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2  structures 5  species 0  interactions 6  sequences 1  architecture

Family: BDV_P40 (PF06407)

Summary: Borna disease virus P40 protein

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This is the Wikipedia entry entitled "Bornavirus". More...

Bornavirus Edit Wikipedia article

"BDV" redirects here. For "Big Daddy V", see Viscera (wrestler).
Virus classification
Group: Group V ((-)ssRNA)
Order: Mononegavirales
Family: Bornaviridae
Genus: Bornavirus
Type species
Borna disease virus
Borna disease virus G protein
Symbol BDV_G
Pfam PF06208
InterPro IPR009344
Borna disease virus P10 protein
Symbol BDV_P10
Pfam PF06515
InterPro IPR009485
Borna disease virus P40 protein
PDB 1n93 EBI.jpg
crystal structure of the borna disease virus nucleoprotein
Symbol BDV_P40
Pfam PF06407
InterPro IPR009441
SCOP 1n93
Borna disease virus P24 protein
Symbol BDV_P24
Pfam PF06595
InterPro IPR009517

Borna disease virus is the virus that causes Borna disease.



It has the smallest genome (8.9 kilobases) of any Mononegavirales species and is unique within that order in its ability to replicate within the host cell nucleus.

Borna virus was isolated from a diseased horse in the 1970s, but the virus particles were difficult to characterise. Nonetheless, the virus' genome has been characterised. It is a linear negative-sense single stranded RNA virus in the order of the mononegavirales.

Several of the proteins encoded by the Borna virus genome have been characterised. The G glycoprotein is important for viral entry into the host cell.[1][2]

It has been suggested that the p10, or X, protein plays a role in viral RNA synthesis or ribonucleoprotein transport.[3]

The P40 nucleoprotein from BDV is multi-helical in structure and can be divided into two subdomains, each of which has an alpha-bundle topology.[4] The nucleoprotein assembles into a planar homotetramer, with the RNA genome either wrapping around the outside of the tetramer or possibly fitting within the charged central channel of the tetramer .

P24 (phosphoprotein 24) is an essential component of the RNA polymerase transcription and replication complex. P24 is encoded by open reading frame II (ORF-II) and undergoes high rates of mutation in humans. It [binds amphoterin-HMGB1, a multifunctional protein, directly and may cause deleterious effects in cellular functions by interference with HMGB1.[5] Horse and human P24 have no species-specific amino acid residues, suggesting that the two viruses are related.[6][7] Numerous interactions of the immune system with the central nervous system have been described. Mood and psychotic disorders, such as severe depression and schizophrenia, are both heterogeneous disorders regarding clinical symptomatology, the acuity of symptoms, the clinical course and the treatment response.[8] BDV p24 RNA has been detected in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of psychiatric patients with such conditions.[7] Some studies find a significant difference in the prevalence of BDV p24 RNA in patients with mood disorders and schizophrenia,[9] whilst others find no difference between patients and control groups.[7] Consequently, debate about the role of BDV in psychiatric diseases remains alive.


Bornaviruses enter host cells by endocytosis. The viral genome and associated viral proteins is released into the cytoplasm following fusion of the viral envelope and the endosome membrane.[10] Replication of the bornavirus occurs inside the nucleus. This is the only animal virus within the order Mononegavirales to do this. Many plant Rhabdoviruses replicate in the nucleus.

Bornaviruses have negative sense RNA genomes [11] The negative sense RNA is copied to make a positive sense RNA template. This template is then used to synthesise many copies of the negative sense RNA genome. This is like making copies of a mold, and then using these molds to make many more viruses.

Endogenous provirus

Endogenous viral elements homologous to the nucleoprotein gene of the Bornavirus have been shown to exist in the genomes of several mammalian species, including humans and non-human primates.[12]

Other viruses

Avian bornavirus is a member of this family.[13] It causes Proventricular Dilatation Disease in many birds.


A Bayesian analysis of Borna disease virus genotype 1 suggests that the current strains diversified ~300 years ago and that avian bornavirus is a virus that evolved considerably earlier than this.[14] The ancestral virus seems likely to have been a high AT content virus.


The Borna disease was first described in 1885 as "heated head disease" of cavalry horses in 1885 in the town of Borna, Germany.[15]


