Summary: Transcription initiation factor TFIID component TAF4 family
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|, TAF2C, TAF2C1, TAF4A, TAFII130, TAFII135, TATA-box binding protein associated factor 4|
Initiation of transcription by RNA polymerase II requires the activities of more than 70 polypeptides. The protein that coordinates these activities is transcription factor IID (TFIID), which binds to the core promoter to position the polymerase properly, serves as the scaffold for assembly of the remainder of the transcription complex, and acts as a channel for regulatory signals. TFIID is composed of the TATA-binding protein (TBP) and a group of evolutionarily conserved proteins known as TBP-associated factors or TAFs. TAFs may participate in basal transcription, serve as coactivators, function in promoter recognition or modify general transcription factors (GTFs) to facilitate complex assembly and transcription initiation. This gene encodes one of the larger subunits of TFIID that has been shown to potentiate transcriptional activation by retinoic acid, thyroid hormone and vitamin D3 receptors. In addition, this subunit interacts with the transcription factor CREB, which has a glutamine-rich activation domain, and binds to other proteins containing glutamine-rich regions. Aberrant binding to this subunit by proteins with expanded polyglutamine regions has been suggested as one of the pathogenetic mechanisms underlying a group of neurodegenerative disorders referred to as polyglutamine diseases.
TAF4 has been shown to interact with:
crystal structure of the human taf4-taf12 (tafii135-tafii20) complex
Yeast TFIID comprises the TATA binding protein and 14 TBP-associated factors (TAFIIs), nine of which contain histone-fold domains (INTERPRO). The C-terminal region of the TFIID-specific yeast TAF4 (yTAF4) containing the HFD shares strong sequence similarity with Drosophila (d)TAF4 and human TAF4. A structure/function analysis of yTAF4 demonstrates that the HFD, a short conserved C-terminal domain (CCTD), and the region separating them are all required for yTAF4 function. This region of similarity is found in Transcription initiation factor TFIID component TAF4.
- ENSG00000130699 GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000280529, ENSG00000130699 - Ensembl, May 2017
- GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000039117 - Ensembl, May 2017
- "Human PubMed Reference:".
- "Mouse PubMed Reference:".
- Tanese N, Saluja D, Vassallo MF, Chen JL, Admon A (January 1997). "Molecular cloning and analysis of two subunits of the human TFIID complex: hTAFII130 and hTAFII100". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 93 (24): 13611–6. doi:10.1073/pnas.93.24.13611. PMC . PMID 8942982. Check date values in:
|year= / |date= mismatch(help)
- Mengus G, May M, Carré L, Chambon P, Davidson I (July 1997). "Human TAF(II)135 potentiates transcriptional activation by the AF-2s of the retinoic acid, vitamin D3, and thyroid hormone receptors in mammalian cells". Genes Dev. 11 (11): 1381–95. doi:10.1101/gad.11.11.1381. PMID 9192867.
- "Entrez Gene: TAF4 TAF4 RNA polymerase II, TATA box binding protein (TBP)-associated factor, 135kDa".
- Vassallo MF, Tanese N (April 2002). "Isoform-specific interaction of HP1 with human TAFII130". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99 (9): 5919–24. doi:10.1073/pnas.092025499. PMC . PMID 11959914.
- Pointud JC, Mengus G, Brancorsini S, Monaco L, Parvinen M, Sassone-Corsi P, Davidson I (May 2003). "The intracellular localisation of TAF7L, a paralogue of transcription factor TFIID subunit TAF7, is developmentally regulated during male germ-cell differentiation". J. Cell Sci. 116 (Pt 9): 1847–58. doi:10.1242/jcs.00391. PMID 12665565.
- Bellorini M, Lee DK, Dantonel JC, Zemzoumi K, Roeder RG, Tora L, Mantovani R (June 1997). "CCAAT binding NF-Y-TBP interactions: NF-YB and NF-YC require short domains adjacent to their histone fold motifs for association with TBP basic residues". Nucleic Acids Res. 25 (11): 2174–81. doi:10.1093/nar/25.11.2174. PMC . PMID 9153318.
