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26  structures 995  species 7  interactions 5887  sequences 103  architectures

Family: Drf_GBD (PF06371)

Summary: Diaphanous GTPase-binding Domain

Pfam includes annotations and additional family information from a range of different sources. These sources can be accessed via the tabs below.

This is the Wikipedia entry entitled "Formins". More...

Formins Edit Wikipedia article

formin 1
Alt. symbolsLD, FMN
NCBI gene342184
Other data
LocusChr. 15 q13-q14
formin 2
NCBI gene56776
Other data
LocusChr. 1 q43
Domain structure of formin proteins across phyla.[1]
Formin Homology Region 1
Formin Homology 2 Domain
PDB 1ux4 EBI.jpg
crystal structures of a formin homology-2 domain reveal a tethered-dimer architecture
Diaphanous FH3 Domain
PDB 1z2c EBI.jpg
crystal structure of mdia1 gbd-fh3 in complex with rhoc-gmppnp
Pfam clanCL0020
DRF Autoregulatory Domain
PDB 2bap EBI.jpg
crystal structure of the n-terminal mdia1 armadillo repeat region and dimerisation domain in complex with the mdia1 autoregulatory domain (dad)
Diaphanous GTPase-binding Domain
PDB 1z2c EBI.jpg
crystal structure of mdia1 gbd-fh3 in complex with rhoc-gmppnp
Pfam clanCL0020

Formins (formin homology proteins) are a group of proteins that are involved in the polymerization of actin and associate with the fast-growing end (barbed end) of actin filaments.[2] Most formins are Rho-GTPase effector proteins. Formins regulate the actin and microtubule cytoskeleton [3][4] and are involved in various cellular functions such as cell polarity, cytokinesis, cell migration and SRF transcriptional activity.[5] Formins are multidomain proteins that interact with diverse signalling molecules and cytoskeletal proteins, although some formins have been assigned functions within the nucleus.


Formins have been found in all eukaryotes studied.[1] In humans, 15 different formin proteins are present that have been classified in 7 subgroups.[6] By contrast, yeasts contain only 2-3 formins.[7]

Structure and interactions

Formins are characterized by the presence of three formin homology (FH) domains (FH1, FH2 and FH3), although members of the formin family do not necessarily contain all three domains.[8][9] In addition, other domains are usually present, such as PDZ, DAD, WH2, or FHA domains.

The proline-rich FH1 domain mediates interactions with a variety of proteins, including the actin-binding protein profilin, SH3 (Src homology 3) domain proteins,[10] and WW domain proteins. The actin nucleation-promoting activity of S. cerevisiae formins has been localized to the FH2 domain.[4] The FH2 domain is required for the self-association of formin proteins through the ability of FH2 domains to directly bind each other, and may also act to inhibit actin polymerization.[11][12] The FH3 domain is less well conserved and is required for directing formins to the correct intracellular location, such the mitotic spindle, or the projection tip during conjugation.[13][14] In addition, some formins can contain a GTPase-binding domain (GBD) required for binding to Rho small GTPases, and a C-terminal conserved Dia-autoregulatory domain (DAD). The GBD is a bifunctional autoinhibitory domain that interacts with and is regulated by activated Rho family members. Mammalian Drf3 contains a CRIB-like motif within its GBD for binding to Cdc42, which is required for Cdc42 to activate and guide Drf3 towards the cell cortex where it remodels the actin skeleton.[15] The DAD binds the N-terminal GBD; this link is broken when GTP-bound Rho binds to the GBD and activates the protein. The addition of the DAD to mammalian cells induces actin filament formation, stabilizes microtubules, and activates SRF mediated transcription.[15] Another commonly found domain is an armadillo repeat region (ARR) located in the FH3 domain.

