Summary: HIF-1 alpha C terminal transactivation domain
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Hypoxia-inducible factors Edit Wikipedia article
|hypoxia-inducible factor 1, alpha subunit|
|Locus||Chr. 14 q21-q24|
|aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator|
|Alt. symbols||HIF1B, bHLHe2|
|Locus||Chr. 1 q21|
|endothelial PAS domain protein 1|
|Alt. symbols||HIF2A, MOP2, PASD2, HLF|
|Locus||Chr. 2 p21-p16|
|aryl-hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator 2|
|Alt. symbols||HIF2B, KIAA0307, bHLHe1|
|Locus||Chr. 1 q24|
|hypoxia-inducible factor 3, alpha subunit|
|Locus||Chr. 19 q13|
Most, if not all, oxygen-breathing species express the highly conserved transcriptional complex HIF-1, which is a heterodimer composed of an alpha and a beta subunit, the latter being a constitutively-expressed aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT). HIF-1 belongs to the PER-ARNT-SIM (PAS) subfamily of the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) family of transcription factors. The alpha and beta subunit are similar in structure and both contain the following domains:
- N-terminus – a bHLH domain for DNA binding
- central region – Per-ARNT-Sim (PAS) domain, which facilitates heterodimerization
- C-terminus – recruits transcriptional coregulatory proteins
The following are members of the human HIF family:
|HIF-1α||HIF1A||hypoxia-inducible factor 1, alpha subunit|
|HIF-1β||ARNT||aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator|
|HIF-2α||EPAS1||endothelial PAS domain protein 1|
|HIF-2β||ARNT2||aryl-hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator 2|
|HIF-3α||HIF3A||hypoxia inducible factor 3, alpha subunit|
|HIF-3β||ARNTL||aryl-hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator 3|
The HIF signaling cascade mediates the effects of hypoxia, the state of low oxygen concentration, on the cell. Hypoxia often keeps cells from differentiating. However, hypoxia promotes the formation of blood vessels, and is important for the formation of a vascular system in embryos, and cancer tumors. The hypoxia in wounds also promotes the migration of keratinocytes and the restoration of the epithelium.
In general, HIFs are vital to development. In mammals, deletion of the HIF-1 genes results in perinatal death. HIF-1 has been shown to be vital to chondrocyte survival, allowing the cells to adapt to low-oxygen conditions within the growth plates of bones. HIF plays a central role in the regulation of human metabolism.
The alpha subunits of HIF are hydroxylated at conserved proline residues by HIF prolyl-hydroxylases, allowing their recognition and ubiquitination by the VHL E3 ubiquitin ligase, which labels them for rapid degradation by the proteasome. This occurs only in normoxic conditions. In hypoxic conditions, HIF prolyl-hydroxylase is inhibited, since it utilizes oxygen as a cosubstrate.
Inhibition of electron transfer in the succinate dehydrogenase complex due to mutations in the SDHB or SDHD genes can cause a build-up of succinate that inhibits HIF prolyl-hydroxylase, stabilizing HIF-1α. This is termed pseudohypoxia.
HIF-1, when stabilized by hypoxic conditions, upregulates several genes to promote survival in low-oxygen conditions. These include glycolysis enzymes, which allow ATP synthesis in an oxygen-independent manner, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which promotes angiogenesis. HIF-1 acts by binding to HIF-responsive elements (HREs) in promoters that contain the sequence NCGTG (where N is either A or G).
It has been shown that muscle A kinase–anchoring protein (mAKAP) organized E3 ubiquitin ligases, affecting stability and positioning of HIF-1 inside its action site in the nucleus. Depletion of mAKAP or disruption of its targeting to the perinuclear (in cardiomyocytes) region altered the stability of HIF-1 and transcriptional activation of genes associated with hypoxia. Thus, "compartmentalization" of oxygen-sensitive signaling components may influence the hypoxic response.
