Summary: Coatomer (COPI) alpha subunit C-terminus
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COPI is a coatomer, a protein complex that coats vesicles transporting proteins from the cis end of the Golgi complex back to the rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER), where they were originally synthesized, and between Golgi compartments. This type of transport is termed as retrograde transport, in contrast to the anterograde transport associated with the COPII protein. The name "COPI" refers to the specific coat protein complex that initiates the budding process on the cis-Golgi membrane. The coat consists of large protein subcomplexes that are made of seven different protein subunits, namely α, β, β', γ, δ, ε and ζ.
Coat protein, or COPI, is an ADP ribosylation factor (ARF)-dependent protein involved in membrane traffic. COPI was first identified in retrograde traffic from the cis-Golgi to the rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and is the most extensively studied of ARF-dependent adaptors. COPI consists of seven subunits which compose the heteroheptameric protein complex.
The primary function of adaptors is the selection of cargo proteins for their incorporation into nascent carriers. Cargo containing the sorting motifs KKXX and KXKXX interact with COPI to form carriers which are transported from the cis-Golgi to the ER. Current views suggest that ARFs are also involved in the selection of cargo for incorporation into carriers.
ADP ribosylation factor (ARF) is a GTPase involved in membrane traffic. There are 6 mammalian ARFs which are regulated by over 30 GEFs and GAPs. ARF is post-translationally modified at the N-terminus by the addition of the fatty acid myristate.
ARF cycles between GTP and GDP-bound conformations. In the GTP-bound form, ARF conformation changes such that the myristate and hydrophobic N-terminal become more exposed and associate with the membrane. The interconversion between GTP and GDP bound states is mediated by ARF guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) and ARF GTPase activating proteins (GAPs). At the membrane, ARF-GTP is hydrolyzed to ARF-GDP by ARF GAPs. Once in the GDP-bound conformation, ARF converts to a less hydrophobic conformation and dissociates from the membrane. Soluble ARF-GDP is converted back to ARF-GTP by GEFs.
- 1. Luminal proteins: Proteins found in the lumen of the Golgi complex that need to be transported to the lumen of the ER contain the signal peptide KDEL. This sequence is recognized by a membrane-bound KDEL receptor. In yeast, this is Erd2p and in mammals it is KDELR. This receptor then binds to an ARF-GEF, a class of guanine nucleotide exchange factors. This protein in turn binds to the ARF. This interaction causes ARF to exchange its bound GDP for GTP. Once this exchange is made ARF binds to the cytosolic side of the cis-Golgi membrane and inserts the myristoylated N-terminal amphipathic alpha-helix into the membrane.
- 2. Membrane proteins: Transmembrane proteins which reside in the ER contain sorting signals in their cytosolic tails which direct the protein to exit the Golgi and return to the ER. These sorting signals, or motifs, typically contain the amino acid sequence KKXX or KXKXX, which interact with COPI subunits α-COP and β'-COP. The order in which adaptor proteins associate with cargo, or adaptor proteins associate with ARFs is unclear, however, in order to form a mature transport carrier coat protein, adaptor, cargo, and ARF must all associate.
Membrane deformation and carrier budding occurs following the collection of interactions described above. The carrier then buds off of the donor membrane, in the case of COPI this membrane is the cis-Golgi, and the carrier moves to the ER where it fuses with the acceptor membrane and its content is expelled.
On the surface of a vesicle COPI molecules form symmetric trimers ("triads"). The curved triad structure positions the Arf1 molecules and cargo binding sites proximal to the membrane. The β′- and α-COP subunits form an arch over the γζβδ-COP subcomplex, orienting their N-terminal domains such that the K(X)KXX cargo-motif binding sites are optimally positioned against the membrane. Thus β′- and α-COP do not form a cage or lattice as in COPII and clathrin coats as previously suggested; instead, they are linked to one another via the γζβδ-COP subcomplexes, forming an interconnected assembly. The triads are linked together with contacts of variable valence making up four different types of contacts.
- COPII vesicles
- Clathrin vesicles
- Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase#ER to Golgi transport
- Coat Protein Complex I at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH)
- Serafini T, Orci L, Amherdt M, Brunner M, Kahn RA, Rothman JE (1991). "ADP-ribosylation factor is a subunit of the coat of Golgi-derived COP-coated vesicles: a novel role for a GTP-binding protein". Cell. 67 (2): 239–53. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(91)90176-Y. PMID 1680566.