The FH2 domain, has been shown by X-ray crystallography to have an elongated, crescent shape containing three helical subdomains.[16][17]

Formins also directly bind to microtubules via their FH2 domain. This interaction is important in promoting the capture and stabilization of a subset of microtubules oriented towards the leading edge of migrating cells. Formins also promote the capture of microtubules by the kinetochore during mitosis and for aligning microtubules along actin filaments.[18][19]


  1. ^ a b Chalkia D, Nikolaidis N, Makalowski W, Klein J, Nei M (December 2008). "Origins and evolution of the formin multigene family that is involved in the formation of actin filaments". Molecular Biology and Evolution. 25 (12): 2717–33. doi:10.1093/molbev/msn215. PMC 2721555. PMID 18840602.
  2. ^ Evangelista M, Zigmond S, Boone C (July 2003). "Formins: signaling effectors for assembly and polarization of actin filaments". Journal of Cell Science. 116 (Pt 13): 2603–11. doi:10.1242/jcs.00611. PMID 12775772.
  3. ^ Gunning PW, Ghoshdastider U, Whitaker S, Popp D, Robinson RC (June 2015). "The evolution of compositionally and functionally distinct actin filaments". Journal of Cell Science. 128 (11): 2009–19. doi:10.1242/jcs.165563. PMID 25788699.
  4. ^ a b Goode BL, Eck MJ (2007). "Mechanism and function of formins in the control of actin assembly". Annual Review of Biochemistry. 76: 593–627. doi:10.1146/annurev.biochem.75.103004.142647. PMID 17373907.
  5. ^ Faix J, Grosse R (June 2006). "Staying in shape with formins". Developmental Cell. 10 (6): 693–706. doi:10.1016/j.devcel.2006.05.001. PMID 16740473.
  6. ^ Higgs HN, Peterson KJ (January 2005). "Phylogenetic analysis of the formin homology 2 domain". Molecular Biology of the Cell. 16 (1): 1–13. doi:10.1091/mbc.E04-07-0565. PMC 539145. PMID 15509653.
  7. ^ Kitayama C, Uyeda TQ (February 2003). "ForC, a novel type of formin family protein lacking an FH1 domain, is involved in multicellular development in Dictyostelium discoideum". Journal of Cell Science. 116 (Pt 4): 711–23. doi:10.1242/jcs.00265. PMID 12538772.
  8. ^ Wallar BJ, Alberts AS (August 2003). "The formins: active scaffolds that remodel the cytoskeleton". Trends in Cell Biology. 13 (8): 435–46. doi:10.1016/S0962-8924(03)00153-3. PMID 12888296.
  9. ^ Uetz P, Fumagalli S, James D, Zeller R (December 1996). "Molecular interaction between limb deformity proteins (formins) and Src family kinases". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 271 (52): 33525–30. doi:10.1074/jbc.271.52.33525. PMID 8969217.
  10. ^ Takeya R, Sumimoto H (November 2003). "Fhos, a mammalian formin, directly binds to F-actin via a region N-terminal to the FH1 domain and forms a homotypic complex via the FH2 domain to promote actin fiber formation". Journal of Cell Science. 116 (Pt 22): 4567–75. doi:10.1242/jcs.00769. PMID 14576350.
  11. ^ Shimada A, Nyitrai M, Vetter IR, Kühlmann D, Bugyi B, Narumiya S, Geeves MA, Wittinghofer A (February 2004). "The core FH2 domain of diaphanous-related formins is an elongated actin binding protein that inhibits polymerization". Molecular Cell. 13 (4): 511–22. doi:10.1016/S1097-2765(04)00059-0. PMID 14992721.
  12. ^ Kato T, Watanabe N, Morishima Y, Fujita A, Ishizaki T, Narumiya S (February 2001). "Localization of a mammalian homolog of diaphanous, mDia1, to the mitotic spindle in HeLa cells". Journal of Cell Science. 114 (Pt 4): 775–84. PMID 11171383.
  13. ^ Petersen J, Nielsen O, Egel R, Hagan IM (June 1998). "FH3, a domain found in formins, targets the fission yeast formin Fus1 to the projection tip during conjugation". The Journal of Cell Biology. 141 (5): 1217–28. doi:10.1083/jcb.141.5.1217. PMC 2137179. PMID 9606213.
  14. ^ a b Peng J, Wallar BJ, Flanders A, Swiatek PJ, Alberts AS (April 2003). "Disruption of the Diaphanous-related formin Drf1 gene encoding mDia1 reveals a role for Drf3 as an effector for Cdc42". Current Biology. 13 (7): 534–45. doi:10.1016/S0960-9822(03)00170-2. PMID 12676083.
  15. ^ Xu Y, Moseley JB, Sagot I, Poy F, Pellman D, Goode BL, Eck MJ (March 2004). "Crystal structures of a Formin Homology-2 domain reveal a tethered dimer architecture". Cell. 116 (5): 711–23. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(04)00210-7. PMID 15006353.
  16. ^ Thompson ME, Heimsath EG, Gauvin TJ, Higgs HN, Kull FJ (January 2013). "FMNL3 FH2-actin structure gives insight into formin-mediated actin nucleation and elongation". Nature Structural & Molecular Biology. 20 (1): 111–8. doi:10.1038/nsmb.2462. PMC 3876896. PMID 23222643.
  17. ^ Palazzo AF, Cook TA, Alberts AS, Gundersen GG (August 2001). "mDia mediates Rho-regulated formation and orientation of stable microtubules". Nature Cell Biology. 3 (8): 723–9. doi:10.1038/35087035. PMID 11483957.
  18. ^ Bartolini F, Gundersen GG (February 2010). "Formins and microtubules". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. 1803 (2): 164–73. doi:10.1016/j.bbamcr.2009.07.006. PMC 2856479. PMID 19631698.