The advanced knowledge of the molecular regulatory mechanisms of HIF1 activity under hypoxic conditions contrast sharply with the paucity of information on the mechanistic and functional aspects governing NF-κB-mediated HIF1 regulation under normoxic conditions. However, HIF-1α stabilization is also found in non-hypoxic conditions through an, until recently, unknown mechanism. It was shown that NF-κB (nuclear factor κB) is a direct modulator of HIF-1α expression in the presence of normal oxygen pressure. siRNA (small interfering RNA) studies for individual NF-κB members revealed differential effects on HIF-1α mRNA levels, indicating that NF-κB can regulate basal HIF-1α expression. Finally, it was shown that, when endogenous NF-κB is induced by TNFα (tumour necrosis factor α) treatment, HIF-1α levels also change in an NF-κB-dependent manner. HIF-1 and HIF-2 have different physiological roles. HIF-2 regulates erythropoietin production in adult life.
Repair or regeneration
In normal circumstances after injury HIF-1a is degraded by prolyl hydroxylases (PHDs). In June 2015, scientists found that the continued up-regulation of HIF-1a via PHD inhibitors regenerates lost or damaged tissue in mammals that have a repair response; and the continued down-regulation of Hif-1a results in healing with a scarring response in mammals with a previous regenerative response to the loss of tissue. The act of regulating HIF-1a can either turn off, or turn on the key process of mammalian regeneration.
As a therapeutic target
Recently, several drugs that act as selective HIF prolyl-hydroxylase inhibitors have been developed. The most notable of these include FibroGen's compounds FG-2216 and FG-4592, both of which intended as orally acting drugs for use in the treatment of forms of anemia. By inhibiting HIF prolyl-hydroxylase, the stability of HIF-2α in the kidney is increased, which results in an increase in endogenous production of erythropoietin. Both of these drugs made it through to phase II clinical trials, but these were suspended temporarily in May 2007 following the death of a trial participant from fulminant hepatitis. However, it is unclear whether this death was caused by FG-2216. The hold has been lifted in early 2008, as FDA has reviewed and approved a thorough response from FibroGen.
Inflammation and cancer
In other scenarios and in contrast to the therapy outlined above, recent research suggests that HIF induction in normoxia is likely to have serious consequences in disease settings with a chronic inflammatory component. It has also been shown that chronic inflammation is self-perpetuating and that it distorts the microenvironment as a result of aberrantly active transcription factors. As a consequence, alterations in growth factor, chemokine, cytokine, and ROS balance occur within the cellular milieu that in turn provide the axis of growth and survival needed for de novo development of cancer and metastasis. The results of a recently published study have numerous implications for a number of pathologies where NF-κB and HIF-1 are deregulated, including rheumatoid arthritis and cancer. Therefore, it is thought that understanding the cross-talk between these two key transcription factors, NF-κB and HIF, will greatly enhance the process of drug development.
HIF activity is involved in angiogenesis required for cancer tumor growth, so HIF inhibitors such as phenethyl isothiocyanate and Acriflavine are (since 2006) under investigation for anti-cancer effects.
||This section needs to be updated. (January 2016)|
- Smith TG, Robbins PA, Ratcliffe PJ (May 2008). "The human side of hypoxia-inducible factor". British Journal of Haematology. 141 (3): 325–34. PMC . PMID 18410568. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2141.2008.07029.x.
- Wilkins SE, Abboud MI, Hancock RL, Schofield CJ (April 2016). "Targeting Protein-Protein Interactions in the HIF System". ChemMedChem. 11 (8): 773–86. PMC . PMID 26997519. doi:10.1002/cmdc.201600012.
- Wang GL, Jiang BH, Rue EA, Semenza GL (June 1995). "Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 is a basic-helix-loop-helix-PAS heterodimer regulated by cellular O2 tension". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 92 (12): 5510–4. PMC . PMID 7539918. doi:10.1073/pnas.92.12.5510.
- Jiang BH, Rue E, Wang GL, Roe R, Semenza GL (July 1996). "Dimerization, DNA binding, and transactivation properties of hypoxia-inducible factor 1". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 271 (30): 17771–8. PMID 8663540. doi:10.1074/jbc.271.30.17771.