- Schekman R, Orci L (1996). "Coat proteins and vesicle budding". Science. 271 (5255): 1526–1533. doi:10.1126/science.271.5255.1526. PMID 8599108.
- Cosson P, Letourneur F (1997). "Coatomer (COPI)-coated vesicles: role in intracellular transport and protein sorting". Curr Opin Cell Biol. 9 (4): 484–7. doi:10.1016/S0955-0674(97)80023-3. PMID 9261053.
- Letourneur F, Gaynor EC, Hennecke S, Démollière C, Duden R, Emr SD, et al. (1994). "Coatomer is essential for retrieval of dilysine-tagged proteins to the endoplasmic reticulum". Cell. 79 (7): 1199–207. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(94)90011-6. PMID 8001155.
- Sohn K, Orci L, Ravazzola M, Amherdt M, Bremser M, Lottspeich F, et al. (1996). "A major transmembrane protein of Golgi-derived COPI-coated vesicles involved in coatomer binding". J Cell Biol. 135 (5): 1239–48. doi:10.1083/jcb.135.5.1239. PMC . PMID 8947548.
- Sönnichsen B, Watson R, Clausen H, Misteli T, Warren G (1996). "Sorting by COP I-coated vesicles under interphase and mitotic conditions". J Cell Biol. 134 (6): 1411–25. doi:10.1083/jcb.134.6.1411. PMC . PMID 8830771.
- Orci L, Stamnes M, Ravazzola M, Amherdt M, Perrelet A, Söllner TH, et al. (1997). "Bidirectional transport by distinct populations of COPI-coated vesicles". Cell. 90 (2): 335–49. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(00)80341-4. PMID 9244307.
- Ma, Wenfu; Goldberg, Jonathan (2013-04-03). "Rules for the recognition of dilysine retrieval motifs by coatomer". The EMBO Journal. 32 (7): 926–937. doi:10.1038/emboj.2013.41. ISSN 1460-2075. PMC . PMID 23481256.
- Mariano Stornaiuolo; Lavinia V. Lotti; Nica Borgese; Maria-Rosaria Torrisi; Giovanna Mottola; Gianluca Martire & Stefano Bonatti (March 2003). "KDEL and KKXX Retrieval Signals Appended to the Same Reporter Protein Determine Different Trafficking between Endoplasmic Reticulum, Intermediate Compartment, and Golgi Complex". Molecular Biology of the Cell. 14 (3): 889–902. doi:10.1091/mbc.E02-08-0468. PMC . PMID 12631711.
- Goldberg, J. (1998-10-16). "Structural basis for activation of ARF GTPase: mechanisms of guanine nucleotide exchange and GTP-myristoyl switching". Cell. 95 (2): 237–248. doi:10.1016/s0092-8674(00)81754-7. ISSN 0092-8674. PMID 9790530.
- Lee, Changwook; Goldberg, Jonathan (2010-07-09). "Structure of coatomer cage proteins and the relationship among COPI, COPII, and clathrin vesicle coats". Cell. 142 (1): 123–132. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2010.05.030. ISSN 1097-4172. PMC . PMID 20579721.
- Dodonova, S. O.; Diestelkoetter-Bachert, P.; von Appen, A.; Hagen, W. J. H.; Beck, R.; Beck, M.; Wieland, F.; Briggs, J. a. G. (2015-07-10). "VESICULAR TRANSPORT. A structure of the COPI coat and the role of coat proteins in membrane vesicle assembly". Science. 349 (6244): 195–198. doi:10.1126/science.aab1121. ISSN 1095-9203. PMID 26160949.
- Faini, Marco; Prinz, Simone; Beck, Rainer; Schorb, Martin; Riches, James D.; Bacia, Kirsten; Brügger, Britta; Wieland, Felix T.; Briggs, John A. G. (2012-06-15). "The structures of COPI-coated vesicles reveal alternate coatomer conformations and interactions". Science. 336 (6087): 1451–1454. doi:10.1126/science.1221443. ISSN 1095-9203. PMID 22628556.