External links

This article incorporates text from the public domain Pfam and InterPro: IPR010472
This article incorporates text from the public domain Pfam and InterPro: IPR015425
This article incorporates text from the public domain Pfam and InterPro: IPR010465
This article incorporates text from the public domain Pfam and InterPro: IPR010473

This page is based on a Wikipedia article. The text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License.

This tab holds the annotation information that is stored in the Pfam database. As we move to using Wikipedia as our main source of annotation, the contents of this tab will be gradually replaced by the Wikipedia tab.

Diaphanous GTPase-binding Domain Provide feedback

This domain is bound to by GTP-attached Rho proteins, leading to activation of the Drf protein.

Literature references

  1. Peng J, Wallar BJ, Flanders A, Swiatek PJ, Alberts AS; , Curr Biol 2003;13:534-545.: Disruption of the Diaphanous-Related Formin Drf1 Gene Encoding mDia1 Reveals a Role for Drf3 as an Effector for Cdc42. PUBMED:12676083 EPMC:12676083

This tab holds annotation information from the InterPro database.

InterPro entry IPR010473

Diaphanous-related formins (Drfs) are a family of formin homology (FH) proteins that act as effectors of Rho small GTPases during growth factor-induced cytoskeletal remodelling, stress fibre formation, and cell division [PUBMED:10631086]. Drf proteins are characterised by a variety of shared domains: an N-terminal GTPase-binding domain (GBD), formin-homology domains FH1, FH2 (INTERPRO) and FH3 (INTERPRO), and a C-terminal conserved Dia-autoregulatory domain (DAD) that binds the GBD.

This entry represents the GBD, which is a bifunctional autoinhibitory domain that interacts with and is regulated by activated Rho family members. Mammalian Drf3 contains a CRIB-like motif within its GBD for binding to Cdc42, which is required for Cdc42 to activate and guide Drf3 towards the cell cortex where it remodels the actin skeleton [PUBMED:12676083].

Gene Ontology

The mapping between Pfam and Gene Ontology is provided by InterPro. If you use this data please cite InterPro.

Domain organisation

Below is a listing of the unique domain organisations or architectures in which this domain is found. More...

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Pfam Clan

This family is a member of clan TPR (CL0020), which has the following description:

Tetratricopeptide-like repeats are found in a numerous and diverse proteins involved in such functions as cell cycle regulation, transcriptional control, mitochondrial and peroxisomal protein transport, neurogenesis and protein folding.

