Summary: Cathepsin C exclusion domain
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Cathepsin C Edit Wikipedia article
PDB rendering based on 1k3b.
|Symbols||; CPPI; DPP-I; DPP1; DPPI; HMS; JP; JPD; PALS; PDON1; PLS|
|External IDs||ChEMBL: GeneCards:|
|RNA expression pattern|
|Cathepsin C exclusion domain|
re-determination of the native structure of human dipeptidyl peptidase i (cathepsin c)
Cathepsin C appears to be a central coordinator for activation of many serine proteases in immune/inflammatory cells.
Cathepsin C catalyses excision of dipeptides from the N-terminus of protein and peptide substrates, except if (i) the amino group of the N-terminus is blocked, (ii) the site of cleavage is on either side of a proline residue, (iii) the N-terminal residue is lysine or arginine, or (iv) the structure of the peptide or protein prevents further digestion from the N-terminus.
The cDNAs encoding rat, human, murine, bovine, dog and two Schistosome cathepsin Cs have been cloned and sequenced and show that the enzyme is highly conserved. The human and rat cathepsin C cDNAs encode precursors (prepro-cathepsin C) comprising signal peptides of 24 residues, pro-regions of 205 (rat cathepsin C) or 206 (human cathepsin C) residues and catalytic domains of 233 residues which contain the catalytic residues and are 30-40% identical to the mature amino acid sequences of papain and a number of other cathepsins including cathepsins, B, H, K, L, and S.
The translated prepro-cathepsin C is processed into the mature form by at least four cleavages of the polypeptide chain. The signal peptide is removed during translocation or secretion of the pro-enzyme (pro-cathepsin C) and a large N-terminal proregion fragment (also known as the exclusion domain), which is retained in the mature enzyme, is separated from the catalytic domain by excision of a minor C-terminal part of the pro-region, called the activation peptide. A heavy chain of about 164 residues and a light chain of about 69 residues are generated by cleavage of the catalytic domain.
Unlike the other members of the papain family, mature cathepsin C consists of four subunits, each composed of the N-terminal proregion fragment, the heavy chain and the light chain. Both the pro-region fragment and the heavy chain are glycosylated.
Cathepsin C functions as a key enzyme in the activation of granule serine peptidases in inflammatory cells, such as elastase and cathepsin G in neutrophils cells and chymase and tryptase in mast cells. In many inflammatory diseases, such as Rheumatoid Arthritis, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), Inflammatory Bowel Disease, Asthma, Sepsis and Cystic Fibrosis, a significant part of the pathogenesis is caused by increased activity of some of these inflammatory proteases. Once activated by cathepsin C, the proteases are capable of degrading various extracellular matrix components, which can lead to tissue damage and chronic inflammation.
- "Entrez Gene: CTSC cathepsin C".
- Paris A, Strukelj B, Pungercar J, Renko M, Dolenc I, Turk V (August 1995). "Molecular cloning and sequence analysis of human preprocathepsin C". FEBS Letters 369 (2–3): 326–30. doi:10.1016/0014-5793(95)00777-7. PMID 7649281.
- Hola-Jamriska L, Tort JF, Dalton JP, Day SR, Fan J, Aaskov J, Brindley PJ (August 1998). "Cathepsin C from Schistosoma japonicum--cDNA encoding the preproenzyme and its phylogenetic relationships". European Journal of Biochemistry / FEBS 255 (3): 527–34. doi:10.1046/j.1432-1327.1998.2550527.x. PMID 9738890.
- Kominami E, Ishido K, Muno D, Sato N (July 1992). "The primary structure and tissue distribution of cathepsin C". Biological Chemistry Hoppe-Seyler 373 (7): 367–73. doi:10.1515/bchm3.1992.373.2.367. PMID 1515062.
- Turk, D.; Janjić, V.; Stern, I.; Podobnik, M.; Lamba, D.; Dahl, S. W.; Lauritzen, C.; Pedersen, J.; Turk, V.; Turk, B. (2001). "Structure of human dipeptidyl peptidase I (cathepsin C): Exclusion domain added to an endopeptidase framework creates the machine for activation of granular serine proteases". The EMBO Journal 20 (23): 6570–6582. doi:10.1093/emboj/20.23.6570. PMC 125750. PMID 11726493.
