Summary: IRSp53/MIM homology domain
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|IRSp53/MIM homology domain|
crystal structure of rcb domain of irsp53
In molecular biology, the IMD domain (IRSp53 and MIM (missing in metastases) homology Domain) is a BAR-like domain of approximately 250 amino acids found at the N-terminus in the insulin receptor tyrosine kinase substrate p53 (IRSp53/BAIAP2) and in the evolutionarily related IRSp53/MIM (MTSS1) family. In IRSp53, a ubiquitous regulator of the actin cytoskeleton, the IMD domain acts as conserved F-actin bundling domain involved in filopodium formation. Filopodium-inducing IMD activity is regulated by Cdc42 and Rac1 (Rho-family GTPases) and is SH3-independent. The IRSp53/MIM family is a novel F-actin bundling protein family that includes invertebrate relatives:
- Vertebrate MIM (missing in metastasis) (MTSS1), an actin-binding scaffold protein that may be involved in cancer metastasis.
- Vertebrate ABBA-1 (MTSS1L), a MIM-related protein.
- Vertebrate brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor 1-associated protein 2 (BAI1-associated protein 2) or insulin receptor tyrosine kinase substrate p53 (IRSp53), a multifunctional adaptor protein that links Rac1 with a Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome family verprolin-homologous protein 2 (WAVE2/WASF2) to induce lamellipodia or Cdc42 with Mena to induce filopodia.
- Vertebrate brain-specific angiogenesis nhibitor 1-associated protein 2-like proteins 1 and 2 (BAI1-associated protein 2-like proteins 1 and 2, BAIAP2L1 and BAIAP2L2).
- Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) CG32082-PA.
- Caenorhabditis elegans M04F3.5 protein.
The vertebrate IRSp53/MIM family is divided into two major groups: the IRSp53 subfamily and the MIM/ABBA subfamily. The putative invertebrate homologues are positioned between them. The IRSp53 subfamily members contain an SH3 domain, and the MIM/ABBA subfamily proteins contain a WH2 (WASP-homology 2) domain. The vertebrate SH3-containing subfamily is further divided into three groups according to the presence or absence of the WWB and the half-CRIB motif. The IMD domain can bind to and bundle actin filaments, bind to membranes and interact with the small GTPase Rac.
The IMD domain folds as a coiled coil of three extended alpha-helices and a shorter C-terminal helix. Helix 4 packs tightly against the other three helices, and thus represents an integral part of the domain. The fold of the IMD domain closely resembles that of the BAR (Bin-Amphiphysin-RVS) domain, a functional module serving both as a sensor and inducer of membrane curvature. The WH2 domain performs a scaffolding function.
- Yamagishi A, Masuda M, Ohki T, Onishi H, Mochizuki N (April 2004). "A novel actin bundling/filopodium-forming domain conserved in insulin receptor tyrosine kinase substrate p53 and missing in metastasis protein". J. Biol. Chem. 279 (15): 14929–36. doi:10.1074/jbc.M309408200. PMID 14752106.
- Millard TH, Dawson J, Machesky LM (May 2007). "Characterisation of IRTKS, a novel IRSp53/MIM family actin regulator with distinct filament bundling properties". J. Cell. Sci. 120 (Pt 9): 1663–72. doi:10.1242/jcs.001776. PMID 17430976.
- Millard TH, Bompard G, Heung MY, Dafforn TR, Scott DJ, Machesky LM, Fütterer K (January 2005). "Structural basis of filopodia formation induced by the IRSp53/MIM homology domain of human IRSp53". EMBO J. 24 (2): 240–50. doi:10.1038/sj.emboj.7600535. PMC . PMID 15635447.
- Koh JT, Kook H, Kee HJ, Seo YW, Jeong BC, Lee JH, Kim MY, Yoon KC, Jung S, Kim KK (March 2004). "Extracellular fragment of brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor 1 suppresses endothelial cell proliferation by blocking alphavbeta5 integrin". Exp. Cell Res. 294 (1): 172–84. doi:10.1016/j.yexcr.2003.11.008. PMID 14980512.
- Machesky LM, Johnston SA (June 2007). "MIM: a multifunctional scaffold protein". J. Mol. Med. 85 (6): 569–76. doi:10.1007/s00109-007-0207-0. PMID 17497115.
- Lee SH, Kerff F, Chereau D, Ferron F, Klug A, Dominguez R (February 2007). "Structural basis for the actin-binding function of missing-in-metastasis". Structure. 15 (2): 145–55. doi:10.1016/j.str.2006.12.005. PMC . PMID 17292833.
This tab holds the annotation information that is stored in the Pfam database. As we move to using Wikipedia as our main source of annotation, the contents of this tab will be gradually replaced by the Wikipedia tab.
IRSp53/MIM homology domain Provide feedback
The N-terminal predicted helical stretch of the insulin receptor tyrosine kinase substrate p53 (IRSp53) is an evolutionary conserved F-actin bundling domain involved in filopodium formation. The domain has been named IMD after the IRSp53 and missing in metastasis (MIM) proteins in which it occurs. Filopodium-inducing IMD activity is regulated by Cdc42 and Rac1 and is SH3-independent .
