Summary: BRCA2, oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide-binding, domain 1
Pfam includes annotations and additional family information from a range of different sources. These sources can be accessed via the tabs below.
This is the Wikipedia entry entitled "BRCA2". More...
The Wikipedia text that you see displayed here is a download from Wikipedia. This means that the information we display is a copy of the information from the Wikipedia database. The button next to the article title ("Edit Wikipedia article") takes you to the edit page for the article directly within Wikipedia. You should be aware you are not editing our local copy of this information. Any changes that you make to the Wikipedia article will not be displayed here until we next download the article from Wikipedia. We currently download new content on a nightly basis.
Does Pfam agree with the content of the Wikipedia entry ?
Pfam has chosen to link families to Wikipedia articles. In some case we have created or edited these articles but in many other cases we have not made any direct contribution to the content of the article. The Wikipedia community does monitor edits to try to ensure that (a) the quality of article annotation increases, and (b) vandalism is very quickly dealt with. However, we would like to emphasise that Pfam does not curate the Wikipedia entries and we cannot guarantee the accuracy of the information on the Wikipedia page.
Editing Wikipedia articles
Before you edit for the first time
Wikipedia is a free, online encyclopedia. Although anyone can edit or contribute to an article, Wikipedia has some strong editing guidelines and policies, which promote the Wikipedia standard of style and etiquette. Your edits and contributions are more likely to be accepted (and remain) if they are in accordance with this policy.
You should take a few minutes to view the following pages:
How your contribution will be recorded
Anyone can edit a Wikipedia entry. You can do this either as a new user or you can register with Wikipedia and log on. When you click on the "Edit Wikipedia article" button, your browser will direct you to the edit page for this entry in Wikipedia. If you are a registered user and currently logged in, your changes will be recorded under your Wikipedia user name. However, if you are not a registered user or are not logged on, your changes will be logged under your computer's IP address. This has two main implications. Firstly, as a registered Wikipedia user your edits are more likely seen as valuable contribution (although all edits are open to community scrutiny regardless). Secondly, if you edit under an IP address you may be sharing this IP address with other users. If your IP address has previously been blocked (due to being flagged as a source of 'vandalism') your edits will also be blocked. You can find more information on this and creating a user account at Wikipedia.
If you have problems editing a particular page, contact us at email@example.com and we will try to help.
The community annotation is a new facility of the Pfam web site. If you have problems editing or experience problems with these pages please contact us.
BRCA2 Edit Wikipedia article
|, BRCC2, BROVCA2, FACD, FAD, FAD1, FANCD, FANCD1, GLM3, PNCA2, XRCC11, breast cancer 2, DNA repair associated|
crystal structure of a rad51-brca2 brc repeat complex
structure of a brca2-dss1 complex
|BRCA2, oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide-binding, domain 1|
structure of a brca2-dss1 complex
|BRCA2, oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide-binding, domain 3|
structure of a brca2-dss1 complex
structure of a brca2-dss1 complex
BRCA2 and BRCA2 (//) are a human gene and its protein product, respectively. The official symbol (BRCA2, italic for the gene, nonitalic for the protein) and the official name (breast cancer 2) are maintained by the HGNC. One alternative symbol, FANCD1, recognizes its association with the FANC protein complex. Orthologs, styled Brca2 and Brca2, are common in other mammal species. BRCA2 is a human tumor suppressor gene (specifically, a caretaker gene), found in all humans; its protein, also called by the synonym breast cancer type 2 susceptibility protein, is responsible for repairing DNA.
BRCA2 and BRCA1 are normally expressed in the cells of breast and other tissue, where they help repair damaged DNA or destroy cells if DNA cannot be repaired. They are involved in the repair of chromosomal damage with an important role in the error-free repair of DNA double strand breaks. If BRCA1 or BRCA2 itself is damaged by a BRCA mutation, damaged DNA is not repaired properly, and this increases the risk for breast cancer. BRCA1 and BRCA2 have been described as "breast cancer susceptibility genes" and "breast cancer susceptibility proteins". The predominate allele has a normal, tumor suppressive function whereas high penetrance mutations in these genes cause a loss of tumor suppressive function which correlates with an increased risk of breast cancer.
The BRCA2 gene is located on the long (q) arm of chromosome 13 at position 12.3 (13q12.3). The human reference BRCA 2 gene contains 27 exons, and the cDNA has 10,254 base pairs coding for a protein of 3418 amino acids.
Methods to diagnose the likelihood of a patient with mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 getting cancer were covered by patents owned or controlled by Myriad Genetics. Myriad's business model of exclusively offering the diagnostic test led from Myriad being a startup in 1994 to being a publicly traded company with 1200 employees and about $500M in annual revenue in 2012; it also led to controversy over high prices and the inability to get second opinions from other diagnostic labs, which in turn led to the landmark Association for Molecular Pathology v. Myriad Genetics lawsuit.
- 1 Function
- 2 Clinical significance
- 3 History
- 4 Germ line BRCA2 mutations and founder effect
- 5 Meiosis
- 6 Neurogenesis
- 7 Epigenetic control of BRCA2
- 8 BRCA2 expression in cancer
- 9 Interactions
- 10 Domain architecture
- 11 Patents, enforcement, litigation, and controversy
- 12 See also
- 13 References
- 14 Further reading
- 15 External links
Although the structures of the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes are very different, at least some functions are interrelated. The proteins made by both genes are essential for repairing damaged DNA (see Figure of recombinational repair steps). BRCA2 binds the single strand DNA and directly interacts with the recombinase RAD51 to stimulate strand invasion a vital step of homologous recombination. The localization of RAD51 to the DNA double-strand break requires the formation of BRCA1-PALB2-BRCA2 complex. PALB2 (Partner and localizer of BRCA2) can function synergistically with a BRCA2 chimera (termed piccolo, or piBRCA2) to further promote strand invasion. These breaks can be caused by natural and medical radiation or other environmental exposures, but also occur when chromosomes exchange genetic material during a special type of cell division that creates sperm and eggs (meiosis). Double strand breaks are also generated during repair of DNA cross links. By repairing DNA, these proteins play a role in maintaining the stability of the human genome and prevent dangerous gene rearrangements that can lead to hematologic and other cancers.
Like BRCA1, BRCA2 probably regulates the activity of other genes and plays a critical role in embryo development.
Certain variations of the BRCA2 gene increase risks for breast cancer as part of a hereditary breast-ovarian cancer syndrome. Researchers have identified hundreds of mutations in the BRCA2 gene, many of which cause an increased risk of cancer. BRCA2 mutations are usually insertions or deletions of a small number of DNA base pairs in the gene. As a result of these mutations, the protein product of the BRCA2 gene is abnormal and does not function properly. Researchers believe that the defective BRCA2 protein is unable to fix DNA damages that occur throughout the genome. As a result, there is an increase in mutations due to error-prone translesion synthesis past un-repaired DNA damages, and some of these mutations can cause cells to divide in an uncontrolled way and form a tumor.