- Brand M, Moggs JG, Oulad-Abdelghani M, Lejeune F, Dilworth FJ, Stevenin J, Almouzni G, Tora L (June 2001). "UV-damaged DNA-binding protein in the TFTC complex links DNA damage recognition to nucleosome acetylation". EMBO J. 20 (12): 3187–96. doi:10.1093/emboj/20.12.3187. PMC . PMID 11406595.
- Thuault S, Gangloff YG, Kirchner J, Sanders S, Werten S, Romier C, Weil PA, Davidson I (November 2002). "Functional analysis of the TFIID-specific yeast TAF4 (yTAF(II)48) reveals an unexpected organization of its histone-fold domain". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (47): 45510–7. doi:10.1074/jbc.M206556200. PMID 12237303.
- Zhou Q, Sharp PA (1995). "Novel mechanism and factor for regulation by HIV-1 Tat". EMBO J. 14 (2): 321–8. PMC . PMID 7835343.
- Parada CA, Yoon JB, Roeder RG (1995). "A novel LBP-1-mediated restriction of HIV-1 transcription at the level of elongation in vitro". J. Biol. Chem. 270 (5): 2274–83. doi:10.1074/jbc.270.5.2274. PMID 7836461.
- Ou SH, Garcia-Martínez LF, Paulssen EJ, Gaynor RB (1994). "Role of flanking E box motifs in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 TATA element function". J. Virol. 68 (11): 7188–99. PMC . PMID 7933101.
- Kashanchi F, Piras G, Radonovich MF, Duvall JF, Fattaey A, Chiang CM, Roeder RG, Brady JN (1994). "Direct interaction of human TFIID with the HIV-1 transactivator tat". Nature. 367 (6460): 295–9. doi:10.1038/367295a0. PMID 8121496.
- Wang Z, Morris GF, Rice AP, Xiong W, Morris CB (1996). "Wild-type and transactivation-defective mutants of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Tat protein bind human TATA-binding protein in vitro". J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. Hum. Retrovirol. 12 (2): 128–38. doi:10.1097/00042560-199606010-00005. PMID 8680883.
- Pendergrast PS, Morrison D, Tansey WP, Hernandez N (1996). "Mutations in the carboxy-terminal domain of TBP affect the synthesis of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 full-length and short transcripts similarly". J. Virol. 70 (8): 5025–34. PMC . PMID 8764009.
- Kashanchi F, Khleif SN, Duvall JF, Sadaie MR, Radonovich MF, Cho M, Martin MA, Chen SY, Weinmann R, Brady JN (1996). "Interaction of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Tat with a unique site of TFIID inhibits negative cofactor Dr1 and stabilizes the TFIID-TFIIA complex". J. Virol. 70 (8): 5503–10. PMC . PMID 8764062.
- Zhou Q, Sharp PA (1996). "Tat-SF1: cofactor for stimulation of transcriptional elongation by HIV-1 Tat". Science. 274 (5287): 605–10. doi:10.1126/science.274.5287.605. PMID 8849451.
- García-Martínez LF, Ivanov D, Gaynor RB (1997). "Association of Tat with purified HIV-1 and HIV-2 transcription preinitiation complexes". J. Biol. Chem. 272 (11): 6951–8. doi:10.1074/jbc.272.11.6951. PMID 9054383.
- Saluja D, Vassallo MF, Tanese N (1998). "Distinct subdomains of human TAFII130 are required for interactions with glutamine-rich transcriptional activators". Mol. Cell. Biol. 18 (10): 5734–43. doi:10.1128/mcb.18.10.5734. PMC . PMID 9742090.
- Brand M, Yamamoto K, Staub A, Tora L (1999). "Identification of TATA-binding protein-free TAFII-containing complex subunits suggests a role in nucleosome acetylation and signal transduction". J. Biol. Chem. 274 (26): 18285–9. doi:10.1074/jbc.274.26.18285. PMID 10373431.
- Inada A, Someya Y, Yamada Y, Ihara Y, Kubota A, Ban N, Watanabe R, Tsuda K, Seino Y (1999). "The cyclic AMP response element modulator family regulates the insulin gene transcription by interacting with transcription factor IID". J. Biol. Chem. 274 (30): 21095–103. doi:10.1074/jbc.274.30.21095. PMID 10409662.