The clan contains the following 157 members:

Adaptin_N Alkyl_sulf_dimr ANAPC3 ANAPC5 ANAPC8 API5 Arm Arm_2 Arm_3 Atx10homo_assoc B56 BAF250_C BTAD CAS_CSE1 ChAPs CHIP_TPR_N CID CLASP_N Clathrin Clathrin-link Clathrin_H_link Clathrin_propel Cnd1 Cnd3 Coatomer_E Cohesin_HEAT Cohesin_load ComR_TPR COPI_C CPL CRM1_C Cse1 CTK3 DHR-2 DNA_alkylation Drf_FH3 Drf_GBD DUF1822 DUF2019 DUF2225 DUF3385 DUF3458_C DUF3808 DUF3856 DUF4042 DUF5691 DUF924 EST1 EST1_DNA_bind FAT Fis1_TPR_C Fis1_TPR_N Foie-gras_1 GUN4_N HAT HEAT HEAT_2 HEAT_EZ HEAT_PBS HemY_N HrpB1_HrpK HSM3_N IBB IBN_N IFRD Importin_rep_3 Importin_rep_6 KAP Leuk-A4-hydro_C LRV LRV_FeS MA3 MIF4G MIF4G_like MIF4G_like_2 MMS19_C Mo25 MRP-S27 Mtf2 NARP1 Neurochondrin Nipped-B_C Nro1 NSF Paf67 ParcG PC_rep PHAT PI3Ka PknG_TPR PPP5 PPR PPR_1 PPR_2 PPR_3 PPR_long PPTA Proteasom_PSMB PUF Rab5-bind Rapsyn_N RIX1 RNPP_C RPM2 RPN7 Sel1 SHNi-TPR SNAP SPO22 SRP_TPR_like ST7 Suf SusD-like SusD-like_2 SusD-like_3 SusD_RagB SYCP2_ARLD TAF6_C TAL_effector TAtT Tcf25 TIP120 TOM20_plant TPR_1 TPR_10 TPR_11 TPR_12 TPR_14 TPR_15 TPR_16 TPR_17 TPR_18 TPR_19 TPR_2 TPR_20 TPR_21 TPR_3 TPR_4 TPR_5 TPR_6 TPR_7 TPR_8 TPR_9 TPR_MalT UNC45-central Upf2 V-ATPase_H_C V-ATPase_H_N Vac14_Fab1_bd Vitellogenin_N Vps39_1 W2 Wzy_C_2 Xpo1 YcaO_C YfiO Zmiz1_N


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Curation and family details

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Curation View help on the curation process

Seed source: ADDA_2536
Previous IDs: none
Type: Family
Sequence Ontology: SO:0100021
Author: Yeats C
Number in seed: 17
Number in full: 5887
Average length of the domain: 158.10 aa
Average identity of full alignment: 23 %
Average coverage of the sequence by the domain: 17.18 %

HMM information View help on HMM parameters

HMM build commands:
build method: hmmbuild -o /dev/null HMM SEED
search method: hmmsearch -Z 47079205 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq
Model details:
Parameter Sequence Domain
Gathering cut-off 30.1 30.1
Trusted cut-off 30.1 30.1
Noise cut-off 30.0 30.0
Model length: 188
Family (HMM) version: 14
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Species distribution

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Archea Archea Eukaryota Eukaryota
Bacteria Bacteria Other sequences Other sequences
Viruses Viruses Unclassified Unclassified
Viroids Viroids Unclassified sequence Unclassified sequence


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There are 7 interactions for this family. More...

Drf_GBD Drf_FH3 Ras Drf_DAD Ras Drf_FH3 Drf_DAD


For those sequences which have a structure in the Protein DataBank, we use the mapping between UniProt, PDB and Pfam coordinate systems from the PDBe group, to allow us to map Pfam domains onto UniProt sequences and three-dimensional protein structures. The table below shows the structures on which the Drf_GBD domain has been found. There are 26 instances of this domain found in the PDB. Note that there may be multiple copies of the domain in a single PDB structure, since many structures contain multiple copies of the same protein sequence.

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