Summary: Leucine Rich Repeat
Leucine Rich Repeat Provide feedback
This Pfam entry includes some LRRs that fail to be detected by the PF00560 model.
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This tab holds annotation information from the InterPro database.
InterPro entry IPR011713
Leucine-rich repeats (LRR) consist of 2-45 motifs of 20-30 amino acids in length that generally folds into an arc or horseshoe shape [PUBMED:14747988]. LRRs occur in proteins ranging from viruses to eukaryotes, and appear to provide a structural framework for the formation of protein-protein interactions [PUBMED:11751054, PUBMED:1657640].Proteins containing LRRs include tyrosine kinase receptors, cell-adhesion molecules, virulence factors, and extracellular matrix-binding glycoproteins, and are involved in a variety of biological processes, including signal transduction, cell adhesion, DNA repair, recombination, transcription, RNA processing, disease resistance, apoptosis, and the immune response [PUBMED:2176636].
Sequence analyses of LRR proteins suggested the existence of several different subfamilies of LRRs. The significance of this classification is that repeats from different subfamilies never occur simultaneously and have most probably evolved independently. It is, however, now clear that all major classes of LRR have curved horseshoe structures with a parallel beta sheet on the concave side and mostly helical elements on the convex side. At least six families of LRR proteins, characterised by different lengths and consensus sequences of the repeats, have been identified. Eleven-residue segments of the LRRs (LxxLxLxxN/CxL), corresponding to the beta-strand and adjacent loop regions, are conserved in LRR proteins, whereas the remaining parts of the repeats (herein termed variable) may be very different. Despite the differences, each of the variable parts contains two half-turns at both ends and a "linear" segment (as the chain follows a linear path overall), usually formed by a helix, in the middle. The concave face and the adjacent loops are the most common protein interaction surfaces on LRR proteins. 3D structure of some LRR proteins-ligand complexes show that the concave surface of LRR domain is ideal for interaction with alpha-helix, thus supporting earlier conclusions that the elongated and curved LRR structure provides an outstanding framework for achieving diverse protein-protein interactions [PUBMED:11751054]. Molecular modeling suggests that the conserved pattern LxxLxL, which is shorter than the previously proposed LxxLxLxxN/CxL is sufficient to impart the characteristic horseshoe curvature to proteins with 20- to 30-residue repeats [PUBMED:11967365].
This entry includes some LRRs that fail to be detected by the INTERPRO model.
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Each Leucine Rich Repeat is composed of a beta-alpha unit. These units form elongated non-globular structures. Leucine Rich Repeats are often flanked by cysteine rich domains. This Pfam entry contains Leucine Rich Repeats not recognised by the Pfam:PF00560 model.
The clan contains the following 11 members:DUF285 FNIP LRR_1 LRR_2 LRR_3 LRR_4 LRR_5 LRR_6 LRR_7 LRR_8 LRR_9
We make a range of alignments for each Pfam-A family:
- the curated alignment from which the HMM for the family is built
- the alignment generated by searching the sequence database using the HMM
- Representative Proteomes (RPs) at 15%, 35%, 55% and 75% co-membership thresholds
- alignment generated by searching the NCBI sequence database using the family HMM
- alignment generated by searching the metagenomics sequence database using the family HMM
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Curation and family details
|Seed source:||PfamB-184 (release 14.0)|
|Number in seed:||74|
|Number in full:||609|
|Average length of the domain:||19.90 aa|
|Average identity of full alignment:||51 %|
|Average coverage of the sequence by the domain:||2.28 %|
|HMM build commands:||
build method: hmmbuild -o /dev/null HMM SEED
search method: hmmsearch -Z 23193494 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq
|Family (HMM) version:||7|
|Download:||download the raw HMM for this family|
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