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0  structures 45  species 0  interactions 63  sequences 1  architecture

Family: Pro-MCH (PF05824)

Summary: Pro-melanin-concentrating hormone (Pro-MCH)

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Pro-melanin-concentrating hormone (Pro-MCH) Provide feedback

This family consists of several mammalian pro-melanin-concentrating hormone (Pro-MCH) 1 and 2 proteins. Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) is a 19 amino acid cyclic peptide that was first isolated from the pituitary of teleost fish. It is produced from pro-MCH that encodes, in addition to MCH, NEI, and a putative peptide, NGE. In lower vertebrates, MCH acts to regulate skin colour by antagonising the melanin-dispersing actions of small alpha, Greek-melanocyte stimulating hormone (small alpha, Greek-MSH). In mammals, MCH serves as a neuropeptide and is found in many regions of the brain and especially the hypothalamus. It affects many types of behaviours such as appetite, sexual receptivity, aggression, and anxiety. MCH also stimulates the release of luteinising hormone [1].

Literature references

  1. Hoogduijn MJ, Ancans J, Suzuki I, Estdale S, Thody AJ; , Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2002;296:698-701.: Melanin-concentrating hormone and its receptor are expressed and functional in human skin. PUBMED:12176038 EPMC:12176038


External database links

This tab holds annotation information from the InterPro database.

InterPro entry IPR005456

Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) is a cyclic peptide originally identified in teleost fish [PUBMED:10421367,PUBMED:10421368]. In fish, MCH is released from the pituitary and causes lightening of skin pigment cells through pigment aggregation [PUBMED:10996523]. In mammals, MCH is predominantly expressed in the hypothalamus, and functions as a neurotransmitter in the control of a range of functions. A major role of MCH is thought to be in the regulation of feeding: injection of MCH into rat brains stimulates feeding; expression of MCH is upregulated in the hypothalamus of obese and fasting mice; and mice lacking MCH are lean and eat less [PUBMED:10421367]. MCH and alpha melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) have antagonistic effects on a number of physiological functions. Alpha-MSH darkens pigmentation in fish and reduces feeding in mammals, whereas MCH increases feeding [PUBMED:10996523].

MCH is derived from a pre-pro-hormone (pre-pro-MCH), which contains 1-2 hormones other than MCH, depending on the species. In all species, the 17-19 C-terminal amino acids are cleaved to release MCH. In mammals, amino acids 132-144 encode the hormone neuropeptide EI (NEI), whilst in salmonids, the analogous region encodes neuropeptide EV (NEV), and in other fish, the region determines MCH gene-related peptide (Mgrp) [PUBMED:8559281]. A further peptide, known as neuropeptide GE (NGE), is thought to be found in mammalian pre-pro-MCH upstream of NEI, encoded by amino acids 110-129. NEI has been shown to enhance oxytocin and reduce arginine vasopressin secretion from rat pituitary [PUBMED:9175893]. Two paralogues of MCH, known as pro-MCH-like 1 and 2 genes (PMCHL1 and PMCHL2), which arose recently in primate evolution, also exist. At present, it is unclear whether the PMCHL genes are functional genes or inactive pseudogenes.

Gene Ontology

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Domain organisation

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  Seed
(2)
Full
(63)
Representative proteomes NCBI
(57)
Meta
(0)
RP15
(3)
RP35
(5)
RP55
(14)
RP75
(30)
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  Seed
(2)
Full
(63)
Representative proteomes NCBI
(57)
Meta
(0)
RP15
(3)
RP35
(5)
RP55
(14)
RP75
(30)
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You can also download a FASTA format file containing the full-length sequences for all sequences in the full alignment.

External links

MyHits provides a collection of tools to handle multiple sequence alignments. For example, one can refine a seed alignment (sequence addition or removal, re-alignment or manual edition) and then search databases for remote homologs using HMMER3.

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Curation and family details

This section shows the detailed information about the Pfam family. You can see the definitions of many of the terms in this section in the glossary and a fuller explanation of the scoring system that we use in the scores section of the help pages.

Curation View help on the curation process

Seed source: Pfam-B_7863 (release 8.0)
Previous IDs: none
Type: Family
Author: Moxon SJ
Number in seed: 2
Number in full: 63
Average length of the domain: 76.60 aa
Average identity of full alignment: 70 %
Average coverage of the sequence by the domain: 52.87 %

HMM information View help on HMM parameters

HMM build commands:
build method: hmmbuild -o /dev/null HMM SEED
search method: hmmsearch -Z 23193494 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq
Model details:
Parameter Sequence Domain
Gathering cut-off 20.6 20.6
Trusted cut-off 20.8 20.9
Noise cut-off 20.0 20.2
Model length: 86
Family (HMM) version: 7
Download: download the raw HMM for this family

Species distribution

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