Yamagishi A, Masuda M, Ohki T, Onishi H, Mochizuki N; , J Biol Chem 2004;279:14929-14936.: A novel actin bundling/filopodium-forming domain conserved in insulin receptor tyrosine kinase substrate p53 and missing in metastasis protein. PUBMED:14752106 EPMC:14752106
This tab holds annotation information from the InterPro database.
InterPro entry IPR013606
The I-BAR domain (also known as IMD domain, IRSp53 and MIM homology domain) is a BAR-like domain of approximately 250 amino acids found at the N-terminal in the IRSp53 (insulin receptor tyrosine kinase substrate p53) and in the evolutionarily related IRSp53/MIM family. The BAR domain forms an anti-parallel all-helical dimer, with a curved (banana-like) shape, that promotes membrane tubulation. The BAR domain containing proteins can be classified into three types: BAR, F-BAR and I-BAR. BAR and F-BAR proteins generate positive membrane curvature, while I-BAR proteins induce negative curvature [PUBMED:21743456, PUBMED:21093245]. The I-BAR domain containing proteins include:
- Vertebrate MIM (missing in metastasis), an actin-binding scaffold protein that may be involved in cancer metastasis.
- Vertebrate ABBA, a MIM-related protein.
- Vertebrate insulin receptor tyrosine kinase substrate p53 (IRSp53), a multifunctional adaptor protein that links Rac1 with a Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome family verprolin-homologous protein 2 (WAVE2) to induce lamellipodia or Cdc42 with Mena to induce filopodia [PUBMED:14980512].
- Vertebrate IRTKS.
- Vertebrate Pinkbar.
- Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) CG32082-PA.
- Caenorhabditis elegans M04F3.5 protein.
The vertebrate I-BAR family is divided into two major groups: the IRSp53/IRTKS/Pinkbar subfamily and the MIM/ABBA subfamily. The putative invertebrate homologues are positioned between them. The IRSp53/IRTKS/Pinkbar subfamily members contain a SH3 domain, and the MIM/ABBA subfamily proteins contain a WH2 (WASP-homology 2) domain. The vertebrate SH3-containing subfamily is further divided into three groups according to the presence or absence of the WWB and the half-CRIB motif [PUBMED:14752106, PUBMED:17497115]. The BAR domain binds phosphoinositide-rich vesicles with high affinity and does not display strong actin filament binding/bundling activity [PUBMED:21093245, PUBMED:17371834].
The mapping between Pfam and Gene Ontology is provided by InterPro. If you use this data please cite InterPro.
|Biological process||plasma membrane organization (GO:0007009)|
Below is a listing of the unique domain organisations or architectures in which this domain is found. More...
The graphic that is shown by default represents the longest sequence with a given architecture. Each row contains the following information:
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a textual description of the architecture, e.g. Gla, EGF x 2, Trypsin.
This example describes an architecture with one
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This clan contains families that are involved in intracellular transport and signalling. Arfaptins are proteins which interact with small GTPases involved in vesicular budding at the Golgi complex. They form an elongated dimer of three helix coiled coils and are structurally very similar to the BAR domain . The Sec34 family is involved in tethering vesicles to the Golgi .
The clan contains the following 9 members:Arfaptin BAR BAR_2 BAR_3 BAR_3_WASP_bdg FAM92 FCH IMD Vps5
We store a range of different sequence alignments for families. As well as the seed alignment from which the family is built, we provide the full alignment, generated by searching the sequence database (reference proteomes) using the family HMM. We also generate alignments using four representative proteomes (RP) sets, the UniProtKB sequence database, the NCBI sequence database, and our metagenomics sequence database. More...
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We make a range of alignments for each Pfam-A family:
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We make a range of alignments for each Pfam-A family. You can see a description of each above. You can view these alignments in various ways but please note that some types of alignment are never generated while others may not be available for all families, most commonly because the alignments are too large to handle.
1Cannot generate PP/Heatmap alignments for seeds; no PP data available
Key: available, not generated, — not available.
Format an alignment
We make all of our alignments available in Stockholm format. You can download them here as raw, plain text files or as gzip-compressed files.
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This page displays the phylogenetic tree for this family's seed alignment. We use FastTree to calculate neighbour join trees with a local bootstrap based on 100 resamples (shown next to the tree nodes). FastTree calculates approximately-maximum-likelihood phylogenetic trees from our seed alignment.
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Curation and family details
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|Seed source:||Pfam-B_4120 (release 18.0)|
|Number in seed:||5|
|Number in full:||748|
|Average length of the domain:||184.40 aa|
|Average identity of full alignment:||31 %|
|Average coverage of the sequence by the domain:||30.40 %|
|HMM build commands:||
build method: hmmbuild -o /dev/null HMM SEED
search method: hmmsearch -Z 17690987 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq
|Family (HMM) version:||9|
|Download:||download the raw HMM for this family|
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This visualisation provides a simple graphical representation of the distribution of this family across species. You can find the original interactive tree in the More....
