Summary: Raffinose synthase or seed imbibition protein Sip1
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Glycoside hydrolase family 36 Edit Wikipedia article
crystal structure of rice alpha-galactosidase
Glycoside hydrolases EC 3.2.1. are a widespread group of enzymes that hydrolyse the glycosidic bond between two or more carbohydrates, or between a carbohydrate and a non-carbohydrate moiety. A classification system for glycoside hydrolases, based on sequence similarity, has led to the definition of >100 different families. This classification is available on the CAZy(http://www.cazy.org/GH1.html) web site, and also discussed at CAZypedia, an online encyclopedia of carbohydrate active enzymes.
Glycoside hydrolase family 36 together with family 31 and family 27 alpha-galactosidases form the glycosyl hydrolase clan GH-D (CAZY GH), a superfamily of alpha-galactosidases, alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidases, and isomaltodextranases which are likely to share a common catalytic mechanism and structural topology.
Alpha-galactosidase (EC 184.108.40.206) (melibiase) catalyzes the hydrolysis of melibiose into galactose and glucose. In man, the deficiency of this enzyme is the cause of Fabry's disease (X-linked sphingolipidosis). Alpha-galactosidase is present in a variety of organisms. There is a considerable degree of similarity in the sequence of alpha-galactosidase from various eukaryotic species. Escherichia coli alpha-galactosidase (gene melA), which requires NAD and magnesium as cofactors, is not structurally related to the eukaryotic enzymes; by contrast, an Escherichia coli plasmid encoded alpha-galactosidase (gene rafA ) contains a region of about 50 amino acids which is similar to a domain of the eukaryotic alpha-galactosidases. Alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase (EC 220.127.116.11) catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal non-reducing N-acetyl-D-galactosamine residues in N-acetyl-alpha-D- galactosaminides. In man, the deficiency of this enzyme is the cause of Schindler and Kanzaki diseases. The sequence of this enzyme is highly related to that of the eukaryotic alpha-galactosidases.
This family also includes raffinose synthase proteins, also known as seed inhibition (Sip1) proteins. Raffinose (O-alpha- D-galactopyranosyl- (1-->6)- O-alpha- D-glucopyranosyl-(1<-->2)- O-beta- D-fructofuranoside) is a widespread oligosaccharide in plant seeds and other tissues. Raffinose synthase EC 18.104.22.168 is the key enzyme that channels sucrose into the raffinose oligosaccharide pathway.
Glycoside hydrolase family 36 can be subdivided into 11 families, GH36A to GH36K.
- Henrissat B, Callebaut I, Mornon JP, Fabrega S, Lehn P, Davies G (1995). "Conserved catalytic machinery and the prediction of a common fold for several families of glycosyl hydrolases". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 92 (15): 7090–7094. doi:10.1073/pnas.92.15.7090. PMC 41477. PMID 7624375.
- Henrissat B, Davies G (1995). "Structures and mechanisms of glycosyl hydrolases". Structure 3 (9): 853–859. doi:10.1016/S0969-2126(01)00220-9. PMID 8535779.
- Bairoch, A. "Classification of glycosyl hydrolase families and index of glycosyl hydrolase entries in SWISS-PROT". 1999.
- Henrissat, B. and Coutinho P.M. "Carbohydrate-Active Enzymes server". 1999.
- CAZypedia, an online encyclopedia of carbohydrate-active enzymes.
- Dey PM, Pridham JB (1972). "Biochemistry of -galactosidases". Adv. Enzymol. Relat. Areas Mol. Biol. 36: 91–120. PMID 4561015.
- Aslanidis C, Schmid K, Schmitt R (1989). "Nucleotide sequences and operon structure of plasmid-borne genes mediating uptake and utilization of raffinose in Escherichia coli". J. Bacteriol. 171 (12): 6753–6763. PMC 210573. PMID 2556373.
- Wang AM, Bishop DF, Desnick RJ (1990). "Human alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase-molecular cloning, nucleotide sequence, and expression of a full-length cDNA. Homology with human alpha-galactosidase A suggests evolution from a common ancestral gene". J. Biol. Chem. 265 (35): 21859–21866. PMID 2174888.