- Gangloff YG, Werten S, Romier C, Carré L, Poch O, Moras D, Davidson I (2000). "The human TFIID components TAF(II)135 and TAF(II)20 and the yeast SAGA components ADA1 and TAF(II)68 heterodimerize to form histone-like pairs". Mol. Cell. Biol. 20 (1): 340–51. doi:10.1128/MCB.20.1.340-351.2000. PMC . PMID 10594036.
- Brand M, Moggs JG, Oulad-Abdelghani M, Lejeune F, Dilworth FJ, Stevenin J, Almouzni G, Tora L (2001). "UV-damaged DNA-binding protein in the TFTC complex links DNA damage recognition to nucleosome acetylation". EMBO J. 20 (12): 3187–96. doi:10.1093/emboj/20.12.3187. PMC . PMID 11406595.
- Martinez E, Palhan VB, Tjernberg A, Lymar ES, Gamper AM, Kundu TK, Chait BT, Roeder RG (2001). "Human STAGA complex is a chromatin-acetylating transcription coactivator that interacts with pre-mRNA splicing and DNA damage-binding factors in vivo". Mol. Cell. Biol. 21 (20): 6782–95. doi:10.1128/MCB.21.20.6782-6795.2001. PMC . PMID 11564863.
- Guermah M, Tao Y, Roeder RG (2001). "Positive and negative TAF(II) functions that suggest a dynamic TFIID structure and elicit synergy with traps in activator-induced transcription". Mol. Cell. Biol. 21 (20): 6882–94. doi:10.1128/MCB.21.20.6882-6894.2001. PMC . PMID 11564872.
- Felinski EA, Quinn PG (2001). "The coactivator dTAF(II)110/hTAF(II)135 is sufficient to recruit a polymerase complex and activate basal transcription mediated by CREB". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 98 (23): 13078–83. doi:10.1073/pnas.241337698. PMC . PMID 11687654.
This tab holds the annotation information that is stored in the Pfam database. As we move to using Wikipedia as our main source of annotation, the contents of this tab will be gradually replaced by the Wikipedia tab.
Transcription initiation factor TFIID component TAF4 family Provide feedback
This region of similarity is found in Transcription initiation factor TFIID component TAF4 .
Thuault S, Gangloff YG, Kirchner J, Sanders S, Werten S, Romier C, Weil PA, Davidson I; , J Biol Chem 2002;277:45510-45517.: Functional analysis of the TFIID-specific yeast TAF4 (yTAF(II)48) reveals an unexpected organization of its histone-fold domain. PUBMED:12237303 EPMC:12237303
Internal database links
External database links
This tab holds annotation information from the InterPro database.
InterPro entry IPR007900
Accurate transcription initiation at protein-coding genes by RNA polymerase II requires the assembly of a multiprotein complex around the mRNA start site. Transcription factor TFIID is one of the general factors involved in this process. Yeast TFIID comprises the TATA binding protein and 14 TBP-associated factors (TAFIIs), nine of which contain histone-fold domains. The C-terminal region of the TFIID-specific yeast TAF4 (yTAF4) containing the HFD shares strong sequence similarity with Drosophila (d)TAF4 and human TAF4. A structure/function analysis of yTAF4 demonstrates that the HFD, a short conserved C-terminal domain (CCTD), and the region separating them are all required for yTAF4 function. This region of similarity is found in Transcription initiation factor TFIID component TAF4 [PUBMED:12237303].
The mapping between Pfam and Gene Ontology is provided by InterPro. If you use this data please cite InterPro.
|Cellular component||transcription factor TFIID complex (GO:0005669)|
|Biological process||DNA-templated transcription, initiation (GO:0006352)|
Below is a listing of the unique domain organisations or architectures in which this domain is found. More...
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Members of this clan all possess a histone fold. Generally proteins in this clan are DNA binding.
The clan contains the following 15 members:Bromo_TP Bromo_TP_like CBFD_NFYB_HMF CENP-S CENP-T_C CENP-W CENP-X DUF1931 Histone TAF TAF4 TAFII28 TFIID-18kDa TFIID-31kDa TFIID_20kDa
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1Cannot generate PP/Heatmap alignments for seeds; no PP data available
Key: available, not generated, — not available.
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We make all of our alignments available in Stockholm format. You can download them here as raw, plain text files or as gzip-compressed files.