- Zhulin IB, Taylor BL, Dixon R (September 1997). "PAS domain S-boxes in Archaea, Bacteria and sensors for oxygen and redox". Trends in Biochemical Sciences. 22 (9): 331–3. PMID 9301332. doi:10.1016/S0968-0004(97)01110-9.
- Ponting CP, Aravind L (November 1997). "PAS: a multifunctional domain family comes to light". Current Biology. 7 (11): R674–7. PMID 9382818. doi:10.1016/S0960-9822(06)00352-6.
- Yang J, Zhang L, Erbel PJ, Gardner KH, Ding K, Garcia JA, Bruick RK (October 2005). "Functions of the Per/ARNT/Sim domains of the hypoxia-inducible factor". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 280 (43): 36047–54. PMID 16129688. doi:10.1074/jbc.M501755200.
- Min JH, Yang H, Ivan M, Gertler F, Kaelin WG, Pavletich NP (June 2002). "Structure of an HIF-1alpha -pVHL complex: hydroxyproline recognition in signaling". Science. 296 (5574): 1886–9. PMID 12004076. doi:10.1126/science.1073440.
- Freedman SJ, Sun ZY, Poy F, Kung AL, Livingston DM, Wagner G, Eck MJ (April 2002). "Structural basis for recruitment of CBP/p300 by hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 99 (8): 5367–72. PMC . PMID 11959990. doi:10.1073/pnas.082117899.
- Benizri E, Ginouvès A, Berra E (April 2008). "The magic of the hypoxia-signaling cascade". Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences. 65 (7–8): 1133–49. PMID 18202826. doi:10.1007/s00018-008-7472-0.
- Formenti F, Constantin-Teodosiu D, Emmanuel Y, Cheeseman J, Dorrington KL, Edwards LM, Humphreys SM, Lappin TR, McMullin MF, McNamara CJ, Mills W, Murphy JA, O'Connor DF, Percy MJ, Ratcliffe PJ, Smith TG, Treacy M, Frayn KN, Greenhaff PL, Karpe F, Clarke K, Robbins PA (July 2010). "Regulation of human metabolism by hypoxia-inducible factor". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 107 (28): 12722–7. PMC . PMID 20616028. doi:10.1073/pnas.1002339107.
- Maxwell PH, Wiesener MS, Chang GW, Clifford SC, Vaux EC, Cockman ME, Wykoff CC, Pugh CW, Maher ER, Ratcliffe PJ (May 1999). "The tumour suppressor protein VHL targets hypoxia-inducible factors for oxygen-dependent proteolysis". Nature. 399 (6733): 271–5. PMID 10353251. doi:10.1038/20459.
- Semenza GL (August 2004). "Hydroxylation of HIF-1: oxygen sensing at the molecular level". Physiology. 19 (4): 176–82. PMID 15304631. doi:10.1152/physiol.00001.2004.
- Wong W, Goehring AS, Kapiloff MS, Langeberg LK, Scott JD (December 2008). "mAKAP compartmentalizes oxygen-dependent control of HIF-1alpha". Science Signaling. 1 (51): ra18. PMC . PMID 19109240. doi:10.1126/scisignal.2000026.
- van Uden P, Kenneth NS, Rocha S (June 2008). "Regulation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha by NF-kappaB". The Biochemical Journal. 412 (3): 477–84. PMC . PMID 18393939. doi:10.1042/BJ20080476.
- Haase VH (July 2010). "Hypoxic regulation of erythropoiesis and iron metabolism". American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology. 299 (1): F1–13. PMC . PMID 20444740. doi:10.1152/ajprenal.00174.2010.
- eurekalert.org staff (3 June 2015). "Scientist at LIMR leads study demonstrating drug-induced tissue regeneration". eurekalert.org. Lankenau Institute for Medical Research (LIMR),. Retrieved 3 July 2015.
- Zhang Y, Strehin I, Bedelbaeva K, Gourevitch D, Clark L, Leferovich J, Messersmith PB, Heber-Katz E (June 2015). "Drug-induced regeneration in adult mice". Science Translational Medicine. 7 (290): 290ra92. PMC . PMID 26041709. doi:10.1126/scitranslmed.3010228.