People who have two mutated copies of the BRCA2 gene have one type of Fanconi anemia. This condition is caused by extremely reduced levels of the BRCA2 protein in cells, which allows the accumulation of damaged DNA. Patients with Fanconi anemia are prone to several types of leukemia (a type of blood cell cancer); solid tumors, particularly of the head, neck, skin, and reproductive organs; and bone marrow suppression (reduced blood cell production that leads to anemia). Women having inherited a defective BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene have risks for breast and ovarian cancer that are so high and seem so selective that many mutation carriers choose to have prophylactic surgery. There has been much conjecture to explain such apparently striking tissue specificity. Major determinants of where BRCA1 and BRCA2 associated hereditary cancers occur are related to tissue specificity of the cancer pathogen, the agent that causes chronic inflammation or the carcinogen. The target tissue may have receptors for the pathogen, become selectively exposed to carcinogens and an infectious process. An innate genomic deficit impairs normal responses and exacerbates the susceptibility to disease in organ targets. This theory also fits data for several tumor suppressors beyond BRCA1 or BRCA2. A major advantage of this model is that it suggests there are some options in addition to prophylactic surgery.
In addition to breast cancer in men and women, mutations in BRCA2 also lead to an increased risk of ovarian, Fallopian tube, prostate, and pancreatic cancers, as well as malignant melanoma. In some studies, mutations in the central part of the gene have been associated with a higher risk of ovarian cancer and a lower risk of prostate cancer than mutations in other parts of the gene. Several other types of cancer have also been seen in certain families with BRCA2 mutations.
In general, strongly inherited gene mutations (including mutations in BRCA2) account for only 5-10% of breast cancer cases; the specific risk of getting breast or other cancer for anyone carrying a BRCA2 mutation depends on many factors.
|The BRCA2 gene was discovered in 1994 by Professor Michael Stratton along with 39 coauthor scientists (Institute of Cancer Research, UK). Scientists from several institutions, including the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute (Hinxton, Cambs, UK) collaborated with Stratton to isolate the gene.
In honour of this discovery and collaboration, the Wellcome Trust participated in the construction of a cycle and foot path between the Addenbrooke's Hospital site in Cambridge and the nearby village of Great Shelford in 2005. The path by Cambridgeshire County Council and Sustrans is decorated with 10,257 stripes of 4 colours representing the nucleotide sequence of BRCA2 (green representing adenine, blue representing cytosine, yellow representing guanine, and red representing thymine). It makes up part of National Cycle Route 11, and can be seen from trains running between Cambridge and London.
Germ line BRCA2 mutations and founder effect
All germ line BRCA2 mutations identified to date have been inherited, suggesting the possibility of a large "founder" effect in which a certain mutation is common to a well-defined population group and can theoretically be traced back to a common ancestor. Given the complexity of mutation screening for BRCA2, these common mutations may simplify the methods required for mutation screening in certain populations. Analysis of mutations that occur with high frequency also permits the study of their clinical expression. A striking example of a founder mutation is found in Iceland, where a single BRCA2 (999del5) mutation accounts for virtually all breast/ovarian cancer families. This frame-shift mutation leads to a highly truncated protein product. In a large study examining hundreds of cancer and control individuals, this 999del5 mutation was found in 0.6% of the general population. Of note, while 72% of patients who were found to be carriers had a moderate or strong family history of breast cancer, 28% had little or no family history of the disease. This strongly suggests the presence of modifying genes that affect the phenotypic expression of this mutation, or possibly the interaction of the BRCA2 mutation with environmental factors. Additional examples of founder mutations in BRCA2 are given in the table below.
|Population or subgroup||BRCA2 mutation(s)||Reference(s)|
|Finns||8555T>G, 999del5, IVS23-2A>G|||
|French Canadians||8765delAG, 3398delAAAAG|||
In the plant Arabidopsis thaliana, loss of the BRCA2 homolog AtBRCA2 causes severe defects in both male meiosis and in the development of the female gametocyte. AtBRCA2 protein is required for proper localization of the synaptonemal complex protein AtZYP1 and the recombinases AtRAD51 and AtDMC1. Furthermore, AtBRCA2 is required for proper meiotic synapsis. Thus AtBRCA2 is likely important for meiotic recombination. It appears that AtBRCA2 acts during meiosis to control the single-strand invasion steps mediated by AtRAD51 and AtDMC1 occurring during meiotic homologous recombinational repair of DNA damages.
Mice that produce truncated versions of BRCA2 are viable but sterile. BRCA2 mutant rats have a phenotype of growth inhibition and sterility in both sexes. Aspermatogenesis in these mutant rats is due to a failure of homologous chromosome synapsis during meiosis.
BRC repeat sequences
DMC1 (DNA meiotic recombinase 1) is a meiosis specific homolog of RAD51 that mediates strand exchange during homologous recombinational repair. DMC1 promotes the formation of DNA strand invasion products (joint molecules) between homologous DNA molecules. Human DMC1 interacts directly with each of a series of repeat sequences in the BRCA2 protein (called BRC repeats) that stimulate joint molecule formation by DMC1. BRC repeats conform to a motif consisting of a sequence of about 35 highly conserved amino acids that are present at least once in all BRCA2-like proteins. The BRCA2 BRC repeats stimulate joint molecule formation by promoting the interaction of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) with DMC1. The ssDNA complexed with DMC1 can pair with homologous ssDNA from another chromosome during the synapsis stage of meiosis to form a joint molecule, a central step in homologous recombination. Thus the BRC repeat sequences of BRCA2 appear to play a key role in recombinational repair of DNA damages during meiotic recombination.
Overall, it appears that homologous recombination during meiosis functions to repair DNA damages, and that BRCA2 plays a key role in performing this function.
BRCA2 is required in the mouse for neurogenesis and suppression of medulloblastoma. ‘’BRCA2’’ loss profoundly affects neurogenesis, particularly during embryonic and postnatal neural development. These neurological defects arise from DNA damage.
Epigenetic control of BRCA2
Epigenetic alterations in expression of BRCA2 (causing over-expression or under-expression) are very frequent in sporadic cancers (see Table below) while mutations in BRCA2 are rarely found.
In non-small cell lung cancer, BRCA2 is epigenetically repressed by hypermethylation of the promoter. In this case, promoter hypermethylation is significantly associated with low mRNA expression and low protein expression but not with loss of heterozygosity of the gene.
In sporadic ovarian cancer, an opposite effect is found. BRCA2 promoter and 5'-UTR regions have relatively few or no methylated CpG dinucleotides in the tumor DNA compared with that of non-tumor DNA, and a significant correlation is found between hypomethylation and a >3-fold over-expression of BRCA2. This indicates that hypomethylation of the BRCA2 promoter and 5'-UTR regions leads to over-expression of BRCA2 mRNA.
BRCA2 expression in cancer
In eukaryotes, BRCA2 protein has an important role in homologous recombinational repair. In mice and humans, BRCA2 primarily mediates orderly assembly of RAD51 on single-stranded (ss) DNA, the form that is active for homologous pairing and strand invasion. BRCA2 also redirects RAD51 from double-stranded DNA and prevents dissociation from ssDNA. In addition, the four paralogs of RAD51, consisting of RAD51B (RAD51L1), RAD51C (RAD51L2), RAD51D (RAD51L3), XRCC2 form a complex called the BCDX2 complex (see Figure: Recombinational repair of DNA). This complex participates in RAD51 recruitment or stabilization at damage sites. The BCDX2 complex appears to act by facilitating the assembly or stability of the RAD51 nucleoprotein filament. RAD51 catalyses strand transfer between a broken sequence and its undamaged homologue to allow re-synthesis of the damaged region (see homologous recombination models).