- Wani AA, Devkar N, Patole MS, Shouche YS (2006). "Description of two new cathepsin C gene mutations in patients with Papillon-Lefèvre syndrome". J. Periodontol. 77 (2): 233–7. doi:10.1902/jop.2006.050124. PMID 16460249.
- Meade JL, de Wynter EA, Brett P, Sharif SM, Woods CG, Markham AF, Cook GP (2006). "A family with Papillon-Lefevre syndrome reveals a requirement for cathepsin C in granzyme B activation and NK cell cytolytic activity". Blood 107 (9): 3665–3668. doi:10.1182/blood-2005-03-1140. PMID 16410452.
- McGuire MJ, Lipsky PE, Thiele DL (1992). "Purification and characterization of dipeptidyl peptidase I from human spleen". Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 295 (2): 280–8. doi:10.1016/0003-9861(92)90519-3. PMID 1586157.
- Paris A, Strukelj B, Pungercar J, et al. (1995). "Molecular cloning and sequence analysis of human preprocathepsin C". FEBS Lett. 369 (2–3): 326–30. doi:10.1016/0014-5793(95)00777-7. PMID 7649281.
- Dolenc I, Turk B, Pungercic G, et al. (1995). "Oligomeric structure and substrate induced inhibition of human cathepsin C". J. Biol. Chem. 270 (37): 21626–31. doi:10.1074/jbc.270.37.21626. PMID 7665576.
- Maruyama K, Sugano S (1994). "Oligo-capping: a simple method to replace the cap structure of eukaryotic mRNAs with oligoribonucleotides". Gene 138 (1–2): 171–4. doi:10.1016/0378-1119(94)90802-8. PMID 8125298.
- Rao NV, Rao GV, Hoidal JR (1997). "Human dipeptidyl-peptidase I. Gene characterization, localization, and expression". J. Biol. Chem. 272 (15): 10260–5. doi:10.1074/jbc.272.15.10260. PMID 9092576.
- Fischer J, Blanchet-Bardon C, Prud'homme JF, et al. (1997). "Mapping of Papillon-Lefevre syndrome to the chromosome 11q14 region". Eur. J. Hum. Genet. 5 (3): 156–60. PMID 9272739.
- Suzuki Y, Yoshitomo-Nakagawa K, Maruyama K, et al. (1997). "Construction and characterization of a full length-enriched and a 5'-end-enriched cDNA library". Gene 200 (1–2): 149–56. doi:10.1016/S0378-1119(97)00411-3. PMID 9373149.
- Cigić B, Krizaj I, Kralj B, et al. (1998). "Stoichiometry and heterogeneity of the pro-region chain in tetrameric human cathepsin C". Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1382 (1): 143–50. doi:10.1016/S0167-4838(97)00173-8. PMID 9507095.
- Toomes C, James J, Wood AJ, et al. (1999). "Loss-of-function mutations in the cathepsin C gene result in periodontal disease and palmoplantar keratosis". Nat. Genet. 23 (4): 421–4. doi:10.1038/70525. PMID 10581027.
- Hart TC, Hart PS, Bowden DW, et al. (2000). "Mutations of the cathepsin C gene are responsible for Papillon-Lefèvre syndrome". J. Med. Genet. 36 (12): 881–7. doi:10.1136/jmg.36.12.881. PMC 1734286. PMID 10593994.
- Hart TC, Hart PS, Michalec MD, et al. (2000). "Haim-Munk syndrome and Papillon-Lefèvre syndrome are allelic mutations in cathepsin C". J. Med. Genet. 37 (2): 88–94. doi:10.1136/jmg.37.2.88. PMC 1734521. PMID 10662807.
- Hart TC, Hart PS, Michalec MD, et al. (2000). "Localisation of a gene for prepubertal periodontitis to chromosome 11q14 and identification of a cathepsin C gene mutation". J. Med. Genet. 37 (2): 95–101. doi:10.1136/jmg.37.2.95. PMC 1734516. PMID 10662808.
- Suzuki Y, Ishihara D, Sasaki M, et al. (2000). "Statistical analysis of the 5' untranslated region of human mRNA using "Oligo-Capped" cDNA libraries". Genomics 64 (3): 286–97. doi:10.1006/geno.2000.6076. PMID 10756096.
- Cigić B, Dahl SW, Pain RH (2000). "The residual pro-part of cathepsin C fulfills the criteria required for an intramolecular chaperone in folding and stabilizing the human proenzyme". Biochemistry 39 (40): 12382–90. doi:10.1021/bi0008837. PMID 11015218.