- Bruegge K, Jelkmann W, Metzen E (2007). "Hydroxylation of hypoxia-inducible transcription factors and chemical compounds targeting the HIF-alpha hydroxylases". Current Medicinal Chemistry. 14 (17): 1853–62. PMID 17627521. doi:10.2174/092986707781058850.
- Dead URL FG-2216: Anemia
- Cases A (December 2007). "The latest advances in kidney diseases and related disorders". Drug News & Perspectives. 20 (10): 647–54. PMID 18301799.
- Hsieh MM, Linde NS, Wynter A, Metzger M, Wong C, Langsetmo I, Lin A, Smith R, Rodgers GP, Donahue RE, Klaus SJ, Tisdale JF (September 2007). "HIF prolyl hydroxylase inhibition results in endogenous erythropoietin induction, erythrocytosis, and modest fetal hemoglobin expression in rhesus macaques". Blood. 110 (6): 2140–7. PMC . PMID 17557894. doi:10.1182/blood-2007-02-073254.
- The FDA Accepts the Complete Response for Clinical Holds of FG-2216/FG-4592 for the Treatment of Anemia
- Lee K, Zhang H, Qian DZ, Rey S, Liu JO, Semenza GL (October 2009). "Acriflavine inhibits HIF-1 dimerization, tumor growth, and vascularization". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 106 (42): 17910–5. PMC . PMID 19805192. doi:10.1073/pnas.0909353106.
- Syed Alwi SS, Cavell BE, Telang U, Morris ME, Parry BM, Packham G (November 2010). "In vivo modulation of 4E binding protein 1 (4E-BP1) phosphorylation by watercress: a pilot study". The British Journal of Nutrition. 104 (9): 1288–96. PMID 20546646. doi:10.1017/S0007114510002217.
- Semenza GL (October 2007). "Evaluation of HIF-1 inhibitors as anticancer agents". Drug Discovery Today. 12 (19–20): 853–9. PMID 17933687. doi:10.1016/j.drudis.2007.08.006.
- Melillo G (September 2006). "Inhibiting hypoxia-inducible factor 1 for cancer therapy". Molecular Cancer Research. 4 (9): 601–5. PMID 16940159. doi:10.1158/1541-7786.MCR-06-0235.
- Adamcio B, Sperling S, Hagemeyer N, Walkinshaw G, Ehrenreich H (March 2010). "Hypoxia inducible factor stabilization leads to lasting improvement of hippocampal memory in healthy mice". Behavioural Brain Research. 208 (1): 80–4. PMID 19900484. doi:10.1016/j.bbr.2009.11.010.
This tab holds the annotation information that is stored in the Pfam database. As we move to using Wikipedia as our main source of annotation, the contents of this tab will be gradually replaced by the Wikipedia tab.
HIF-1 alpha C terminal transactivation domain Provide feedback
Hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1 alpha) is the regulatory subunit of the heterodimeric transcription factor HIF-1. It plays a key role in cellular response to low oxygen tension. This region corresponds to the C terminal transactivation domain.
Freedman SJ, Sun ZY, Poy F, Kung AL, Livingston DM, Wagner G, Eck MJ; , Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:5367-5372.: Structural basis for recruitment of CBP/p300 by hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha. PUBMED:11959990 EPMC:11959990
External database links
This tab holds annotation information from the InterPro database.
InterPro entry IPR014887
Hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1 alpha) is the regulatory subunit of the heterodimeric transcription factor HIF-1. It plays a key role in cellular response to low oxygen tension. This region corresponds to the C-terminal transactivation domain.
Below is a listing of the unique domain organisations or architectures in which this domain is found. More...
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1Cannot generate PP/Heatmap alignments for seeds; no PP data available
Key: available, not generated, — not available.
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This page displays the phylogenetic tree for this family's seed alignment. We use FastTree to calculate neighbour join trees with a local bootstrap based on 100 resamples (shown next to the tree nodes). FastTree calculates approximately-maximum-likelihood phylogenetic trees from our seed alignment.