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Coatomer (COPI) alpha subunit C-terminus Provide feedback
This family represents the C-terminus (approximately 500 residues) of the eukaryotic coatomer alpha subunit. Coatomer (COPI) is a large cytosolic protein complex which forms a coat around vesicles budding from the Golgi apparatus. Such coatomer-coated vesicles have been proposed to play a role in many distinct steps of intracellular transport . Note that many family members also contain the PF04053 domain.
Hsia KC, Hoelz A;, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:11271-11276.: Crystal structure of alpha-COP in complex with epsilon-COP provides insight into the architecture of the COPI vesicular coat. PUBMED:20534429 EPMC:20534429
This tab holds annotation information from the InterPro database.
InterPro entry IPR010714
Proteins synthesised on the ribosome and processed in the endoplasmic reticulum are transported from the Golgi apparatus to the trans-Golgi network (TGN), and from there via small carrier vesicles to their final destination compartment. This traffic is bidirectional, to ensure that proteins required to form vesicles are recycled. Vesicles have specific coat proteins (such as clathrin or coatomer) that are important for cargo selection and direction of transfer [PUBMED:15261670]. While clathrin mediates endocytic protein transport, and transport from ER to Golgi, coatomers primarily mediate intra-Golgi transport, as well as the reverse Golgi to ER transport of dilysine-tagged proteins [PUBMED:14690497]. For example, the coatomer COP1 (coat protein complex 1) is responsible for reverse transport of recycled proteins from Golgi and pre-Golgi compartments back to the ER, while COPII buds vesicles from the ER to the Golgi [PUBMED:11208122]. Coatomers reversibly associate with Golgi (non-clathrin-coated) vesicles to mediate protein transport and for budding from Golgi membranes [PUBMED:17041781]. Activated small guanine triphosphatases (GTPases) attract coat proteins to specific membrane export sites, thereby linking coatomers to export cargos. As coat proteins polymerise, vesicles are formed and budded from membrane-bound organelles. Coatomer complexes also influence Golgi structural integrity, as well as the processing, activity, and endocytic recycling of LDL receptors. In mammals, coatomer complexes can only be recruited by membranes associated to ADP-ribosylation factors (ARFs), which are small GTP-binding proteins. Coatomer complexes are hetero-oligomers composed of at least an alpha, beta, beta', gamma, delta, epsilon and zeta subunits.
The mapping between Pfam and Gene Ontology is provided by InterPro. If you use this data please cite InterPro.
|Cellular component||COPI vesicle coat (GO:0030126)|
|Molecular function||protein binding (GO:0005515)|
|structural molecule activity (GO:0005198)|
|Biological process||intracellular protein transport (GO:0006886)|
|vesicle-mediated transport (GO:0016192)|
Below is a listing of the unique domain organisations or architectures in which this domain is found. More...
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Tetratricopeptide-like repeats are found in a numerous and diverse proteins involved in such functions as cell cycle regulation, transcriptional control, mitochondrial and peroxisomal protein transport, neurogenesis and protein folding.