  1. ^ Schneider PA, Hatalski CG, Lewis AJ, Lipkin WI (January 1997). "Biochemical and functional analysis of the Borna disease virus G protein". J. Virol. 71 (1): 331–6. PMC 191055. PMID 8985354. 
  2. ^ Perez M, Watanabe M, Whitt MA, de la Torre JC (August 2001). "N-terminal domain of Borna disease virus G (p56) protein is sufficient for virus receptor recognition and cell entry". J. Virol. 75 (15): 7078–85. doi:10.1128/JVI.75.15.7078-7085.2001. PMC 114436. PMID 11435588. 
  3. ^ Wolff T, Pfleger R, Wehner T, Reinhardt J, Richt JA (April 2000). "A short leucine-rich sequence in the Borna disease virus p10 protein mediates association with the viral phospho- and nucleoproteins". J. Gen. Virol. 81 (Pt 4): 939–€“47. PMID 10725419. 
  4. ^ Planz O, Stitz L (February 1999). "Borna disease virus nucleoprotein (p40) is a major target for CD8(+)-T-cell-mediated immune response". J. Virol. 73 (2): 1715–€“8. PMC 104005. PMID 9882386. 
  5. ^ Zhang G, Kobayashi T, Kamitani W, Komoto S, Yamashita M, Baba S, Yanai H, Ikuta K, Tomonaga K (November 2003). "Borna disease virus phosphoprotein represses p53-mediated transcriptional activity by interference with HMGB1". J. Virol. 77 (22): 12243–€“51. doi:10.1128/jvi.77.22.12243-12251.2003. PMC 254253. PMID 14581561. 
  6. ^ Kishi M, Arimura Y, Ikuta K, Shoya Y, Lai PK, Kakinuma M (January 1996). "Sequence variability of Borna disease virus open reading frame II found in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells". J. Virol. 70 (1): 635–40. PMC 189858. PMID 8523585. 
  7. ^ a b c Iwata Y, Takahashi K, Peng X, Fukuda K, Ohno K, Ogawa T, Gonda K, Mori N, Niwa S, Shigeta S (December 1998). "Detection and sequence analysis of borna disease virus p24 RNA from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with mood disorders or schizophrenia and of blood donors". J. Virol. 72 (12): 10044–9. PMC 110530. PMID 9811743. 
  8. ^ Nunes SO, Itano EN, Amarante MK, Reiche EM, Miranda HC, de Oliveira CE, Matsuo T, Vargas HO, Watanabe MA (2008). "RNA from Borna disease virus in patients with schizophrenia, schizoaffective patients, and in their biological relatives". J. Clin. Lab. Anal. 22 (4): 314–€“20. doi:10.1002/jcla.20261. PMID 18623121. 
  9. ^ Miranda HC, Nunes SO, Calvo ES, Suzart S, Itano EN, Watanabe MA (January 2006). "Detection of Borna disease virus p24 RNA in peripheral blood cells from Brazilian mood and psychotic disorder patients". J Affect Disord 90 (1): 43–€“7. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2005.10.008. PMID 16324750. 
  10. ^ Schwemmle, M. and Lipkin, W.I. (2004) Models and mechanisms of Bornavirus pathogenesis. Drug Discovery Today: Disease Mechanisms 1(2):211–216
  11. ^ Tomonaga K, Kobayashi T, Ikuta K (April 2002). "Molecular and cellular biology of Borna disease virus infection". Microbes Infect 4 (4): 491–500. doi:10.1016/S1286-4579(02)01564-2. PMID 11932200. 
  12. ^ Horie, Masayuki; Honda, Tomoyuki; Suzuki, Yoshiyuki; Kobayashi, Yuki; Daito, Takuji; Oshida, Tatsuo; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi; Jern, Patric; et al. (7 January 2010). "Endogenous non-retroviral RNA virus elements in mammalian genomes". Nature 463 (7277): 9–128. doi:10.1038/nature08695. PMC 2818285. PMID 20054395. 
  13. ^ Tomonaga K (2012) Bornaviruses. Uirusu 62(2):209-218
  14. ^ He M, An TZ, Teng CB (2014) Evolution of Bornaviruses. Mol Phylogenet Evol pii: S1055-7903(14)00248-6. doi: 10.1016/j.ympev.2014.07.006.
  15. ^ "Evolutionary Surprise: Eight Percent of Human Genetic Material Comes from a Virus". ScienceDaily. 2010-01-08. 

External links

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This tab holds the annotation information that is stored in the Pfam database. As we move to using Wikipedia as our main source of annotation, the contents of this tab will be gradually replaced by the Wikipedia tab.

Borna disease virus P40 protein Provide feedback

This family consists of several Borna disease virus P40 proteins. Borna disease (BD) is a persistent viral infection of the central nervous system caused by the single-negative-strand, nonsegmented RNA Borna disease virus (BDV). P40 is known to be a nucleoprotein [1].

Literature references

  1. Planz O, Stitz L; , J Virol 1999;73:1715-1718.: Borna disease virus nucleoprotein (p40) is a major target for CD8(+)-T-cell-mediated immune response. PUBMED:9882386 EPMC:9882386

External database links

This tab holds annotation information from the InterPro database.

InterPro entry IPR009441

This entry represents P40 nucleoproteins from several Borna disease virus (BDV) strains. BDV is an RNA virus that is a member of the Mononegavirales family, which includes such members as Measles virus and Ebola virus sp.. BDV causes an infection of the central nervous system in a wide range of vertebrates, which can progress to an often fatal immune-mediated disease. Viral nucleoproteins are central to transcription, replication, and packaging of the RNA genome. P40 nucleoprotein from BDV is multi-helical in structure and can be divided into two subdomains, each of which has an alpha-bundle topology [PUBMED:9882386]. The nucleoprotein assembles into a planar homotetramer, with the RNA genome either wrapping around the outside of the tetramer or possibly fitting within the charged central channel of the tetramer [PUBMED:14527390].

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Seed source: Pfam-B_15995 (release 9.0)
Previous IDs: none
Type: Family
Author: Moxon SJ
Number in seed: 1
Number in full: 6
Average length of the domain: 263.70 aa
Average identity of full alignment: 55 %
Average coverage of the sequence by the domain: 88.23 %

HMM information View help on HMM parameters

HMM build commands:
build method: hmmbuild -o /dev/null HMM SEED
search method: hmmsearch -Z 11927849 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq
Model details:
Parameter Sequence Domain
Gathering cut-off 25.0 25.0
Trusted cut-off 44.8 44.4
Noise cut-off 22.8 22.5
Model length: 370
Family (HMM) version: 8
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For those sequences which have a structure in the Protein DataBank, we use the mapping between UniProt, PDB and Pfam coordinate systems from the PDBe group, to allow us to map Pfam domains onto UniProt sequences and three-dimensional protein structures. The table below shows the structures on which the BDV_P40 domain has been found. There are 2 instances of this domain found in the PDB. Note that there may be multiple copies of the domain in a single PDB structure, since many structures contain multiple copies of the same protein seqence.

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