Some studies of cancers report over-expressed BRCA2 whereas other studies report under-expression of BRCA2. At least two reports found over-expression in some sporadic breast tumors and under-expression in other sporadic breast tumors. (see Table).
Many cancers have epigenetic deficiencies in various DNA repair genes (see Frequencies of epimutations in DNA repair genes in cancers). These repair deficiencies likely cause increased unrepaired DNA damages. The over-expression of BRCA2 seen in many cancers may reflect compensatory BRCA2 over-expression and increased homologous recombinational repair to at least partially deal with such excess DNA damages. Egawa et al. suggest that increased expression of BRCA2 can be explained by the genomic instability frequently seen in cancers, which induces BRCA2 mRNA expression due to an increased need of BRCA2 for DNA repair.
Under-expression of BRCA2 would itself lead to increased unrepaired DNA damages. Replication errors past these damages (see translesion synthesis) would lead to increased mutations and cancer.
|Cancer||Over or Under expression||Frequency of altered expression||Evaluation method||Ref.|
|Sporadic ovarian cancer||Over-expression||80%||messenger RNA|||
|Sporadic ovarian cancer||Under-expression||42%||immunohistochemistry|||
|(recurrent cancer in study above)||Increased-expression||71%||immunohistochemistry|||
|Non-small cell lung cancer||Under-expression||34%||immunohistochemistry|||
|Breast cancer||Over-expression||66%||messenger RNA|||
|Breast cancer||Over-expression||20%||messenger RNA|||
|(same study as above)||Under-expression||11%||messenger RNA|||
|(same study as above)||Under-expression||30%||immunohistochemistry|||
|Triple negative breast cancer||Under-expression||90%||immunohistochemistry|||
BRCA2 has been shown to interact with
- SHFM1 and
BRCA2 contains a number of 39 amino acid repeats that are critical for binding to RAD51 (a key protein in DNA recombinational repair) and resistance to methyl methanesulphonate treatment.
The BRCA2 helical domain adopts a helical structure, consisting of a four-helix cluster core (alpha 1, alpha 8, alpha 9, alpha 10) and two successive beta-hairpins (beta 1 to beta 4). An approximately 50-amino acid segment that contains four short helices (alpha 2 to alpha 4), meanders around the surface of the core structure. In BRCA2, the alpha 9 and alpha 10 helices pack with the BRCA2 OB1 domain through van der Waals contacts involving hydrophobic and aromatic residues, and also through side-chain and backbone hydrogen bonds. This domain binds the 70-amino acid DSS1 (deleted in split-hand/split foot syndrome) protein, which was originally identified as one of three genes that map to a 1.5-Mb locus deleted in an inherited developmental malformation syndrome.
The BRCA OB1 domain assumes an OB fold, which consists of a highly curved five-stranded beta-sheet that closes on itself to form a beta-barrel. OB1 has a shallow groove formed by one face of the curved sheet and is demarcated by two loops, one between beta 1 and beta 2 and another between beta 4 and beta 5, which allows for weak single strand DNA binding. The domain also binds the 70-amino acid DSS1 (deleted in split-hand/split foot syndrome) protein.
The BRCA OB3 domain assumes an OB fold, which consists of a highly curved five-stranded beta-sheet that closes on itself to form a beta-barrel. OB3 has a pronounced groove formed by one face of the curved sheet and is demarcated by two loops, one between beta 1 and beta 2 and another between beta 4 and beta 5, which allows for strong ssDNA binding.
The Tower domain adopts a secondary structure consisting of a pair of long, antiparallel alpha-helices (the stem) that support a three-helix bundle (3HB) at their end. The 3HB contains a helix-turn-helix motif and is similar to the DNA binding domains of the bacterial site-specific recombinases, and of eukaryotic Myb and homeodomain transcription factors. The Tower domain has an important role in the tumour suppressor function of BRCA2, and is essential for appropriate binding of BRCA2 to DNA.
Patents, enforcement, litigation, and controversy
A patent application for the isolated BRCA1 gene and cancer-cancer promoting mutations, as well as methods to diagnose the likelihood of getting breast cancer, was filed by the University of Utah, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) and Myriad Genetics in 1994; over the next year, Myriad, in collaboration with other investigators, isolated and sequenced the BRCA2 gene and identified relevant mutations, and the first BRCA2 patent was filed in the U.S. by Myriad and the other institutions in 1995. Myriad is the exclusive licensee of these patents and has enforced them in the US against clinical diagnostic labs. This business model led from Myriad being a startup in 1994 to being a publicly traded company with 1200 employees and about $500M in annual revenue in 2012; it also led to controversy over high prices and the inability to get second opinions from other diagnostic labs, which in turn led to the landmark Association for Molecular Pathology v. Myriad Genetics lawsuit. The patents begin to expire in 2014.
According to an article published in the journal, Genetic Medicine, in 2010, "The patent story outside the United States is more complicated.... For example, patents have been obtained but the patents are being ignored by provincial health systems in Canada. In Australia and the UK, Myriad's licensee permitted use by health systems, but announced a change of plans in August 2008. ... Only a single mutation has been patented in Myriad's lone European-wide patent, although some patents remain under review of an opposition proceeding. In effect, the United States is the only jurisdiction where Myriad's strong patent position has conferred sole-provide status." Peter Meldrum, CEO of Myriad Genetics, has acknowledged that Myriad has "other competitive advantages that may make such [patent] enforcement unnecessary" in Europe.
Legal decisions surrounding the BRCA1 and BRCA2 patents will affect the field of genetic testing in general. In June 2013, in Association for Molecular Pathology v. Myriad Genetics (No. 12-398), the US Supreme Court unanimously ruled that, "A naturally occurring DNA segment is a product of nature and not patent eligible merely because it has been isolated," invalidating Myriad's patents on the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. However, the Court also held that manipulation of a gene to create something not found in nature could still be eligible for patent protection. The Federal Court of Australia came to the opposite conclusion, upholding the validity of an Australian Myriad Genetics patent over the BRCA1 gene in February 2013, but this decision is being appealed and the appeal will include consideration of the US Supreme Court ruling.
- GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000139618 - Ensembl, May 2017
- GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000041147 - Ensembl, May 2017
- "Human PubMed Reference:".
- "Mouse PubMed Reference:".
- Hamel PJ (2007-05-29). "BRCA1 and BRCA2: No Longer the Only Troublesome Genes Out There". HealthCentral. Retrieved 2010-07-02.
- "OrthoMaM phylogenetic marker: BRCA2 coding sequence".
- Duncan JA, Reeves JR, Cooke TG (October 1998). "BRCA1 and BRCA2 proteins: roles in health and disease". Molecular pathology : MP. 51 (5): 237–47. PMC . PMID 10193517. doi:10.1136/mp.51.5.237.
- Yoshida K, Miki Y (November 2004). "Role of BRCA1 and BRCA2 as regulators of DNA repair, transcription, and cell cycle in response to DNA damage". Cancer science. 95 (11): 866–71. PMID 15546503. doi:10.1111/j.1349-7006.2004.tb02195.x.
- Check W (2006-09-01). "BRCA: What we know now". College of American Pathologists. Retrieved 2010-08-23.
