Summary: Multicopper oxidase
This is the Wikipedia entry entitled "Multicopper oxidase". More...
The Wikipedia text that you see displayed here is a download from Wikipedia. This means that the information we display is a copy of the information from the Wikipedia database. The button next to the article title ("Edit Wikipedia article") takes you to the edit page for the article directly within Wikipedia. You should be aware you are not editing our local copy of this information. Any changes that you make to the Wikipedia article will not be displayed here until we next download the article from Wikipedia. We currently download new content on a nightly basis.
Does Pfam agree with the content of the Wikipedia entry ?
Pfam has chosen to link families to Wikipedia articles. In some case we have created or edited these articles but in many other cases we have not made any direct contribution to the content of the article. The Wikipedia community does monitor edits to try to ensure that (a) the quality of article annotation increases, and (b) vandalism is very quickly dealt with. However, we would like to emphasise that Pfam does not curate the Wikipedia entries and we cannot guarantee the accuracy of the information on the Wikipedia page.
Editing Wikipedia articles
Before you edit for the first time
Wikipedia is a free, online encyclopedia. Although anyone can edit or contribute to an article, Wikipedia has some strong editing guidelines and policies, which promote the Wikipedia standard of style and etiquette. Your edits and contributions are more likely to be accepted (and remain) if they are in accordance with this policy.
You should take a few minutes to view the following pages:
How your contribution will be recorded
Anyone can edit a Wikipedia entry. You can do this either as a new user or you can register with Wikipedia and log on. When you click on the "Edit Wikipedia article" button, your browser will direct you to the edit page for this entry in Wikipedia. If you are a registered user and currently logged in, your changes will be recorded under your Wikipedia user name. However, if you are not a registered user or are not logged on, your changes will be logged under your computer's IP address. This has two main implications. Firstly, as a registered Wikipedia user your edits are more likely seen as valuable contribution (although all edits are open to community scrutiny regardless). Secondly, if you edit under an IP address you may be sharing this IP address with other users. If your IP address has previously been blocked (due to being flagged as a source of 'vandalism') your edits will also be blocked. You can find more information on this and creating a user account at Wikipedia.
If you have problems editing a particular page, contact us at email@example.com and we will try to help.
The community annotation is a new facility of the Pfam web site. If you have problems editing or experience problems with these pages please contact us.
Multicopper oxidase Edit Wikipedia article
|Multicopper oxidase (type 1)|
crystal structures of e. coli laccase cueo under different copper binding situations
|Multicopper oxidase (type 2)|
active laccase from trametes versicolor complexed with 2,5-xylidine
|Multicopper oxidase (type 3)|
crystal structures of e. coli laccase cueo under different copper binding situations
|CMulti-copper polyphenol oxidoreductase laccase|
crystal structure of protein cc_0490 from caulobacter crescentus, pfam duf152
In molecular biology, multicopper oxidases are enzymes which oxidise their substrate by accepting electrons at a mononuclear copper centre and transferring them to a trinuclear copper centre; dioxygen binds to the trinuclear centre and, following the transfer of four electrons, is reduced to two molecules of water. There are three spectroscopically different copper centres found in multicopper oxidases: type 1 (or blue), type 2 (or normal) and type 3 (or coupled binuclear). Multicopper oxidases consist of 2, 3 or 6 of these homologous domains, which also share homology to the cupredoxins azurin and plastocyanin. Structurally, these domains consist of a cupredoxin-like fold, a beta-sandwich consisting of 7 strands in 2 beta-sheets, arranged in a Greek-key beta-barrel. Multicopper oxidases include:
- Ceruloplasmin EC 22.214.171.124 (ferroxidase), a 6-domain enzyme found in the serum of mammals and birds that oxidizes different inorganic and organic substances; exhibits internal sequence homology that appears to have evolved from the triplication of a Cu-binding domain similar to that of laccase and ascorbate oxidase.
- Laccase EC 126.96.36.199 (urishiol oxidase), a 3-domain enzyme found in fungi and plants, which oxidizes different phenols and diamines. CueO is a laccase found in Escherichia coli that is involved in copper-resistance.
In addition to the above enzymes there are a number of other proteins that are similar to the multi-copper oxidases in terms of structure and sequence, some of which have lost the ability to bind copper. These include: copper resistance protein A (copA) from a plasmid in Pseudomonas syringae; domain A of (non-copper binding) blood coagulation factors V (Fa V) and VIII (Fa VIII); yeast Fet3p (FET3) required for ferrous iron uptake; yeast hypothetical protein YFL041w; and the fission yeast homologue SpAC1F7.08.
- Bento I, Martins LO, Gato Lopes G, ArmÃ©nia Carrondo M, Lindley PF (November 2005). "Dioxygen reduction by multi-copper oxidases; a structural perspective". Dalton Transactions (21): 3507–13. doi:10.1039/b504806k. PMID 16234932.
