Powering down the Pfam website
On October 5th, we will start redirecting the traffic from Pfam (pfam.xfam.org) to InterPro (www.ebi.ac.uk/interpro). The Pfam website will be available at pfam-legacy.xfam.org until January 2023, when it will be decommissioned. You can read more about the sunset period in our blog post.

Please note: this site relies heavily on the use of javascript. Without a javascript-enabled browser, this site will not function correctly. Please enable javascript and reload the page, or switch to a different browser.
0  structures 0  species 0  interactions 0  sequences 0  architectures

Family: Toxin_17 (PF08086)

Summary: Ergtoxin family

Pfam includes annotations and additional family information from a range of different sources. These sources can be accessed via the tabs below.

The Pfam group coordinates the annotation of Pfam families in Wikipedia, but we have not yet assigned a Wikipedia article to this family. If you think that a particular Wikipedia article provides good annotation, please let us know.

This tab holds the annotation information that is stored in the Pfam database. As we move to using Wikipedia as our main source of annotation, the contents of this tab will be gradually replaced by the Wikipedia tab.

Ergtoxin family Provide feedback

This family consists of ergtoxin peptides which are toxins secreted by the scorpions. The ergtoxins are capable of blocking the function of K+ channels. More than 100 ergtoxins have been found from scorpion venoms and they have been classified into three subfamilies according to their primary structures [1].

Literature references

  1. Frenal K, Xu CQ, Wolff N, Wecker K, Gurrola GB, Zhu SY, Chi CW, Possani LD, Tytgat J, Delepierre M; , Proteins 2004;56:367-375.: Exploring structural features of the interaction between the scorpion toxinCnErg1 and ERG K+ channels. PUBMED:15211519 EPMC:15211519

This tab holds annotation information from the InterPro database.

InterPro entry IPR012622

The Ergtoxin (ErgTx) family is a class of peptides from scorpion venom that specifically block ERG (ether-a-go-go-related gene) K+ channels of the nerve, heart and endocrine cells [ PUBMED:11023354 , PUBMED:12650941 , PUBMED:12459475 ].

Peptides of the ErgTx family have from 42 to 47 amino acid residues cross-linked by four disulphide bridges. The four disulphide bridges have been assigned as C1-C4, C2-C6, C3-C7 and C5-C8 (see the schematic representation below) [ PUBMED:11023354 ]. ErgTxs consist of a triple-stranded beta-sheet and an alpha-helix, as is typical of K+ channel scorpion toxins. There is a large hydrophobic patch on the surface of the toxin, surrounding a central lysine residue located near the beta-hairpin loop between the second and third strands of the beta-sheet. It has been postulated that this hydrophobic patch is likely to form part of the binding surface of the toxin [ PUBMED:12650941 ]. Peptides of the ErgTx family possess a Knottin scaffold (see https://www.dsimb.inserm.fr/KNOTTIN/).

Some proteins known to belong to the ErgTx family are listed below:

  • ErgTx1, ErgTx2 and ErgTx3 from Centruroides elegans (Bark scorpion).
  • ErgTx1, ErgTx2, ErgTx3 and ErgTx4 from Centruroides exilicauda (Bark scorpion).
  • ErgTx1, ErgTx2 and ErgTx3 from Centruroides gracilis (Slenderbrown scorpion) (Florida bark scorpion).
  • ErgTx1, ErgTx2, ErgTx3 and ErgTx4 from Centruroides limpidus limpidus (Mexican scorpion).
  • ErgTx1, ErgTx2, ErgTx3, ErgTx4, ErgTx5 and gamma-KTx 4.12 from Centruroides sculpturatus (Bark scorpion).
  • ErgTx, ErgTx2, ErgTx3, ErgTx4 and ErgTx5 from Centruroides noxius (Mexican scorpion).

Gene Ontology

The mapping between Pfam and Gene Ontology is provided by InterPro. If you use this data please cite InterPro.

Domain organisation

Below is a listing of the unique domain organisations or architectures in which this domain is found. More...

Loading domain graphics...

Pfam Clan

This family is a member of clan Knottin_1 (CL0054), which has the following description:

This clan includes a number of toxin families that share the knottin structure. These families come from scorpions, plants and arthropods.