- Friedenson B (August 2007). "The BRCA1/2 pathway prevents hematologic cancers in addition to breast and ovarian cancers.". BMC Cancer. 7: 152–162. PMC . PMID 17683622. doi:10.1186/1471-2407-7-152.
- Friedenson B (2008-06-08). "Breast cancer genes protect against some leukemias and lymphomas" (video). SciVee.
- "Breast and Ovarian Cancer Genetic Screening". Palo Alto Medical Foundation. Archived from the original on 4 October 2008. Retrieved 2008-10-11.
- Friedenson B (2007). "The BRCA1/2 pathway prevents hematologic cancers in addition to breast and ovarian cancers". BMC Cancer. 7: 152. PMC . PMID 17683622. doi:10.1186/1471-2407-7-152.
- O'Donovan PJ, Livingston DM (April 2010). "BRCA1 and BRCA2: breast/ovarian cancer susceptibility gene products and participants in DNA double-strand break repair". Carcinogenesis. 31 (6): 961–7. PMID 20400477. doi:10.1093/carcin/bgq069.
- Wooster R, Neuhausen SL, Mangion J, Quirk Y, Ford D, Collins N, Nguyen K, Seal S, Tran T, Averill D (September 1994). "Localization of a breast cancer susceptibility gene, BRCA2, to chromosome 13q12-13". Science. 265 (5181): 2088–90. PMID 8091231. doi:10.1126/science.8091231.
- "BRCA2 breast cancer 2, early onset [Homo sapiens]". EntrezGene. National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine.
- "Breast cancer type 2 susceptibility protein - Homo sapiens (Human)". P51587. UniProt.
- Williams-Jones B (2002). Genetic testing for sale: Implications of commercial brca testing in Canada (Ph.D.). The University of British Columbia.
- US patent 5837492, Tavtigian SV, Kamb A, Simard J, Couch F, Rommens JM, Weber BL, "Chromosome 13-linked breast cancer susceptibility gene", issued 1998-11-17, assigned to Myriad Genetics, Inc., Endo Recherche, Inc., HSC Research & Development Limited Partnership, Trustees of the University of Pennsylvania
- US patent 5747282, Skolnick HS, Goldgar DE, Miki Y, Swenson J, Kamb A, Harshman KD, Shattuck-Eidens DM, Tavtigian SV, Wiseman RW, Futreal PA, "7Q-linked breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility gene", issued 1998-05-05, assigned to Myriad Genetics, Inc., The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of Health and Human Services, and University of Utah Research Foundation
- US patent 5837492, Tavtigian SV, Kamb A, Simard J, Couch F, Rommens JM, Weber BL, "Chromosome 13-linked breast cancer susceptibility gene", issued 1998-11-17, assigned to Myriad Genetics, Inc., Endo Recherche, Inc., HSC Research & Development Limited Partnership, Trustees of the University of Pennsylvania
- Myriad Investor Page—see "Myriad at a glance" accessed October 2012
- Schwartz J (2009-05-12). "Cancer Patients Challenge the Patenting of a Gene". Health. New York Times.
- D'Andrea AD (2010). "Susceptibility pathways in Fanconi's anemia and breast cancer". N. Engl. J. Med. 362 (20): 1909–19. PMC . PMID 20484397. doi:10.1056/NEJMra0809889.
- Sobeck A, Stone S, Landais I, de Graaf B, Hoatlin ME (2009). "The Fanconi anemia protein FANCM is controlled by FANCD2 and the ATR/ATM pathways". J. Biol. Chem. 284 (38): 25560–8. PMC . PMID 19633289. doi:10.1074/jbc.M109.007690.
- Castillo P, Bogliolo M, Surralles J (2011). "Coordinated action of the Fanconi anemia and ataxia telangiectasia pathways in response to oxidative damage". DNA Repair (Amst.). 10 (5): 518–25. PMID 21466974. doi:10.1016/j.dnarep.2011.02.007.
- Stolz A, Ertych N, Bastians H (2011). "Tumor suppressor CHK2: regulator of DNA damage response and mediator of chromosomal stability". Clin. Cancer Res. 17 (3): 401–5. PMID 21088254. doi:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-10-1215.
- Taniguchi T, Garcia-Higuera I, Andreassen PR, Gregory RC, Grompe M, D'Andrea AD (2002). "S-phase-specific interaction of the Fanconi anemia protein, FANCD2, with BRCA1 and RAD51". Blood. 100 (7): 2414–20. PMID 12239151. doi:10.1182/blood-2002-01-0278.
- Park JY, Zhang F, Andreassen PR (2014). "PALB2: the hub of a network of tumor suppressors involved in DNA damage responses". Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1846 (1): 263–75. PMC . PMID 24998779. doi:10.1016/j.bbcan.2014.06.003.
- Chun J, Buechelmaier ES, Powell SN (2013). "Rad51 paralog complexes BCDX2 and CX3 act at different stages in the BRCA1-BRCA2-dependent homologous recombination pathway". Mol. Cell. Biol. 33 (2): 387–95. PMC . PMID 23149936. doi:10.1128/MCB.00465-12.
- Xia B, Sheng Q, Nakanishi K, Ohashi A, Wu J, Christ N, Liu X, Jasin M, Couch FJ, Livingston DM (June 2006). "Control of BRCA2 cellular and clinical functions by a nuclear partner, PALB2". Mol. Cell. 22 (6): 719–29. PMID 16793542. doi:10.1016/j.molcel.2006.05.022.
- Buisson R, Dion-Côté AM, Coulombe Y, Launay H, Cai H, Stasiak AZ, Stasiak A, Xia B, Masson JY (2010). "Cooperation of breast cancer proteins PALB2 and piccolo BRCA2 in stimulating homologous recombination.". Nature Structural & Molecular Biology. 17 (10): 1247–54. PMC . PMID 20871615. doi:10.1038/nsmb.1915.
- Levin B, Lech D, Friedenson B (2012). "Evidence that BRCA1- or BRCA2-associated cancers are not inevitable". Molecular Medicine. 18: 1327–37. PMC . PMID 22972572. doi:10.2119/molmed.2012.00280.
- "High-Penetrance Breast and/or Ovarian Cancer Susceptibility Genes". National Cancer Institute. Retrieved 7 December 2012.
- Strattot, M. (1995). "Identification of the breast cancer susceptibility gene BRCA2". Nature. 378 (21): 789–791. Bibcode:1995Natur.378..789W. PMID 8524414. doi:10.1038/378789a0.
- High-Impact Science: Tracking down the BRCA genes (Part 2) - Cancer Research UK science blog, 2012
- Route information board
- Lacroix M, Leclercq G (2005). "The "portrait" of hereditary breast cancer". Breast Cancer Research and Treatment. 89 (3): 297–304. PMID 15754129. doi:10.1007/s10549-004-2172-4.
- Thorlacius S, Olafsdottir G, Tryggvadottir L, Neuhausen S, Jonasson JG, Tavtigian SV, Tulinius H, Ogmundsdottir HM, Eyfjörd JE (1996). "A single BRCA2 mutation in male and female breast cancer families from Iceland with varied cancer phenotypes". Nature Genetics. 13 (1): 117–119. PMID 8673089. doi:10.1038/ng0596-117.