- Hartley JL, Temple GF, Brasch MA (2001). "DNA cloning using in vitro site-specific recombination". Genome Res. 10 (11): 1788–1795. doi:10.1101/gr.143000. PMC 310948. PMID 11076863.
- Hart PS, Zhang Y, Firatli E, et al. (2001). "Identification of cathepsin C mutations in ethnically diverse papillon-Lefèvre syndrome patients". J. Med. Genet. 37 (12): 927–32. doi:10.1136/jmg.37.12.927. PMC 1734492. PMID 11106356.
- Zhang Y, Lundgren T, Renvert S, et al. (2001). "Evidence of a founder effect for four cathepsin C gene mutations in Papillon-Lefèvre syndrome patients". J. Med. Genet. 38 (2): 96–101. doi:10.1136/jmg.38.2.96. PMC 1734811. PMID 11158173.
- Nakano A, Nomura K, Nakano H, et al. (2001). "Papillon-Lefèvre syndrome: mutations and polymorphisms in the cathepsin C gene". J. Invest. Dermatol. 116 (2): 339–43. doi:10.1046/j.1523-1747.2001.01244.x. PMID 11180012.
- Allende LM, García-Pérez MA, Moreno A, et al. (2001). "Cathepsin C gene: First compound heterozygous patient with Papillon-Lefèvre syndrome and a novel symptomless mutation". Hum. Mutat. 17 (2): 152–3. doi:10.1002/1098-1004(200102)17:2<152::AID-HUMU10>3.0.CO;2-#. PMID 11180601.
- Wiemann S, Weil B, Wellenreuther R, et al. (2001). "Toward a catalog of human genes and proteins: sequencing and analysis of 500 novel complete protein coding human cDNAs". Genome Res. 11 (3): 422–35. doi:10.1101/gr.GR1547R. PMC 311072. PMID 11230166.
- The MEROPS online database for peptidases and their inhibitors: C01.070
- Cathepsin C at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH)
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Cathepsin C exclusion domain Provide feedback
Cathepsin C (dipeptidyl peptidase I) is the physiological activator of a group of serine proteases. This domain corresponds to the exclusion domain whose structure excludes the approach of a polypeptide apart from its termini. It forms an enclosed beta barrel structure composed from 8 anti-parallel beta strands . Based on a structural comparison and interaction data, it is suggested that the exclusion domain originates from a metallo-protease inhibitor .
Turk D, Janjic V, Stern I, Podobnik M, Lamba D, Dahl SW, Lauritzen C, Pedersen J, Turk V, Turk B; , EMBO J. 2001;20:6570-6582.: Structure of human dipeptidyl peptidase I (cathepsin C): exclusion domain added to an endopeptidase framework creates the machine for activation of granular serine proteases. PUBMED:11726493 EPMC:11726493
External database links
This tab holds annotation information from the InterPro database.
InterPro entry IPR014882
Cathepsin C (dipeptidyl peptidase I) is the physiological activator of a group of serine proteases. This protein corresponds to the exclusion domain whose structure excludes the approach of a polypeptide apart from its termini. It forms an enclosed beta barrel structure composed from 8 anti-parallel beta strands [PUBMED:11726493]. Based on a structural comparison and interaction data, it is suggested that the exclusion domain originates from a metallo-protease inhibitor [PUBMED:11726493].
Below is a listing of the unique domain organisations or architectures in which this domain is found. More...
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1Cannot generate PP/Heatmap alignments for seeds; no PP data available
Key: available, not generated, — not available.
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|Number in seed:||10|
|Number in full:||167|
|Average length of the domain:||106.90 aa|
|Average identity of full alignment:||39 %|
|Average coverage of the sequence by the domain:||23.58 %|
|HMM build commands:||
build method: hmmbuild -o /dev/null HMM SEED
search method: hmmsearch -Z 23193494 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq
|Family (HMM) version:||6|
|Download:||download the raw HMM for this family|
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This visualisation provides a simple graphical representation of the distribution of this family across species. You can find the original interactive tree in the More....
This chart is a modified "sunburst" visualisation of the species tree for this family. It shows each node in the tree as a separate arc, arranged radially with the superkingdoms at the centre and the species arrayed around the outermost ring.