The clan contains the following 15 members:

BmKX Defensin_2 Defensin_5 Defensin_like Gamma-thionin Macin SCRL SLR1-BP Toxin_17 Toxin_2 Toxin_3 Toxin_37 Toxin_38 Toxin_5 Toxin_6


We store a range of different sequence alignments for families. As well as the seed alignment from which the family is built, we provide the full alignment, generated by searching the sequence database (reference proteomes) using the family HMM. We also generate alignments using four representative proteomes (RP) sets and the UniProtKB sequence database. More...

View options

We make a range of alignments for each Pfam-A family. You can see a description of each above. You can view these alignments in various ways but please note that some types of alignment are never generated while others may not be available for all families, most commonly because the alignments are too large to handle.

Representative proteomes UniProt
Jalview View            View 
HTML View             
PP/heatmap 1            

1Cannot generate PP/Heatmap alignments for seeds; no PP data available

Key: ✓ available, x not generated, not available.

Format an alignment

Representative proteomes UniProt

Download options

We make all of our alignments available in Stockholm format. You can download them here as raw, plain text files or as gzip-compressed files.

Representative proteomes UniProt
Raw Stockholm Download             Download  
Gzipped Download             Download  

You can also download a FASTA format file containing the full-length sequences for all sequences in the full alignment.

HMM logo

HMM logos is one way of visualising profile HMMs. Logos provide a quick overview of the properties of an HMM in a graphical form. You can see a more detailed description of HMM logos and find out how you can interpret them here. More...


This page displays the phylogenetic tree for this family's seed alignment. We use FastTree to calculate neighbour join trees with a local bootstrap based on 100 resamples (shown next to the tree nodes). FastTree calculates approximately-maximum-likelihood phylogenetic trees from our seed alignment.

Note: You can also download the data file for the tree.

Curation and family details

This section shows the detailed information about the Pfam family. You can see the definitions of many of the terms in this section in the glossary and a fuller explanation of the scoring system that we use in the scores section of the help pages.

Curation View help on the curation process

Seed source: Short protein clustering
Previous IDs: Toxin_17; Toxin_17_;
Type: Domain
Sequence Ontology: SO:0000417
Author: Lee SC
Number in seed: 4
Number in full: 0
Average length of the domain: 0 aa
Average identity of full alignment: 0 %
Average coverage of the sequence by the domain: 0 %

HMM information View help on HMM parameters

HMM build commands:
build method: hmmbuild -o /dev/null HMM SEED
search method: hmmsearch -Z 61295632 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq
Model details:
Parameter Sequence Domain
Gathering cut-off 25.0 25.0
Trusted cut-off 83.1 83.0
Noise cut-off 23.3 21.8
Model length: 41
Family (HMM) version: 14
Download: download the raw HMM for this family

Species distribution

Sunburst controls


Weight segments by...

Change the size of the sunburst


Colour assignments

Archea Archea Eukaryota Eukaryota
Bacteria Bacteria Other sequences Other sequences
Viruses Viruses Unclassified Unclassified
Viroids Viroids Unclassified sequence Unclassified sequence


Generate a FASTA-format file

Clear selection

This visualisation provides a simple graphical representation of the distribution of this family across species. You can find the original interactive tree in the adjacent tab. More...

Loading sunburst data...

Tree controls


The tree shows the occurrence of this domain across different species. More...


Please note: for large trees this can take some time. While the tree is loading, you can safely switch away from this tab but if you browse away from the family page entirely, the tree will not be loaded.

trRosetta Structure

The structural model below was generated by the Baker group with the trRosetta software using the Pfam UniProt multiple sequence alignment.

The InterPro website shows the contact map for the Pfam SEED alignment. Hovering or clicking on a contact position will highlight its connection to other residues in the alignment, as well as on the 3D structure.

Improved protein structure prediction using predicted inter-residue orientations. Jianyi Yang, Ivan Anishchenko, Hahnbeom Park, Zhenling Peng, Sergey Ovchinnikov, David Baker Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Jan 2020, 117 (3) 1496-1503; DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1914677117;