- Thorlacius S, Sigurdsson S, Bjarnadottir H, Olafsdottir G, Jonasson JG, Tryggvadottir L, Tulinius H, Eyfjörd JE (1997). "Study of a single BRCA2 mutation with high carrier frequency in a small population". American Journal of Human Genetics. 60 (5): 1079–1085. PMC . PMID 9150155.
- den Dunnen JT, Antonarakis SE (2000). "Mutation nomenclature extensions and suggestions to describe complex mutations: a discussion.". Human Mutation. 15 (1): 7–12. PMID 10612815. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1098-1004(200001)15:1<7::AID-HUMU4>3.0.CO;2-N.
- Neuhausen S, Gilewski T, Norton L, Tran T, McGuire P, Swensen J, Hampel H, Borgen P, Brown K, Skolnick M, Shattuck-Eidens D, Jhanwar S, Goldgar D, Offit K (1996). "Recurrent BRCA2 6174delT mutations in Ashkenazi Jewish women affected by breast cancer". Nature Genetics. 13 (1): 126–128. PMID 8673092. doi:10.1038/ng0596-126.
- Verhoog LC, van den Ouweland AM, Berns E, van Veghel-Plandsoen MM, van Staveren IL, Wagner A, Bartels CC, Tilanus-Linthorst MM, Devilee P, Seynaeve C, Halley DJ, Niermeijer MF, Klijn JG, Meijers-Heijboer H (2001). "Large regional differences in the frequency of distinct BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations in 517 Dutch breast and/or ovarian cancer families". European Journal of Cancer. 37 (16): 2082–2090. PMID 11597388. doi:10.1016/S0959-8049(01)00244-1.
- Huusko P, Pääkkönen K, Launonen V, Pöyhönen M, Blanco G, Kauppila A, Puistola U, Kiviniemi H, Kujala M, Leisti J, Winqvist R (1998). "Evidence of founder mutations in Finnish BRCA1 and BRCA2 families". American Journal of Human Genetics. 62 (6): 1544–1548. PMC . PMID 9585608. doi:10.1086/301880.
- Pääkkönen K, Sauramo S, Sarantaus L, Vahteristo P, Hartikainen A, Vehmanen P, Ignatius J, Ollikainen V, Kääriäinen H, Vauramo E, Nevanlinna H, Krahe R, Holli K, Kere J (2001). "Involvement of BRCA1 and BRCA2 in breast cancer in a western Finnish sub-population". Genetic Epidemiology. 20 (2): 239–246. PMID 11180449. doi:10.1002/1098-2272(200102)20:2<239::AID-GEPI6>3.0.CO;2-Y.
- Tonin PN, Mes-Masson AM, Narod SA, Ghadirian P, Provencher D (1999). "Founder BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in French Canadian ovarian cancer cases unselected for family history". Clinical Genetics. 55 (5): 318–324. PMID 10422801. doi:10.1034/j.1399-0004.1999.550504.x.
- Oros KK, Leblanc G, Arcand SL, Shen Z, Perret C, Mes-Masson AM, Foulkes WD, Ghadirian P, Provencher D, Tonin PN (2006). "Haplotype analysis suggests common founders in carriers of recurrent BRCA2 mutation, 3398delAAAAG, in French Canadian hereditary breast and/ovarian cancer families". BMC Medical Genetics. 7 (23). PMC . PMID 16539696. doi:10.1186/1471-2350-7-23.
- Tonin PN (2006). "The limited spectrum of pathogenic BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in the French Canadian breast and breast-ovarian cancer families, a founder population of Quebec, Canada". Bull Cancer. 93 (9): 841–846. PMID 16980226.
- Van Der Looij M, Szabo C, Besznyak I, Liszka G, Csokay B, Pulay T, Toth J, Devilee P, King MC, Olah E (2000). "Prevalence of founder BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations among breast and ovarian cancer patients in Hungary". International Journal of Cancer. 86 (5): 737–740. PMID 10797299. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1097-0215(20000601)86:5<737::AID-IJC21>3.0.CO;2-1.
- Pisano M, Cossu A, Persico I, Palmieri G, Angius A, Casu G, Palomba G, Sarobba MG, Rocca PC, Dedola MF, Olmeo N, Pasca A, Budroni M, Marras V, Pisano A, Farris A, Massarelli G, Pirastu M, Tanda F (2000). "Identification of a founder BRCA2 mutation in Sardinia". British Journal of Cancer. 82 (3): 553–559. PMC . PMID 10682665. doi:10.1054/bjoc.1999.0963.
- Scottish/Northern Irish BRCAI/BRCA2 Consortium (2003). "BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in Scotland and Northern Ireland". British Journal of Cancer. 88 (8): 1256–1262. PMC . PMID 12698193. doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6600840.
- Liede A, Malik IA, Aziz Z, Rios Pd Pde L, Kwan E, Narod SA (2002). "Contribution of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations to breast and ovarian cancer in Pakistan". American Journal of Human Genetics. 71 (3): 595–606. PMC . PMID 12181777. doi:10.1086/342506.
- Krajc M, De Grève J, Goelen G, Teugels E (2002). "BRCA2 founder mutation in Slovenian breast cancer families". European Journal of Human Genetics. 10 (12): 879–882. PMID 12461697. doi:10.1038/sj.ejhg.5200886.
- Osorio A, Robledo M, Martínez B, Cebrián A, San Román JM, Albertos J, Lobo F, Benítez J (1998). "Molecular analysis of the BRCA2 gene in 16 breast/ovarian cancer Spanish families". Clin. Genet. 54: 142–7. PMID 9761393. doi:10.1111/j.1399-0004.1998.tb03717.x.
- Neuhausen SL (2000). "Founder populations and their uses for breast cancer genetics". Cancer Research. 2 (2): 77–81. PMC . PMID 11250694. doi:10.1186/bcr36.
- Seeliger K, Dukowic-Schulze S, Wurz-Wildersinn R, Pacher M, Puchta H (2012). "BRCA2 is a mediator of RAD51- and DMC1-facilitated homologous recombination in Arabidopsis thaliana". New Phytol. 193 (2): 364–75. PMID 22077663. doi:10.1111/j.1469-8137.2011.03947.x.
- Kojic M, Kostrub CF, Buchman AR, Holloman WK (2002). "BRCA2 homolog required for proficiency in DNA repair, recombination, and genome stability in Ustilago maydis". Mol. Cell. 10 (3): 683–91. PMID 12408834. doi:10.1016/s1097-2765(02)00632-9.
- Ko E, Lee J, Lee H (2008). "Essential role of brc-2 in chromosome integrity of germ cells in C. elegans". Mol. Cell. 26 (6): 590–4. PMID 18779660.
- Martin JS, Winkelmann N, Petalcorin MI, McIlwraith MJ, Boulton SJ (2005). "RAD-51-dependent and -independent roles of a Caenorhabditis elegans BRCA2-related protein during DNA double-strand break repair". Mol. Cell. Biol. 25 (8): 3127–39. PMC . PMID 15798199. doi:10.1128/MCB.25.8.3127-3139.2005.
- Klovstad M, Abdu U, Schüpbach T (2008). "Drosophila brca2 is required for mitotic and meiotic DNA repair and efficient activation of the meiotic recombination checkpoint". PLoS Genet. 4 (2): e31. PMC . PMID 18266476. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.0040031.