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This page displays the phylogenetic tree for this family's seed alignment. We use FastTree to calculate neighbour join trees with a local bootstrap based on 100 resamples (shown next to the tree nodes). FastTree calculates approximately-maximum-likelihood phylogenetic trees from our seed alignment.
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|Seed source:||Wood V|
|Number in seed:||80|
|Number in full:||1027|
|Average length of the domain:||253.80 aa|
|Average identity of full alignment:||23 %|
|Average coverage of the sequence by the domain:||40.52 %|
|HMM build commands:||
build method: hmmbuild -o /dev/null HMM SEED
search method: hmmsearch -Z 26740544 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq
|Family (HMM) version:||13|
|Download:||download the raw HMM for this family|
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This visualisation provides a simple graphical representation of the distribution of this family across species. You can find the original interactive tree in the More....
This chart is a modified "sunburst" visualisation of the species tree for this family. It shows each node in the tree as a separate arc, arranged radially with the superkingdoms at the centre and the species arrayed around the outermost ring.
How the sunburst is generated
The tree is built by considering the taxonomic lineage of each sequence that has a match to this family. For each node in the resulting tree, we draw an arc in the sunburst. The radius of the arc, its distance from the root node at the centre of the sunburst, shows the taxonomic level ("superkingdom", "kingdom", etc). The length of the arc represents either the number of sequences represented at a given level, or the number of species that are found beneath the node in the tree. The weighting scheme can be changed using the sunburst controls.
In order to reduce the complexity of the representation, we reduce the number of taxonomic levels that we show. We consider only the following eight major taxonomic levels:
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As you move your mouse across the sunburst, the current node will be highlighted. In the top section of the controls panel we show a summary of the lineage of the currently highlighed node. If you pause over an arc, a tooltip will be shown, giving the name of the taxonomic level in the title and a summary of the number of sequences and species below that node in the tree.
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Unmapped species names
The tree is built by looking at each sequence in the full alignment for the family. We take the name of the species given by UniProt and try to map that to the full taxonomic tree from NCBI. In some cases, the name chosen by UniProt does not map to any node in the NCBI tree, perhaps because the chosen name is listed as a synonym or a misspelling in the NCBI taxonomy.
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Since we reduce the species tree to only the eight main taxonomic levels, sequences that are mapped to the sub-species level in the tree would not normally be shown. Rather than leave out these species, we map them instead to their parent species. So, for example, for sequences belonging to one of the Vibrio cholerae sub-species in the NCBI taxonomy, we show them instead as belonging to the species Vibrio cholerae.
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The tree shows the occurrence of this domain across different species. More...
We show the species tree in one of two ways. For smaller trees we try to show an interactive representation, which allows you to select specific nodes in the tree and view them as an alignment or as a set of Pfam domain graphics.
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For all of the domain matches in a full alignment, we count the number that are found on all sequences in the alignment. This total is shown in the purple box.
We also count the number of unique sequences on which each domain is found, which is shown in green. Note that a domain may appear multiple times on the same sequence, leading to the difference between these two numbers.
Finally, we group sequences from the same organism according to the NCBI code that is assigned by UniProt, allowing us to count the number of distinct sequences on which the domain is found. This value is shown in the pink boxes.
We use the NCBI species tree to group organisms according to their taxonomy and this forms the structure of the displayed tree. Note that in some cases the trees are too large (have too many nodes) to allow us to build an interactive tree, but in most cases you can still view the tree in a plain text, non-interactive representation. Those species which are represented in the seed alignment for this domain are highlighted.
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There are 3 interactions for this family. More...
We determine these interactions using iPfam, which considers the interactions between residues in three-dimensional protein structures and maps those interactions back to Pfam families. You can find more information about the iPfam algorithm in the journal article that accompanies the website.
For those sequences which have a structure in the Protein DataBank, we use the mapping between UniProt, PDB and Pfam coordinate systems from the PDBe group, to allow us to map Pfam domains onto UniProt sequences and three-dimensional protein structures. The table below shows the structures on which the TAF4 domain has been found. There are 2 instances of this domain found in the PDB. Note that there may be multiple copies of the domain in a single PDB structure, since many structures contain multiple copies of the same protein sequence.
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