- Messerschmidt A, Huber R (January 1990). "The blue oxidases, ascorbate oxidase, laccase and ceruloplasmin. Modelling and structural relationships". Eur. J. Biochem. 187 (2): 341–52. doi:10.1111/j.1432-1033.1990.tb15311.x. PMID 2404764.
- Ouzounis C, Sander C (February 1991). "A structure-derived sequence pattern for the detection of type I copper binding domains in distantly related proteins". FEBS Lett. 279 (1): 73–8. doi:10.1016/0014-5793(91)80254-Z. PMID 1995346.
- Roberts SA, Weichsel A, Grass G, Thakali K, Hazzard JT, Tollin G, Rensing C, Montfort WR (March 2002). "Crystal structure and electron transfer kinetics of CueO, a multicopper oxidase required for copper homeostasis in Escherichia coli". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99 (5): 2766–71. doi:10.1073/pnas.052710499. PMC 122422. PMID 11867755.
- Nakamura K, Kawabata T, Yura K, Go N (October 2003). "Novel types of two-domain multi-copper oxidases: possible missing links in the evolution". FEBS Lett. 553 (3): 239–44. doi:10.1016/S0014-5793(03)01000-7. PMID 14572631.
- Suzuki S, Kataoka K, Yamaguchi K (October 2000). "Metal coordination and mechanism of multicopper nitrite reductase". Acc. Chem. Res. 33 (10): 728–35. doi:10.1021/ar9900257. PMID 11041837.
- Mann KG, Jenny RJ, Krishnaswamy S (1988). "Cofactor proteins in the assembly and expression of blood clotting enzyme complexes". Annu. Rev. Biochem. 57: 915–56. doi:10.1146/annurev.bi.57.070188.004411. PMID 3052293.
- Askwith C, Eide D, Van Ho A, Bernard PS, Li L, Davis-Kaplan S, Sipe DM, Kaplan J (January 1994). "The FET3 gene of S. cerevisiae encodes a multicopper oxidase required for ferrous iron uptake". Cell 76 (2): 403–10. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(94)90346-8. PMID 8293473.
This tab holds the annotation information that is stored in the Pfam database. As we move to using Wikipedia as our main source of annotation, the contents of this tab will be gradually replaced by the Wikipedia tab.
Multicopper oxidase Provide feedback
This entry contains many divergent copper oxidase-like domains that are not recognised by the PF00394 model.
Messerschmidt A, Ladenstein R, Huber R, Bolognesi M, Avigliano L, Petruzzelli R, Rossi A, Finazzi-Agro A; , J Mol Biol 1992;224:179-205.: Refined crystal structure of ascorbate oxidase at 1.9 A resolution. PUBMED:1548698 EPMC:1548698
Grossmann JG, Ingledew WJ, Harvey I, Strange RW, Hasnain SS; , Biochemistry 1995;34:8406-8414.: X-ray absorption studies and homology modeling define the structural features that specify the nature of the copper site in rusticyanin. PUBMED:7599131 EPMC:7599131
Internal database links
|Similarity to PfamA using HHSearch:||Cu-oxidase Cu-oxidase_3|
External database links
This tab holds annotation information from the InterPro database.
InterPro entry IPR011706
Copper is one of the most prevalent transition metals in living organisms and its biological function is intimately related to its redox properties. Since free copper is toxic, even at very low concentrations, its homeostasis in living organisms is tightly controlled by subtle molecular mechanisms. In eukaryotes, before being transported inside the cell via the high-affinity copper transporters of the CTR family, the copper (II) ion is reduced to copper (I). In blue copper proteins such as cupredoxin, the copper (I) ion form is stabilised by a constrained His2Cys coordination environment.
Multicopper oxidases oxidise their substrate by accepting electrons at a mononuclear copper centre and transferring them to a trinuclear copper centre; dioxygen binds to the trinuclear centre and, following the transfer of four electrons, is reduced to two molecules of water [PUBMED:16234932]. There are three spectroscopically different copper centres found in multicopper oxidases: type 1 (or blue), type 2 (or normal) and type 3 (or coupled binuclear) [PUBMED:2404764, PUBMED:1995346]. Multicopper oxidases consist of 2, 3 or 6 of these homologous domains, which also share homology to the cupredoxins azurin and plastocyanin. Structurally, these domains consist of a cupredoxin-like fold, a beta-sandwich consisting of 7 strands in 2 beta-sheets, arranged in a Greek-key beta-barrel [PUBMED:11867755]. Multicopper oxidases include:
- Ceruloplasmin (EC) (ferroxidase), a 6-domain enzyme found in the serum of mammals and birds that oxidizes different inorganic and organic substances; exhibits internal sequence homology that appears to have evolved from the triplication of a Cu-binding domain similar to that of laccase and ascorbate oxidase.