- Connor F, Bertwistle D, Mee PJ, Ross GM, Swift S, Grigorieva E, Tybulewicz VL, Ashworth A (1997). "Tumorigenesis and a DNA repair defect in mice with a truncating Brca2 mutation". Nat. Genet. 17 (4): 423–30. PMID 9398843. doi:10.1038/ng1297-423.
- Cotroneo MS, Haag JD, Zan Y, Lopez CC, Thuwajit P, Petukhova GV, Camerini-Otero RD, Gendron-Fitzpatrick A, Griep AE, Murphy CJ, Dubielzig RR, Gould MN (2007). "Characterizing a rat Brca2 knockout model". Oncogene. 26 (11): 1626–35. PMID 16964288. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1209960.
- Martinez JS, von Nicolai C, Kim T, Ehlén Å, Mazin AV, Kowalczykowski SC, Carreira A (2016). "BRCA2 regulates DMC1-mediated recombination through the BRC repeats". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 113 (13): 3515–20. PMC . PMID 26976601. doi:10.1073/pnas.1601691113.
- Bernstein H and Bernstein C (2013). Evolutionary Origin and Adaptive Function of Meiosis. In Meiosis: Bernstein C and Bernstein H, editors. ISBN 978-953-51-1197-9, InTech, http://www.intechopen.com/books/meiosis/evolutionary-origin-and-adaptive-function-of-meiosis
- Frappart PO, Lee Y, Lamont J, McKinnon PJ (2007). "BRCA2 is required for neurogenesis and suppression of medulloblastoma". EMBO J. 26 (11): 2732–42. PMC . PMID 17476307. doi:10.1038/sj.emboj.7601703.
- Teng DH, Bogden R, Mitchell J, Baumgard M, Bell R, Berry S, Davis T, Ha PC, Kehrer R, Jammulapati S, Chen Q, Offit K, Skolnick MH, Tavtigian SV, Jhanwar S, Swedlund B, Wong AK, Kamb A (1996). "Low incidence of BRCA2 mutations in breast carcinoma and other cancers". Nat. Genet. 13 (2): 241–4. PMID 8640236. doi:10.1038/ng0696-241.
- Miki Y, Katagiri T, Kasumi F, Yoshimoto T, Nakamura Y (1996). "Mutation analysis in the BRCA2 gene in primary breast cancers". Nat. Genet. 13 (2): 245–7. PMID 8640237. doi:10.1038/ng0696-245.
- Lancaster JM, Wooster R, Mangion J, Phelan CM, Cochran C, Gumbs C, Seal S, Barfoot R, Collins N, Bignell G, Patel S, Hamoudi R, Larsson C, Wiseman RW, Berchuck A, Iglehart JD, Marks JR, Ashworth A, Stratton MR, Futreal PA (1996). "BRCA2 mutations in primary breast and ovarian cancers". Nat. Genet. 13 (2): 238–40. PMID 8640235. doi:10.1038/ng0696-238.
- Lee MN, Tseng RC, Hsu HS, Chen JY, Tzao C, Ho WL, Wang YC (2007). "Epigenetic inactivation of the chromosomal stability control genes BRCA1, BRCA2, and XRCC5 in non-small cell lung cancer". Clin. Cancer Res. 13 (3): 832–8. PMID 17289874. doi:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-05-2694.
- Chan KY, Ozçelik H, Cheung AN, Ngan HY, Khoo US (2002). "Epigenetic factors controlling the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes in sporadic ovarian cancer". Cancer Res. 62 (14): 4151–6. PMID 12124354.
- Gu Y, Zhang M, Peng F, Fang L, Zhang Y, Liang H, Zhou W, Ao L, Guo Z (2015). "The BRCA1/2-directed miRNA signature predicts a good prognosis in ovarian cancer patients with wild-type BRCA1/2". Oncotarget. 6 (4): 2397–406. PMC . PMID 25537514. doi:10.18632/oncotarget.2963.
- Holloman WK (2011). "Unraveling the mechanism of BRCA2 in homologous recombination". Nat. Struct. Mol. Biol. 18 (7): 748–54. PMC . PMID 21731065. doi:10.1038/nsmb.2096.
- Bièche I, Noguès C, Lidereau R (1999). "Overexpression of BRCA2 gene in sporadic breast tumours". Oncogene. 18 (37): 5232–8. PMID 10498873. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1202903.
- Hedau S, Batra M, Singh UR, Bharti AC, Ray A, Das BC (2015). "Expression of BRCA1 and BRCA2 proteins and their correlation with clinical staging in breast cancer". J Cancer Res Ther. 11 (1): 158–63. PMID 25879355. doi:10.4103/0973-1482.140985.
- Egawa C, Miyoshi Y, Taguchi T, Tamaki Y, Noguchi S (2002). "High BRCA2 mRNA expression predicts poor prognosis in breast cancer patients". Int. J. Cancer. 98 (6): 879–82. PMID 11948466. doi:10.1002/ijc.10231.
- Swisher EM, Gonzalez RM, Taniguchi T, Garcia RL, Walsh T, Goff BA, Welcsh P (2009). "Methylation and protein expression of DNA repair genes: association with chemotherapy exposure and survival in sporadic ovarian and peritoneal carcinomas". Mol. Cancer. 8: 48. PMC . PMID 19602291. doi:10.1186/1476-4598-8-48.
- Thike AA, Tan PH, Ikeda M, Iqbal J (2016). "Increased ID4 expression, accompanied by mutant p53 accumulation and loss of BRCA1/2 proteins in triple-negative breast cancer, adversely affects survival". Histopathology. 68 (5): 702–12. PMID 26259780. doi:10.1111/his.12801.
- Dong Y, Hakimi MA, Chen X, Kumaraswamy E, Cooch NS, Godwin AK, Shiekhattar R (November 2003). "Regulation of BRCC, a holoenzyme complex containing BRCA1 and BRCA2, by a signalosome-like subunit and its role in DNA repair". Mol. Cell. 12 (5): 1087–99. PMID 14636569. doi:10.1016/S1097-2765(03)00424-6.
- Ryser S, Dizin E, Jefford CE, Delaval B, Gagos S, Christodoulidou A, Krause KH, Birnbaum D, Irminger-Finger I (February 2009). "Distinct roles of BARD1 isoforms in mitosis: full-length BARD1 mediates Aurora B degradation, cancer-associated BARD1beta scaffolds Aurora B and BRCA2". Cancer Res. 69 (3): 1125–34. PMID 19176389. doi:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-08-2134.
- Liu J, Yuan Y, Huan J, Shen Z (January 2001). "Inhibition of breast and brain cancer cell growth by BCCIPalpha, an evolutionarily conserved nuclear protein that interacts with BRCA2". Oncogene. 20 (3): 336–45. PMID 11313963. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1204098.
- Sarkisian CJ, Master SR, Huber LJ, Ha SI, Chodosh LA (October 2001). "Analysis of murine Brca2 reveals conservation of protein-protein interactions but differences in nuclear localization signals". J. Biol. Chem. 276 (40): 37640–8. PMID 11477095. doi:10.1074/jbc.M106281200.
- Chen J, Silver DP, Walpita D, Cantor SB, Gazdar AF, Tomlinson G, Couch FJ, Weber BL, Ashley T, Livingston DM, Scully R (September 1998). "Stable interaction between the products of the BRCA1 and BRCA2 tumor suppressor genes in mitotic and meiotic cells". Mol. Cell. 2 (3): 317–28. PMID 9774970. doi:10.1016/S1097-2765(00)80276-2.
