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3  structures 10  species 1  interaction 220  sequences 9  architectures

Family: s48_45 (PF07422)

Summary: Sexual stage antigen s48/45 domain

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Sexual stage antigen s48/45 domain Provide feedback

This family contains sexual stage s48/45 antigens from Plasmodium (approximately 450 residues long). These are surface proteins expressed by Plasmodium male and female gametes that have been shown to play a conserved and important role in fertilisation [1]. This domain contains 6 conserved cysteines suggesting 3 disulphide bridges.

Literature references

  1. van Dijk MR, Janse CJ, Thompson J, Waters AP, Braks JA, Dodemont HJ, Stunnenberg HG, van Gemert GJ, Sauerwein RW, Eling W; , Cell 2001;104:153-164.: A central role for P48/45 in malaria parasite male gamete fertility. PUBMED:11163248 EPMC:11163248


This tab holds annotation information from the InterPro database.

InterPro entry IPR010884

This entry represents the 6-Cys domain.

The 6-Cysteine (6-Cys) domain is found in Plasmodium proteins that are expressed in all stages of the parasite life cycle in both the vertebrate and mosquito hosts. The domain is of roughly 120 amino acids and contains six positionally conserved cysteines. It might occur in 1-14 copies per protein, either as the sole globular domain or in combination wih beta-helix-forming hexapeptide repeats as is the case of sequestrin. It is generally found in tandem pairs of A-type and B-type domains. Previously believed to be exclusive to Plasmodium, the 6-Cys domain also exists in proteins found in all members of the aconoidasidan (hematozoan) clade of Apicomplexa, which unites the haemosporidians (Plasmodium) and piroplasms) [PUBMED:11163248, PUBMED:16155126, PUBMED:20386715, PUBMED:22493233, PUBMED:23511632].

The 6-cys domain is a beta-sandwich formed by two sheets with a mixture of parallel and antiparallel strands. Three disulfide bonds are present in the 6_Cys domain with C1-C2, C3-C6, and C4-C5 connectivity. C1-C2 and C3-C6 pin together the two sheets of the beta-sandwich, whereas C4-C5 links an ancyllary loop to the core domain [PUBMED:22493233, PUBMED:23511632].

Some Plasmodium proteins known to contain a 6-Cys domain are listed below:

  • Pfs48/45, involved in male/female gamete fusion in the mosquito midgut. It is predicted to be glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored to the gamete surface.
  • Pfs230, involved in male/female gamete fusion in the mosquito midgut. It is a soluble protein that associates with the gamete membrane by binding to Pfs48/45.
  • Pfs47, involved in male/female gamete fusion in the mosquito midgut. It is found on female gametes.
  • P52, expressed in the sporozoite. May be required for invasion of hepatocytes and to promote normal development in the liver.
  • P36, expressed in the sporozoite. May be required for invasion of hepatocytes and to promote normal development in the liver.
  • Pf41, located on the surface of merozoites and has a signal sequence.
  • Pf38, located on the surface of merozoites. It has a signal sequence and is GPI-anchored to the merozoite surface.
  • Pf12, located on the surface of merozoites. It has a signal sequence and is GPI-anchored to the merozoite surface.
  • Pf92, located on the surface of merozoites. It has a signal sequence and is GPI-anchored to the merozoite surface.

Domain organisation

Below is a listing of the unique domain organisations or architectures in which this domain is found. More...

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Alignments

We store a range of different sequence alignments for families. As well as the seed alignment from which the family is built, we provide the full alignment, generated by searching the sequence database (reference proteomes) using the family HMM. We also generate alignments using four representative proteomes (RP) sets, the UniProtKB sequence database, the NCBI sequence database, and our metagenomics sequence database. More...

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We make a range of alignments for each Pfam-A family. You can see a description of each above. You can view these alignments in various ways but please note that some types of alignment are never generated while others may not be available for all families, most commonly because the alignments are too large to handle.

  Seed
(92)
Full
(220)
Representative proteomes UniProt
(1972)
NCBI
(1853)
Meta
(0)
RP15
(45)
RP35
(128)
RP55
(236)
RP75
(298)
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1Cannot generate PP/Heatmap alignments for seeds; no PP data available

Key: ✓ available, x not generated, not available.

Format an alignment

  Seed
(92)
Full
(220)
Representative proteomes UniProt
(1972)
NCBI
(1853)
Meta
(0)
RP15
(45)
RP35
(128)
RP55
(236)
RP75
(298)
Alignment:
Format:
Order:
Sequence:
Gaps:
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We make all of our alignments available in Stockholm format. You can download them here as raw, plain text files or as gzip-compressed files.

  Seed
(92)
Full
(220)
Representative proteomes UniProt
(1972)
NCBI
(1853)
Meta
(0)
RP15
(45)
RP35
(128)
RP55
(236)
RP75
(298)
Raw Stockholm Download   Download   Download   Download   Download   Download   Download   Download    
Gzipped Download   Download   Download   Download   Download   Download   Download   Download    

You can also download a FASTA format file containing the full-length sequences for all sequences in the full alignment.

HMM logo

HMM logos is one way of visualising profile HMMs. Logos provide a quick overview of the properties of an HMM in a graphical form. You can see a more detailed description of HMM logos and find out how you can interpret them here. More...

Trees

This page displays the phylogenetic tree for this family's seed alignment. We use FastTree to calculate neighbour join trees with a local bootstrap based on 100 resamples (shown next to the tree nodes). FastTree calculates approximately-maximum-likelihood phylogenetic trees from our seed alignment.

Note: You can also download the data file for the tree.

Curation and family details

This section shows the detailed information about the Pfam family. You can see the definitions of many of the terms in this section in the glossary and a fuller explanation of the scoring system that we use in the scores section of the help pages.

Curation View help on the curation process

Seed source: Pfam-B_21037 (release 10.0) and Pfam-B_4621 (release 14.0)
Previous IDs: none
Type: Domain
Author: Vella Briffa B, Bateman A
Number in seed: 92
Number in full: 220
Average length of the domain: 118.50 aa
Average identity of full alignment: 20 %
Average coverage of the sequence by the domain: 31.42 %

HMM information View help on HMM parameters

HMM build commands:
build method: hmmbuild -o /dev/null HMM SEED
search method: hmmsearch -Z 11927849 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq
Model details:
Parameter Sequence Domain
Gathering cut-off 20.8 20.8
Trusted cut-off 20.9 20.8
Noise cut-off 19.8 20.3
Model length: 108
Family (HMM) version: 10
Download: download the raw HMM for this family

Species distribution

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Interactions

There is 1 interaction for this family. More...

s48_45

Structures

For those sequences which have a structure in the Protein DataBank, we use the mapping between UniProt, PDB and Pfam coordinate systems from the PDBe group, to allow us to map Pfam domains onto UniProt sequences and three-dimensional protein structures. The table below shows the structures on which the s48_45 domain has been found. There are 3 instances of this domain found in the PDB. Note that there may be multiple copies of the domain in a single PDB structure, since many structures contain multiple copies of the same protein seqence.

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