show them instead as belonging to the species Vibrio cholerae.
Too many species/sequences
For large species trees, you may see blank regions in the outer layers of the sunburst. These occur when there are large numbers of arcs to be drawn in a small space. If an arc is less than approximately one pixel wide, it will not be drawn and the space will be left blank. You may still be able to get some information about the species in that region by moving your mouse across the area, but since each arc will be very small, it will be difficult to accurately locate a particular species.
The tree shows the occurrence of this domain across different species. More...
We show the species tree in one of two ways. For smaller trees we try to show an interactive representation, which allows you to select specific nodes in the tree and view them as an alignment or as a set of Pfam domain graphics.
Unfortunately we have found that there are problems viewing the interactive tree when the it becomes larger than a certain limit. Furthermore, we have found that Internet Explorer can become unresponsive when viewing some trees, regardless of their size. We therefore show a text representation of the species tree when the size is above a certain limit or if you are using Internet Explorer to view the site.
If you are using IE you can still load the interactive tree by clicking the "Generate interactive tree" button, but please be aware of the potential problems that the interactive species tree can cause.
For all of the domain matches in a full alignment, we count the number that are found on all sequences in the alignment. This total is shown in the purple box.
We also count the number of unique sequences on which each domain is found, which is shown in green. Note that a domain may appear multiple times on the same sequence, leading to the difference between these two numbers.
Finally, we group sequences from the same organism according to the NCBI code that is assigned by UniProt, allowing us to count the number of distinct sequences on which the domain is found. This value is shown in the pink boxes.
We use the NCBI species tree to group organisms according to their taxonomy and this forms the structure of the displayed tree. Note that in some cases the trees are too large (have too many nodes) to allow us to build an interactive tree, but in most cases you can still view the tree in a plain text, non-interactive representation. Those species which are represented in the seed alignment for this domain are highlighted.
You can use the tree controls to manipulate how the interactive tree is displayed:
- show/hide the summary boxes
- highlight species that are represented in the seed alignment
- expand/collapse the tree or expand it to a given depth
- select a sub-tree or a set of species within the tree and view them graphically or as an alignment
- save a plain text representation of the tree
Please note: for large trees this can take some time. While the tree is loading, you can safely switch away from this tab but if you browse away from the family page entirely, the tree will not be loaded.
There are 3 interactions for this family. More...
We determine these interactions using iPfam, which considers the interactions between residues in three-dimensional protein structures and maps those interactions back to Pfam families. You can find more information about the iPfam algorithm in the journal article that accompanies the website.
For those sequences which have a structure in the Protein DataBank, we use the mapping between UniProt, PDB and Pfam coordinate systems from the PDBe group, to allow us to map Pfam domains onto UniProt sequences and three-dimensional protein structures. The table below shows the structures on which the TAF4 domain has been found. There are 2 instances of this domain found in the PDB. Note that there may be multiple copies of the domain in a single PDB structure, since many structures contain multiple copies of the same protein sequence.
Loading structure mapping...