- Reuter TY, Medhurst AL, Waisfisz Q, Zhi Y, Herterich S, Hoehn H, Gross HJ, Joenje H, Hoatlin ME, Mathew CG, Huber PA (October 2003). "Yeast two-hybrid screens imply involvement of Fanconi anemia proteins in transcription regulation, cell signaling, oxidative metabolism, and cellular transport". Exp. Cell Res. 289 (2): 211–21. PMID 14499622. doi:10.1016/S0014-4827(03)00261-1.
- Futamura M, Arakawa H, Matsuda K, Katagiri T, Saji S, Miki Y, Nakamura Y (March 2000). "Potential role of BRCA2 in a mitotic checkpoint after phosphorylation by hBUBR1". Cancer Res. 60 (6): 1531–5. PMID 10749118.
- Siddique H, Rao VN, Reddy ES (August 2009). "CBP-mediated post-translational N-glycosylation of BRCA2". Int J Oncol. 35 (2): 16387–91. PMID 19578754. doi:10.3892/ijo_00000351.
- Hughes-Davies L, Huntsman D, Ruas M, Fuks F, Bye J, Chin SF, Milner J, Brown LA, Hsu F, Gilks B, Nielsen T, Schulzer M, Chia S, Ragaz J, Cahn A, Linger L, Ozdag H, Cattaneo E, Jordanova ES, Schuuring E, Yu DS, Venkitaraman A, Ponder B, Doherty A, Aparicio S, Bentley D, Theillet C, Ponting CP, Caldas C, Kouzarides T (November 2003). "EMSY links the BRCA2 pathway to sporadic breast and ovarian cancer". Cell. 115 (5): 523–35. PMID 14651845. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(03)00930-9.
- Wang X, Andreassen PR, D'Andrea AD (July 2004). "Functional interaction of monoubiquitinated FANCD2 and BRCA2/FANCD1 in chromatin". Mol. Cell. Biol. 24 (13): 5850–62. PMC . PMID 15199141. doi:10.1128/MCB.24.13.5850-5862.2004.
- Hussain S, Wilson JB, Medhurst AL, Hejna J, Witt E, Ananth S, Davies A, Masson JY, Moses R, West SC, de Winter JP, Ashworth A, Jones NJ, Mathew CG (June 2004). "Direct interaction of FANCD2 with BRCA2 in DNA damage response pathways". Hum. Mol. Genet. 13 (12): 1241–8. PMID 15115758. doi:10.1093/hmg/ddh135.
- Hejna J, Holtorf M, Hines J, Mathewson L, Hemphill A, Al-Dhalimy M, Olson SB, Moses RE (April 2008). "Tip60 is required for DNA interstrand cross-link repair in the Fanconi anemia pathway". J. Biol. Chem. 283 (15): 9844–51. PMC . PMID 18263878. doi:10.1074/jbc.M709076200.
- Hussain S, Witt E, Huber PA, Medhurst AL, Ashworth A, Mathew CG (October 2003). "Direct interaction of the Fanconi anaemia protein FANCG with BRCA2/FANCD1". Hum. Mol. Genet. 12 (19): 2503–10. PMID 12915460. doi:10.1093/hmg/ddg266.
- Yuan Y, Shen Z (December 2001). "Interaction with BRCA2 suggests a role for filamin-1 (hsFLNa) in DNA damage response". J. Biol. Chem. 276 (51): 48318–24. PMID 11602572. doi:10.1074/jbc.M102557200.
- Marmorstein LY, Kinev AV, Chan GK, Bochar DA, Beniya H, Epstein JA, Yen TJ, Shiekhattar R (January 2001). "A human BRCA2 complex containing a structural DNA binding component influences cell cycle progression". Cell. 104 (2): 247–57. PMID 11207365. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(01)00209-4.
- Hakimi MA, Bochar DA, Chenoweth J, Lane WS, Mandel G, Shiekhattar R (May 2002). "A core-BRAF35 complex containing histone deacetylase mediates repression of neuronal-specific genes". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99 (11): 7420–5. PMC . PMID 12032298. doi:10.1073/pnas.112008599.
- Marmorstein LY, Ouchi T, Aaronson SA (November 1998). "The BRCA2 gene product functionally interacts with p53 and RAD51". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 95 (23): 13869–74. PMC . PMID 9811893. doi:10.1073/pnas.95.23.13869.
- "Entrez Gene: PALB2 partner and localizer of BRCA2".
- Lin HR, Ting NS, Qin J, Lee WH (September 2003). "M phase-specific phosphorylation of BRCA2 by Polo-like kinase 1 correlates with the dissociation of the BRCA2-P/CAF complex". J. Biol. Chem. 278 (38): 35979–87. PMID 12815053. doi:10.1074/jbc.M210659200.
- Fuks F, Milner J, Kouzarides T (November 1998). "BRCA2 associates with acetyltransferase activity when bound to P/CAF". Oncogene. 17 (19): 2531–4. PMID 9824164. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1202475.
- Lee M, Daniels MJ, Venkitaraman AR (January 2004). "Phosphorylation of BRCA2 by the Polo-like kinase Plk1 is regulated by DNA damage and mitotic progression". Oncogene. 23 (4): 865–72. PMID 14647413. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1207223.
- Sharan SK, Morimatsu M, Albrecht U, Lim DS, Regel E, Dinh C, Sands A, Eichele G, Hasty P, Bradley A (April 1997). "Embryonic lethality and radiation hypersensitivity mediated by Rad51 in mice lacking Brca2". Nature. 386 (6627): 804–10. PMID 9126738. doi:10.1038/386804a0.
- Yu DS, Sonoda E, Takeda S, Huang CL, Pellegrini L, Blundell TL, Venkitaraman AR (October 2003). "Dynamic control of Rad51 recombinase by self-association and interaction with BRCA2". Mol. Cell. 12 (4): 1029–41. PMID 14580352. doi:10.1016/S1097-2765(03)00394-0.
- Chen PL, Chen CF, Chen Y, Xiao J, Sharp ZD, Lee WH (April 1998). "The BRC repeats in BRCA2 are critical for RAD51 binding and resistance to methyl methanesulfonate treatment". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 95 (9): 5287–92. PMC . PMID 9560268. doi:10.1073/pnas.95.9.5287.
- Wong AK, Pero R, Ormonde PA, Tavtigian SV, Bartel PL (December 1997). "RAD51 interacts with the evolutionarily conserved BRC motifs in the human breast cancer susceptibility gene brca2". J. Biol. Chem. 272 (51): 31941–4. PMID 9405383. doi:10.1074/jbc.272.51.31941.
- Katagiri T, Saito H, Shinohara A, Ogawa H, Kamada N, Nakamura Y, Miki Y (March 1998). "Multiple possible sites of BRCA2 interacting with DNA repair protein RAD51". Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 21 (3): 217–22. PMID 9523196. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1098-2264(199803)21:3<217::AID-GCC5>3.0.CO;2-2.
- Pellegrini L, Yu DS, Lo T, Anand S, Lee M, Blundell TL, Venkitaraman AR (November 2002). "Insights into DNA recombination from the structure of a RAD51-BRCA2 complex". Nature. 420 (6913): 287–93. PMID 12442171. doi:10.1038/nature01230.