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|Number in seed:||11|
|Number in full:||204|
|Average length of the domain:||36.80 aa|
|Average identity of full alignment:||73 %|
|Average coverage of the sequence by the domain:||4.30 %|
|HMM build commands:||
build method: hmmbuild -o /dev/null HMM SEED
search method: hmmsearch -Z 26740544 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq
|Family (HMM) version:||9|
|Download:||download the raw HMM for this family|
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This visualisation provides a simple graphical representation of the distribution of this family across species. You can find the original interactive tree in the More....
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How the sunburst is generated
The tree is built by considering the taxonomic lineage of each sequence that has a match to this family. For each node in the resulting tree, we draw an arc in the sunburst. The radius of the arc, its distance from the root node at the centre of the sunburst, shows the taxonomic level ("superkingdom", "kingdom", etc). The length of the arc represents either the number of sequences represented at a given level, or the number of species that are found beneath the node in the tree. The weighting scheme can be changed using the sunburst controls.
In order to reduce the complexity of the representation, we reduce the number of taxonomic levels that we show. We consider only the following eight major taxonomic levels:
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Segments of the tree are coloured approximately according to their superkingdom. For example, archeal branches are coloured with shades of orange, eukaryotes in shades of purple, etc. The colour assignments are shown under the sunburst controls. Where space allows, the name of the taxonomic level will be written on the arc itself.
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Unmapped species names
The tree is built by looking at each sequence in the full alignment for the family. We take the name of the species given by UniProt and try to map that to the full taxonomic tree from NCBI. In some cases, the name chosen by UniProt does not map to any node in the NCBI tree, perhaps because the chosen name is listed as a synonym or a misspelling in the NCBI taxonomy.
So that these nodes are not simply omitted from the sunburst tree, we group them together in a separate branch (or segment of the sunburst tree). Since we cannot determine the lineage for these unmapped species, we show all levels between the superkingdom and the species as "uncategorised".
Since we reduce the species tree to only the eight main taxonomic levels, sequences that are mapped to the sub-species level in the tree would not normally be shown. Rather than leave out these species, we map them instead to their parent species. So, for example, for sequences belonging to one of the Vibrio cholerae sub-species in the NCBI taxonomy, we show them instead as belonging to the species Vibrio cholerae.
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The tree shows the occurrence of this domain across different species. More...
We show the species tree in one of two ways. For smaller trees we try to show an interactive representation, which allows you to select specific nodes in the tree and view them as an alignment or as a set of Pfam domain graphics.
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For all of the domain matches in a full alignment, we count the number that are found on all sequences in the alignment. This total is shown in the purple box.
We also count the number of unique sequences on which each domain is found, which is shown in green. Note that a domain may appear multiple times on the same sequence, leading to the difference between these two numbers.
Finally, we group sequences from the same organism according to the NCBI code that is assigned by UniProt, allowing us to count the number of distinct sequences on which the domain is found. This value is shown in the pink boxes.
We use the NCBI species tree to group organisms according to their taxonomy and this forms the structure of the displayed tree. Note that in some cases the trees are too large (have too many nodes) to allow us to build an interactive tree, but in most cases you can still view the tree in a plain text, non-interactive representation. Those species which are represented in the seed alignment for this domain are highlighted.
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There are 3 interactions for this family. More...
We determine these interactions using iPfam, which considers the interactions between residues in three-dimensional protein structures and maps those interactions back to Pfam families. You can find more information about the iPfam algorithm in the journal article that accompanies the website.
For those sequences which have a structure in the Protein DataBank, we use the mapping between UniProt, PDB and Pfam coordinate systems from the PDBe group, to allow us to map Pfam domains onto UniProt sequences and three-dimensional protein structures. The table below shows the structures on which the HIF-1a_CTAD domain has been found. There are 7 instances of this domain found in the PDB. Note that there may be multiple copies of the domain in a single PDB structure, since many structures contain multiple copies of the same protein seqence.
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