- Peterbauer T, Mach L, Mucha J, Richter A (September 2002). "Functional expression of a cDNA encoding pea (Pisum sativum L.) raffinose synthase, partial purification of the enzyme from maturing seeds, and steady-state kinetic analysis of raffinose synthesis". Planta 215 (5): 839–46. doi:10.1007/s00425-002-0804-7. PMID 12244450.
- Naumoff DG (2011). "Hierarchical classification of glycoside hydrolases.". Biochemistry (Mosc) 76 (6): 622–35. doi:10.1134/S0006297911060022. PMID 21639842.
Raffinose synthase or seed imbibition protein Sip1 Provide feedback
This family consists of several raffinose synthase proteins, also known as seed imbibition (Sip1) proteins. Raffinose (O-alpha- D-galactopyranosyl- (1-->6)- O-alpha- D-glucopyranosyl-(1<-->2)- O-beta- D-fructofuranoside) is a widespread oligosaccharide in plant seeds and other tissues. Raffinose synthase ( EC:22.214.171.124) is the key enzyme that channels sucrose into the raffinose oligosaccharide pathway . Raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs) are ubiquitous in plant seeds and are thought to play critical roles in the acquisition of tolerance to desiccation and seed longevity. Raffinose synthases are alkaline alpha-galactosidases and are solely responsible for RFO breakdown in germinating maize seeds, whereas acidic galactosidases appear to have other functions . Glycoside hydrolase family 36 can be split into 11 families, GH36A to GH36K . This family includes enzymes from GH36C.
Peterbauer T, Mach L, Mucha J, Richter A; , Planta 2002;215:839-846.: Functional expression of a cDNA encoding pea (Pisum sativum L.) raffinose synthase, partial purification of the enzyme from maturing seeds, and steady-state kinetic analysis of raffinose synthesis. PUBMED:12244450 EPMC:12244450
External database links
This tab holds annotation information from the InterPro database.
InterPro entry IPR008811This family consists of several raffinose synthase proteins, also known as seed imbibition (Sip1) proteins. Raffinose (O-alpha- D-galactopyranosyl- (1-->6)- O-alpha- D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->2)- O-beta- D-fructofuranoside) is a widespread oligosaccharide in plant seeds and other tissues. Raffinose synthase (EC) is the key enzyme that channels sucrose into the raffinose oligosaccharide pathway [PUBMED:12244450].
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This large superfamily contains a range of glycosyl hydrolase enzymes that possess a TIM barrel fold. This CLAN merges clans GH-A, GH-D, GH-H and GH-K from CAZy.
The clan contains the following 50 members:Alpha-amylase Alpha_L_fucos Cellulase Cellulase-like DUF187 DUF4015 DUF4038 DUF4434 GHL1-3 GHL12 GHL13 GHL15 GHL5 GHL6 Glyco_hydr_30_2 Glyco_hydro_1 Glyco_hydro_10 Glyco_hydro_101 Glyco_hydro_114 Glyco_hydro_14 Glyco_hydro_17 Glyco_hydro_18 Glyco_hydro_20 Glyco_hydro_25 Glyco_hydro_26 Glyco_hydro_2_C Glyco_hydro_3 Glyco_hydro_30 Glyco_hydro_31 Glyco_hydro_35 Glyco_hydro_39 Glyco_hydro_42 Glyco_hydro_44 Glyco_hydro_53 Glyco_hydro_56 Glyco_hydro_59 Glyco_hydro_66 Glyco_hydro_70 Glyco_hydro_72 Glyco_hydro_77 Glyco_hydro_79n Glyco_hydro_97 Glyco_hydro_cc hDGE_amylase Lipid_bd Melibiase NAGidase NAGLU Raffinose_syn Xylanase
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Curation and family details
|Seed source:||Pfam-B_3204 (release 8.0)|
|Author:||Moxon SJ, Eberhardt R|
|Number in seed:||11|
|Number in full:||570|
|Average length of the domain:||368.90 aa|
|Average identity of full alignment:||23 %|
|Average coverage of the sequence by the domain:||73.23 %|
|HMM build commands:||
build method: hmmbuild -o /dev/null HMM SEED
search method: hmmsearch -Z 23193494 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq
|Family (HMM) version:||7|
|Download:||download the raw HMM for this family|
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