Please note: this site relies heavily on the use of javascript. Without a javascript-enabled browser, this site will not function correctly. Please enable javascript and reload the page, or switch to a different browser.
0  structures 9  species 0  interactions 54  sequences 4  architectures

Family: BIV_Env (PF05858)

Summary: Bovine immunodeficiency virus surface protein (SU)

Pfam includes annotations and additional family information from a range of different sources. These sources can be accessed via the tabs below.

The Pfam group coordinates the annotation of Pfam families in Wikipedia, but we have not yet assigned a Wikipedia article to this family. If you think that a particular Wikipedia article provides good annotation, please let us know.

This tab holds the annotation information that is stored in the Pfam database. As we move to using Wikipedia as our main source of annotation, the contents of this tab will be gradually replaced by the Wikipedia tab.

Bovine immunodeficiency virus surface protein (SU) Provide feedback

The bovine lentivirus also known as the bovine immunodeficiency-like virus (BIV) has conserved and hypervariable regions in the surface envelope gene [1]. This family corresponds to the SU surface protein.

Literature references

  1. Suarez DL, Whetstone CA; , J Virol 1997;71:2482-2486.: Size variation within the second hypervariable region of the surface envelope gene of the bovine lentivirus BIV in experimentally and naturally infected cattle. PUBMED:9032387 EPMC:9032387


External database links

This tab holds annotation information from the InterPro database.

InterPro entry IPR008411

(Bovine immunodeficiency virus) (BIV), like the human immunodeficiency virus, is a lentivirus. It shows a great deal of genomic diversity, mostly in the viral envelope gene [PUBMED:9032387]. This property of the BIV group of viruses may play an important role in the pathobiology of the virus, particularly the conserved (C) 2, hypervariable (V) 1, V2 and C3 regions [PUBMED:11448023].

The surface protein (SU) attaches the virus to the host cell by binding to its receptor. This interaction triggers the refolding of the transmembrane protein (TM) and is thought to activate its fusogenic potential by unmasking its fusion peptide. Fusion occurs at the host cell plasma membrane.

The transmembrane protein (TM) acts as a class I viral fusion protein. Under the current model, the protein has at least 3 conformational states: pre-fusion native state, pre-hairpin intermediate state, and post-fusion hairpin state. During viral and target cell membrane fusion, the coiled coil regions (heptad repeats) assume a trimer-of-hairpins structure, positioning the fusion peptide in close proximity to the C-terminal region of the ectodomain. The formation of this structure appears to drive apposition and subsequent fusion of viral and target cell membranes. Membranes fusion leads to delivery of the nucleocapsid into the cytoplasm.

Gene Ontology

The mapping between Pfam and Gene Ontology is provided by InterPro. If you use this data please cite InterPro.

Domain organisation

Below is a listing of the unique domain organisations or architectures in which this domain is found. More...

Loading domain graphics...

Alignments

We store a range of different sequence alignments for families. As well as the seed alignment from which the family is built, we provide the full alignment, generated by searching the sequence database using the family HMM. We also generate alignments using four representative proteomes (RP) sets, the NCBI sequence database, and our metagenomics sequence database. More...

View options

We make a range of alignments for each Pfam-A family. You can see a description of each above. You can view these alignments in various ways but please note that some types of alignment are never generated while others may not be available for all families, most commonly because the alignments are too large to handle.

  Seed
(4)
Full
(54)
Representative proteomes NCBI
(73)
Meta
(0)
RP15
(0)
RP35
(0)
RP55
(0)
RP75
(0)
Jalview View  View          View   
HTML View  View             
PP/heatmap 1 View             
Pfam viewer View  View             

1Cannot generate PP/Heatmap alignments for seeds; no PP data available

Key: ✓ available, x not generated, not available.

Format an alignment

  Seed
(4)
Full
(54)
Representative proteomes NCBI
(73)
Meta
(0)
RP15
(0)
RP35
(0)
RP55
(0)
RP75
(0)
Alignment:
Format:
Order:
Sequence:
Gaps:
Download/view:

Download options

We make all of our alignments available in Stockholm format. You can download them here as raw, plain text files or as gzip-compressed files.

  Seed
(4)
Full
(54)
Representative proteomes NCBI
(73)
Meta
(0)
RP15
(0)
RP35
(0)
RP55
(0)
RP75
(0)
Raw Stockholm Download   Download           Download    
Gzipped Download   Download           Download    

You can also download a FASTA format file containing the full-length sequences for all sequences in the full alignment.

External links

MyHits provides a collection of tools to handle multiple sequence alignments. For example, one can refine a seed alignment (sequence addition or removal, re-alignment or manual edition) and then search databases for remote homologs using HMMER3.

HMM logo

HMM logos is one way of visualising profile HMMs. Logos provide a quick overview of the properties of an HMM in a graphical form. You can see a more detailed description of HMM logos and find out how you can interpret them here. More...

Trees

This page displays the phylogenetic tree for this family's seed alignment. We use FastTree to calculate neighbour join trees with a local bootstrap based on 100 resamples (shown next to the tree nodes). FastTree calculates approximately-maximum-likelihood phylogenetic trees from our seed alignment.

Note: You can also download the data file for the tree.

Curation and family details

This section shows the detailed information about the Pfam family. You can see the definitions of many of the terms in this section in the glossary and a fuller explanation of the scoring system that we use in the scores section of the help pages.

Curation View help on the curation process

Seed source: Pfam-B_9413 (release 8.0)
Previous IDs: none
Type: Family
Author: Moxon SJ, Bateman A
Number in seed: 4
Number in full: 54
Average length of the domain: 176.00 aa
Average identity of full alignment: 30 %
Average coverage of the sequence by the domain: 83.22 %

HMM information View help on HMM parameters

HMM build commands:
build method: hmmbuild -o /dev/null HMM SEED
search method: hmmsearch -Z 23193494 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq
Model details:
Parameter Sequence Domain
Gathering cut-off 19.9 19.9
Trusted cut-off 20.8 27.8
Noise cut-off 19.2 19.8
Model length: 548
Family (HMM) version: 7
Download: download the raw HMM for this family

Species distribution

Sunburst controls

Show

This visualisation provides a simple graphical representation of the distribution of this family across species. You can find the original interactive tree in the adjacent tab. More...

Loading sunburst data...

Tree controls

Hide

The tree shows the occurrence of this domain across different species. More...

Loading...

Please note: for large trees this can take some time. While the tree is loading, you can safely switch away from this tab but if you browse away from the family page entirely, the tree will not be loaded.