This chart is a modified "sunburst" visualisation of the species tree for this family. It shows each node in the tree as a separate arc, arranged radially with the superkingdoms at the centre and the species arrayed around the outermost ring.
How the sunburst is generated
The tree is built by considering the taxonomic lineage of each sequence that has a match to this family. For each node in the resulting tree, we draw an arc in the sunburst. The radius of the arc, its distance from the root node at the centre of the sunburst, shows the taxonomic level ("superkingdom", "kingdom", etc). The length of the arc represents either the number of sequences represented at a given level, or the number of species that are found beneath the node in the tree. The weighting scheme can be changed using the sunburst controls.
In order to reduce the complexity of the representation, we reduce the number of taxonomic levels that we show. We consider only the following eight major taxonomic levels:
Colouring and labels
Segments of the tree are coloured approximately according to their superkingdom. For example, archeal branches are coloured with shades of orange, eukaryotes in shades of purple, etc. The colour assignments are shown under the sunburst controls. Where space allows, the name of the taxonomic level will be written on the arc itself.
As you move your mouse across the sunburst, the current node will be highlighted. In the top section of the controls panel we show a summary of the lineage of the currently highlighed node. If you pause over an arc, a tooltip will be shown, giving the name of the taxonomic level in the title and a summary of the number of sequences and species below that node in the tree.
Anomalies in the taxonomy tree
There are some situations that the sunburst tree cannot easily handle and for which we have work-arounds in place.
Missing taxonomic levels
Some species in the taxonomic tree may not have one or more of the main eight levels that we display. For example, Bos taurus is not assigned an order in the NCBI taxonomic tree. In such cases we mark the omitted level with, for example, "No order", in both the tooltip and the lineage summary.
Unmapped species names
The tree is built by looking at each sequence in the full alignment for the family. We take the name of the species given by UniProt and try to map that to the full taxonomic tree from NCBI. In some cases, the name chosen by UniProt does not map to any node in the NCBI tree, perhaps because the chosen name is listed as a synonym or a misspelling in the NCBI taxonomy.
So that these nodes are not simply omitted from the sunburst tree, we group them together in a separate branch (or segment of the sunburst tree). Since we cannot determine the lineage for these unmapped species, we show all levels between the superkingdom and the species as "uncategorised".
Since we reduce the species tree to only the eight main taxonomic levels, sequences that are mapped to the sub-species level in the tree would not normally be shown. Rather than leave out these species, we map them instead to their parent species. So, for example, for sequences belonging to one of the Vibrio cholerae sub-species in the NCBI taxonomy, we show them instead as belonging to the species Vibrio cholerae.
Too many species/sequences
For large species trees, you may see blank regions in the outer layers of the sunburst. These occur when there are large numbers of arcs to be drawn in a small space. If an arc is less than approximately one pixel wide, it will not be drawn and the space will be left blank. You may still be able to get some information about the species in that region by moving your mouse across the area, but since each arc will be very small, it will be difficult to accurately locate a particular species.
The tree shows the occurrence of this domain across different species. More...
We show the species tree in one of two ways. For smaller trees we try to show an interactive representation, which allows you to select specific nodes in the tree and view them as an alignment or as a set of Pfam domain graphics.
Unfortunately we have found that there are problems viewing the interactive tree when the it becomes larger than a certain limit. Furthermore, we have found that Internet Explorer can become unresponsive when viewing some trees, regardless of their size. We therefore show a text representation of the species tree when the size is above a certain limit or if you are using Internet Explorer to view the site.
If you are using IE you can still load the interactive tree by clicking the "Generate interactive tree" button, but please be aware of the potential problems that the interactive species tree can cause.
For all of the domain matches in a full alignment, we count the number that are found on all sequences in the alignment. This total is shown in the purple box.
We also count the number of unique sequences on which each domain is found, which is shown in green. Note that a domain may appear multiple times on the same sequence, leading to the difference between these two numbers.
Finally, we group sequences from the same organism according to the NCBI code that is assigned by UniProt, allowing us to count the number of distinct sequences on which the domain is found. This value is shown in the pink boxes.
We use the NCBI species tree to group organisms according to their taxonomy and this forms the structure of the displayed tree. Note that in some cases the trees are too large (have too many nodes) to allow us to build an interactive tree, but in most cases you can still view the tree in a plain text, non-interactive representation. Those species which are represented in the seed alignment for this domain are highlighted.
You can use the tree controls to manipulate how the interactive tree is displayed:
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There are 2 interactions for this family. More...
We determine these interactions using iPfam, which considers the interactions between residues in three-dimensional protein structures and maps those interactions back to Pfam families. You can find more information about the iPfam algorithm in the journal article that accompanies the website.
For those sequences which have a structure in the Protein DataBank, we use the mapping between UniProt, PDB and Pfam coordinate systems from the PDBe group, to allow us to map Pfam domains onto UniProt sequences and three-dimensional protein structures. The table below shows the structures on which the IMD domain has been found. There are 13 instances of this domain found in the PDB. Note that there may be multiple copies of the domain in a single PDB structure, since many structures contain multiple copies of the same protein seqence.
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