How the sunburst is generated
The tree is built by considering the taxonomic lineage of each sequence that has a match to this family. For each node in the resulting tree, we draw an arc in the sunburst. The radius of the arc, its distance from the root node at the centre of the sunburst, shows the taxonomic level ("superkingdom", "kingdom", etc). The length of the arc represents either the number of sequences represented at a given level, or the number of species that are found beneath the node in the tree. The weighting scheme can be changed using the sunburst controls.
In order to reduce the complexity of the representation, we reduce the number of taxonomic levels that we show. We consider only the following eight major taxonomic levels:
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As you move your mouse across the sunburst, the current node will be highlighted. In the top section of the controls panel we show a summary of the lineage of the currently highlighed node. If you pause over an arc, a tooltip will be shown, giving the name of the taxonomic level in the title and a summary of the number of sequences and species below that node in the tree.
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There are some situations that the sunburst tree cannot easily handle and for which we have work-arounds in place.
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Some species in the taxonomic tree may not have one or more of the main eight levels that we display. For example, Bos taurus is not assigned an order in the NCBI taxonomic tree. In such cases we mark the omitted level with, for example, "No order", in both the tooltip and the lineage summary.
Unmapped species names
The tree is built by looking at each sequence in the full alignment for the family. We take the name of the species given by UniProt and try to map that to the full taxonomic tree from NCBI. In some cases, the name chosen by UniProt does not map to any node in the NCBI tree, perhaps because the chosen name is listed as a synonym or a misspelling in the NCBI taxonomy.
So that these nodes are not simply omitted from the sunburst tree, we group them together in a separate branch (or segment of the sunburst tree). Since we cannot determine the lineage for these unmapped species, we show all levels between the superkingdom and the species as "uncategorised".
Since we reduce the species tree to only the eight main taxonomic levels, sequences that are mapped to the sub-species level in the tree would not normally be shown. Rather than leave out these species, we map them instead to their parent species. So, for example, for sequences belonging to one of the Vibrio cholerae sub-species in the NCBI taxonomy, we show them instead as belonging to the species Vibrio cholerae.
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For large species trees, you may see blank regions in the outer layers of the sunburst. These occur when there are large numbers of arcs to be drawn in a small space. If an arc is less than approximately one pixel wide, it will not be drawn and the space will be left blank. You may still be able to get some information about the species in that region by moving your mouse across the area, but since each arc will be very small, it will be difficult to accurately locate a particular species.
The tree shows the occurrence of this domain across different species. More...
We show the species tree in one of two ways. For smaller trees we try to show an interactive representation, which allows you to select specific nodes in the tree and view them as an alignment or as a set of Pfam domain graphics.
Unfortunately we have found that there are problems viewing the interactive tree when the it becomes larger than a certain limit. Furthermore, we have found that Internet Explorer can become unresponsive when viewing some trees, regardless of their size. We therefore show a text representation of the species tree when the size is above a certain limit or if you are using Internet Explorer to view the site.
If you are using IE you can still load the interactive tree by clicking the "Generate interactive tree" button, but please be aware of the potential problems that the interactive species tree can cause.
For all of the domain matches in a full alignment, we count the number that are found on all sequences in the alignment. This total is shown in the purple box.
We also count the number of unique sequences on which each domain is found, which is shown in green. Note that a domain may appear multiple times on the same sequence, leading to the difference between these two numbers.
Finally, we group sequences from the same organism according to the NCBI code that is assigned by UniProt, allowing us to count the number of distinct sequences on which the domain is found. This value is shown in the pink boxes.
We use the NCBI species tree to group organisms according to their taxonomy and this forms the structure of the displayed tree. Note that in some cases the trees are too large (have too many nodes) to allow us to build an interactive tree, but in most cases you can still view the tree in a plain text, non-interactive representation. Those species which are represented in the seed alignment for this domain are highlighted.
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There are 2 interactions for this family. More...
We determine these interactions using iPfam, which considers the interactions between residues in three-dimensional protein structures and maps those interactions back to Pfam families. You can find more information about the iPfam algorithm in the journal article that accompanies the website.
For those sequences which have a structure in the Protein DataBank, we use the mapping between UniProt, PDB and Pfam coordinate systems from the PDBe group, to allow us to map Pfam domains onto UniProt sequences and three-dimensional protein structures. The table below shows the structures on which the CathepsinC_exc domain has been found. There are 5 instances of this domain found in the PDB. Note that there may be multiple copies of the domain in a single PDB structure, since many structures contain multiple copies of the same protein seqence.
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