The clan contains the following 149 members:Adaptin_N Alkyl_sulf_dimr ANAPC3 ANAPC5 ANAPC8 API5 Arm Arm_2 Arm_3 Atx10homo_assoc B56 BAF250_C BTAD CAS_CSE1 ChAPs CHIP_TPR_N CLASP_N Clathrin Clathrin-link Clathrin_H_link Clathrin_propel Cnd1 Cnd3 Coatomer_E Cohesin_HEAT Cohesin_load ComR_TPR COPI_C CPL CRM1_C Cse1 DHR-2 DNA_alkylation Drf_FH3 Drf_GBD DUF1822 DUF2019 DUF2225 DUF3385 DUF3458_C DUF3808 DUF3856 DUF4042 DUF924 EST1 EST1_DNA_bind FAT Fis1_TPR_C Fis1_TPR_N Foie-gras_1 GUN4_N HAT HEAT HEAT_2 HEAT_EZ HEAT_PBS HemY_N HrpB1_HrpK IBB IBN_N IFRD KAP Leuk-A4-hydro_C LRV LRV_FeS MA3 MIF4G MIF4G_like MIF4G_like_2 MMS19_C Mo25 MRP-S27 NARP1 Neurochondrin Nipped-B_C Nro1 NSF Paf67 ParcG PC_rep PHAT PI3Ka PknG_TPR PPP5 PPR PPR_1 PPR_2 PPR_3 PPR_long PPTA Proteasom_PSMB PUF Rab5-bind Rapsyn_N RIX1 RPM2 RPN7 Sel1 SHNi-TPR SNAP SPO22 SRP_TPR_like ST7 Suf SusD-like SusD-like_2 SusD-like_3 SusD_RagB SYCP2_ARLD TAF6_C TAL_effector TAtT Tcf25 TIP120 TOM20_plant TPR_1 TPR_10 TPR_11 TPR_12 TPR_14 TPR_15 TPR_16 TPR_17 TPR_18 TPR_19 TPR_2 TPR_20 TPR_21 TPR_3 TPR_4 TPR_5 TPR_6 TPR_7 TPR_8 TPR_9 TPR_MalT UNC45-central Upf2 V-ATPase_H_C V-ATPase_H_N Vac14_Fab1_bd Vitellogenin_N Vps39_1 W2 Wzy_C_2 Xpo1 YcaO_C YfiO Zmiz1_N
We store a range of different sequence alignments for families. As well as the seed alignment from which the family is built, we provide the full alignment, generated by searching the sequence database (reference proteomes) using the family HMM. We also generate alignments using four representative proteomes (RP) sets, the UniProtKB sequence database, the NCBI sequence database, and our metagenomics sequence database. More...
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We make a range of alignments for each Pfam-A family:
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- alignment generated by searching the UniProtKB sequence database using the family HMM
- alignment generated by searching the NCBI sequence database using the family HMM
- alignment generated by searching the metagenomics sequence database using the family HMM
You can see the alignments as HTML or in three different sequence viewers:
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We make a range of alignments for each Pfam-A family. You can see a description of each above. You can view these alignments in various ways but please note that some types of alignment are never generated while others may not be available for all families, most commonly because the alignments are too large to handle.
1Cannot generate PP/Heatmap alignments for seeds; no PP data available
Key: available, not generated, — not available.
Format an alignment
We make all of our alignments available in Stockholm format. You can download them here as raw, plain text files or as gzip-compressed files.
You can also download a FASTA format file containing the full-length sequences for all sequences in the full alignment.
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This page displays the phylogenetic tree for this family's seed alignment. We use FastTree to calculate neighbour join trees with a local bootstrap based on 100 resamples (shown next to the tree nodes). FastTree calculates approximately-maximum-likelihood phylogenetic trees from our seed alignment.
Note: You can also download the data file for the tree.
Curation and family details
This section shows the detailed information about the Pfam family. You can see the definitions of many of the terms in this section in the glossary and a fuller explanation of the scoring system that we use in the scores section of the help pages.
|Seed source:||Pfam-B_20121 (release 10.0)|
|Author:||Vella Briffa B|
|Number in seed:||33|
|Number in full:||1465|
|Average length of the domain:||353.70 aa|
|Average identity of full alignment:||33 %|
|Average coverage of the sequence by the domain:||32.02 %|
|HMM build commands:||
build method: hmmbuild -o /dev/null HMM SEED
search method: hmmsearch -Z 45638612 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq
|Family (HMM) version:||11|
|Download:||download the raw HMM for this family|
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This visualisation provides a simple graphical representation of the distribution of this family across species. You can find the original interactive tree in the More....
This chart is a modified "sunburst" visualisation of the species tree for this family. It shows each node in the tree as a separate arc, arranged radially with the superkingdoms at the centre and the species arrayed around the outermost ring.
How the sunburst is generated
The tree is built by considering the taxonomic lineage of each sequence that has a match to this family. For each node in the resulting tree, we draw an arc in the sunburst. The radius of the arc, its distance from the root node at the centre of the sunburst, shows the taxonomic level ("superkingdom", "kingdom", etc). The length of the arc represents either the number of sequences represented at a given level, or the number of species that are found beneath the node in the tree. The weighting scheme can be changed using the sunburst controls.