- Laccase (EC) (urishiol oxidase), a 3-domain enzyme found in fungi and plants, which oxidizes different phenols and diamines. CueO is a laccase found in Escherichia coli that is involved in copper-resistance [PUBMED:11867755].
- Ascorbate oxidase (EC), a 3-domain enzyme found in higher plants.
- Nitrite reductase (EC), a 2-domain enzyme containing type-1 and type-2 copper centres [PUBMED:14572631, PUBMED:11041837].
In addition to the above enzymes there are a number of other proteins that are similar to the multi-copper oxidases in terms of structure and sequence, some of which have lost the ability to bind copper. These include: copper resistance protein A (copA) from a plasmid in Pseudomonas syringae; domain A of (non-copper binding) blood coagulation factors V (Fa V) and VIII (Fa VIII) [PUBMED:3052293]; yeast FET3 required for ferrous iron uptake [PUBMED:8293473]; yeast hypothetical protein YFL041w; and the fission yeast homologue SpAC1F7.08.
This entry represents multicopper oxidase type 2 domains.
The mapping between Pfam and Gene Ontology is provided by InterPro. If you use this data please cite InterPro.
|Molecular function||copper ion binding (GO:0005507)|
|oxidoreductase activity (GO:0016491)|
|Biological process||oxidation-reduction process (GO:0055114)|
- the number of sequences which exhibit this architecture
a textual description of the architecture, e.g. Gla, EGF x 2, Trypsin.
This example describes an architecture with one
Gladomain, followed by two consecutive
EGFdomains, and finally a single
- the UniProt description of the protein sequence
- the number of residues in the sequence
- the Pfam graphic itself.
Loading domain graphics...
Many of the proteins in this family contain multiple similar copies of this plastocyanin-like domain.
The clan contains the following 9 members:Copper-bind COX2 Cu-oxidase Cu-oxidase_2 Cu-oxidase_3 Cu_bind_like Cupredoxin_1 Ephrin SoxE
We make a range of alignments for each Pfam-A family:
- the curated alignment from which the HMM for the family is built
- the alignment generated by searching the sequence database using the HMM
- Representative Proteomes (RPs) at 15%, 35%, 55% and 75% co-membership thresholds
- alignment generated by searching the NCBI sequence database using the family HMM
- alignment generated by searching the metagenomics sequence database using the family HMM
You can see the alignments as HTML or in three different sequence viewers:
- Pfam viewer
- an HTML-based viewer that uses DAS to retrieve alignment fragments on request
1Cannot generate PP/Heatmap alignments for seeds; no PP data available
Key: available, not generated, — not available.
Format an alignment
If you find these logos useful in your own work, please consider citing the following article:
Note: You can also download the data file for the tree.
Curation and family details
|Seed source:||PfamB-49 (Release 14.0)|
|Number in seed:||127|
|Number in full:||6906|
|Average length of the domain:||134.00 aa|
|Average identity of full alignment:||20 %|
|Average coverage of the sequence by the domain:||24.40 %|
|HMM build commands:||
build method: hmmbuild -o /dev/null HMM SEED
search method: hmmsearch -Z 23193494 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq
|Family (HMM) version:||9|
|Download:||download the raw HMM for this family|
Weight segments by...
Change the size of the sunburst
selected sequences to HMM
a FASTA-format file
- 0 sequences
- 0 species
How the sunburst is generated
Colouring and labels
Anomalies in the taxonomy tree
Missing taxonomic levels
Unmapped species names
Too many species/sequences
The tree shows the occurrence of this domain across different species. More...
You can use the tree controls to manipulate how the interactive tree is displayed:
- show/hide the summary boxes
- highlight species that are represented in the seed alignment
- expand/collapse the tree or expand it to a given depth
- select a sub-tree or a set of species within the tree and view them graphically or as an alignment
- save a plain text representation of the tree
There are 2 interactions for this family. More...
We determine these interactions using iPfam, which considers the interactions between residues in three-dimensional protein structures and maps those interactions back to Pfam families. You can find more information about the iPfam algorithm in the journal article that accompanies the website.
For those sequences which have a structure in the Protein DataBank, we use the mapping between UniProt, PDB and Pfam coordinate systems from the PDBe group, to allow us to map Pfam domains onto UniProt sequences and three-dimensional protein structures. The table below shows the structures on which the Cu-oxidase_2 domain has been found. There are 150 instances of this domain found in the PDB. Note that there may be multiple copies of the domain in a single PDB structure, since many structures contain multiple copies of the same protein seqence.
Loading structure mapping...