In order to reduce the complexity of the representation, we reduce the number of taxonomic levels that we show. We consider only the following eight major taxonomic levels:
Colouring and labels
Segments of the tree are coloured approximately according to their superkingdom. For example, archeal branches are coloured with shades of orange, eukaryotes in shades of purple, etc. The colour assignments are shown under the sunburst controls. Where space allows, the name of the taxonomic level will be written on the arc itself.
As you move your mouse across the sunburst, the current node will be highlighted. In the top section of the controls panel we show a summary of the lineage of the currently highlighed node. If you pause over an arc, a tooltip will be shown, giving the name of the taxonomic level in the title and a summary of the number of sequences and species below that node in the tree.
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There are some situations that the sunburst tree cannot easily handle and for which we have work-arounds in place.
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Some species in the taxonomic tree may not have one or more of the main eight levels that we display. For example, Bos taurus is not assigned an order in the NCBI taxonomic tree. In such cases we mark the omitted level with, for example, "No order", in both the tooltip and the lineage summary.
Unmapped species names
The tree is built by looking at each sequence in the full alignment for the family. We take the name of the species given by UniProt and try to map that to the full taxonomic tree from NCBI. In some cases, the name chosen by UniProt does not map to any node in the NCBI tree, perhaps because the chosen name is listed as a synonym or a misspelling in the NCBI taxonomy.
So that these nodes are not simply omitted from the sunburst tree, we group them together in a separate branch (or segment of the sunburst tree). Since we cannot determine the lineage for these unmapped species, we show all levels between the superkingdom and the species as "uncategorised".
Since we reduce the species tree to only the eight main taxonomic levels, sequences that are mapped to the sub-species level in the tree would not normally be shown. Rather than leave out these species, we map them instead to their parent species. So, for example, for sequences belonging to one of the Vibrio cholerae sub-species in the NCBI taxonomy, we show them instead as belonging to the species Vibrio cholerae.
Too many species/sequences
For large species trees, you may see blank regions in the outer layers of the sunburst. These occur when there are large numbers of arcs to be drawn in a small space. If an arc is less than approximately one pixel wide, it will not be drawn and the space will be left blank. You may still be able to get some information about the species in that region by moving your mouse across the area, but since each arc will be very small, it will be difficult to accurately locate a particular species.
The tree shows the occurrence of this domain across different species. More...
We show the species tree in one of two ways. For smaller trees we try to show an interactive representation, which allows you to select specific nodes in the tree and view them as an alignment or as a set of Pfam domain graphics.
Unfortunately we have found that there are problems viewing the interactive tree when the it becomes larger than a certain limit. Furthermore, we have found that Internet Explorer can become unresponsive when viewing some trees, regardless of their size. We therefore show a text representation of the species tree when the size is above a certain limit or if you are using Internet Explorer to view the site.
If you are using IE you can still load the interactive tree by clicking the "Generate interactive tree" button, but please be aware of the potential problems that the interactive species tree can cause.
For all of the domain matches in a full alignment, we count the number that are found on all sequences in the alignment. This total is shown in the purple box.
We also count the number of unique sequences on which each domain is found, which is shown in green. Note that a domain may appear multiple times on the same sequence, leading to the difference between these two numbers.
Finally, we group sequences from the same organism according to the NCBI code that is assigned by UniProt, allowing us to count the number of distinct sequences on which the domain is found. This value is shown in the pink boxes.
We use the NCBI species tree to group organisms according to their taxonomy and this forms the structure of the displayed tree. Note that in some cases the trees are too large (have too many nodes) to allow us to build an interactive tree, but in most cases you can still view the tree in a plain text, non-interactive representation. Those species which are represented in the seed alignment for this domain are highlighted.
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There are 4 interactions for this family. More...
We determine these interactions using iPfam, which considers the interactions between residues in three-dimensional protein structures and maps those interactions back to Pfam families. You can find more information about the iPfam algorithm in the journal article that accompanies the website.
For those sequences which have a structure in the Protein DataBank, we use the mapping between UniProt, PDB and Pfam coordinate systems from the PDBe group, to allow us to map Pfam domains onto UniProt sequences and three-dimensional protein structures. The table below shows the structures on which the COPI_C domain has been found. There are 16 instances of this domain found in the PDB. Note that there may be multiple copies of the domain in a single PDB structure, since many structures contain multiple copies of the same protein sequence.
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