- Tarsounas M, Davies AA, West SC (January 2004). "RAD51 localization and activation following DNA damage". Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond., B, Biol. Sci. 359 (1441): 87–93. PMC . PMID 15065660. doi:10.1098/rstb.2003.1368.
- Wong JM, Ionescu D, Ingles CJ (January 2003). "Interaction between BRCA2 and replication protein A is compromised by a cancer-predisposing mutation in BRCA2". Oncogene. 22 (1): 28–33. PMID 12527904. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1206071.
- Marston NJ, Richards WJ, Hughes D, Bertwistle D, Marshall CJ, Ashworth A (July 1999). "Interaction between the product of the breast cancer susceptibility gene BRCA2 and DSS1, a protein functionally conserved from yeast to mammals". Mol. Cell. Biol. 19 (7): 4633–42. PMC . PMID 10373512.
- Yang H, Jeffrey PD, Miller J, Kinnucan E, Sun Y, Thoma NH, Zheng N, Chen PL, Lee WH, Pavletich NP (September 2002). "BRCA2 function in DNA binding and recombination from a BRCA2-DSS1-ssDNA structure". Science. 297 (5588): 1837–48. PMID 12228710. doi:10.1126/science.297.5588.1837.
- Preobrazhenska O, Yakymovych M, Kanamoto T, Yakymovych I, Stoika R, Heldin CH, Souchelnytskyi S (August 2002). "BRCA2 and Smad3 synergize in regulation of gene transcription". Oncogene. 21 (36): 5660–4. PMID 12165866. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1205732.
- Bork P, Blomberg N, Nilges M (May 1996). "Internal repeats in the BRCA2 protein sequence". Nat. Genet. 13 (1): 22–3. PMID 8673099. doi:10.1038/ng0596-22.
- "ACLU sues over patents on breast cancer genes". CNN. Archived from the original on 15 May 2009. Retrieved 2009-05-14.
- Cook-Deegan, R; Derienzo, C; Carbone, J; Chandrasekharan, S; Heaney, C; Conover, C (2010). "Impact of gene patents and licensing practices on access to genetic testing for inherited susceptibility to cancer: Comparing breast and ovarian cancers with colon cancers". Genetics in Medicine. 12 (4 Suppl): S15–38. PMC . PMID 20393305. doi:10.1097/GIM.0b013e3181d5a67b.
- Benowitz S (January 2003). "European groups oppose Myriad's latest patent on BRCA1". J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 95 (1): 8–9. PMID 12509391. doi:10.1093/jnci/95.1.8.
- Conley J, Vorhous D, Cook-Deegan J (2011-03-01). "How Will Myriad Respond to the Next Generation of BRCA Testing?". Robinson, Bradshaw, and Hinson. Retrieved 2012-12-09.
- "Genetics and Patenting". Human Genome Project Information. U.S. Department of Energy Genome Programs. 2010-07-07.
- Liptak, Adam (13 June 2013). "Supreme Court Rules Human Genes May Not Be Patented". New York Times. Retrieved 13 June 2013.
- Corderoy, Amy (February 15, 2013). "Landmark patent ruling over breast cancer gene BRCA1". Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved June 14, 2013.
- Corderoy, Amy (June 14, 2013). "Companies can't patent genes, US court rules". Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved June 14, 2013.
- Zou JP, Hirose Y, Siddique H, Rao VN, Reddy ES (1999). "Structure and expression of variant BRCA2a lacking the transactivation domain". Oncology Reports. 6 (2): 437–40. PMID 10023017. doi:10.3892/or.6.2.437.
- Venkitaraman AR (2001). "Chromosome stability, DNA recombination and the BRCA2 tumour suppressor". Current Opinion in Cell Biology. 13 (3): 338–43. PMID 11343905. doi:10.1016/S0955-0674(00)00217-9.
- Orelli BJ, Bishop DK (2001). "BRCA2 and homologous recombination". Breast Cancer Research. 3 (5): 294–8. PMC . PMID 11597317. doi:10.1186/bcr310.
- Daniel DC (2002). "Highlight: BRCA1 and BRCA2 proteins in breast cancer". Microscopy Research and Technique. 59 (1): 68–83. PMID 12242698. doi:10.1002/jemt.10178.
- Tutt A, Ashworth A (2003). "The relationship between the roles of BRCA genes in DNA repair and cancer predisposition". Trends in Molecular Medicine. 8 (12): 571–6. PMID 12470990. doi:10.1016/S1471-4914(02)02434-6.
- Gonçalves A, Viens P, Sobol H, Maraninchi D, Bertucci F (2005). "[Molecular alterations in breast cancer: clinical implications and new analytical tools]". Revue de Médecine Interne. 26 (6): 470–8. PMID 15936476. doi:10.1016/j.revmed.2004.11.012.
- Hay T, Clarke AR (2005). "DNA damage hypersensitivity in cells lacking BRCA2: a review of in vitro and in vivo data". Biochemical Society Transactions. 33 (Pt 4): 715–7. PMID 16042582. doi:10.1042/BST0330715.
- Domchek SM, Weber BL (2006). "Clinical management of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers". Oncogene. 25 (43): 5825–31. PMID 16998496. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1209881.
- Honrado E, Osorio A, Palacios J, Benitez J (2006). "Pathology and gene expression of hereditary breast tumors associated with BRCA1, BRCA2 and CHEK2 gene mutations". Oncogene. 25 (43): 5837–45. PMID 16998498. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1209875.
This tab holds the annotation information that is stored in the Pfam database. As we move to using Wikipedia as our main source of annotation, the contents of this tab will be gradually replaced by the Wikipedia tab.
BRCA2, oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide-binding, domain 1 Provide feedback
Members of this family assume an OB fold, which consists of a highly curved five-stranded beta-sheet that closes on itself to form a beta-barrel. OB1 has a shallow groove formed by one face of the curved sheet and is demarcated by two loops, one between beta 1 and beta 2 and another between beta 4 and beta 5, which allows for weak single strand DNA binding. The domain also binds the 70-amino acid DSS1 (deleted in split-hand/split foot syndrome) protein, which was originally identified as one of three genes that map to a 1.5-Mb locus deleted in an inherited developmental malformation syndrome .
Yang H, Jeffrey PD, Miller J, Kinnucan E, Sun Y, Thoma NH, Zheng N, Chen PL, Lee WH, Pavletich NP; , Science 2002;297:1837-1848.: BRCA2 function in DNA binding and recombination from a BRCA2-DSS1-ssDNA structure. PUBMED:12228710 EPMC:12228710
External database links
This tab holds annotation information from the InterPro database.
InterPro entry IPR015187
This domain assumes an OB fold, which consists of a highly curved five-stranded beta-sheet that closes on itself to form a beta-barrel. OB1 has a shallow groove formed by one face of the curved sheet and is demarcated by two loops, one between beta 1 and beta 2 and another between beta 4 and beta 5, which allows for weak single strand DNA binding. The domain also binds the 70-amino acid DSS1 (deleted in split-hand/split foot syndrome) protein, which was originally identified as one of three genes that map to a 1.5-Mb locus deleted in an inherited developmental malformation syndrome [PUBMED:12228710].
The mapping between Pfam and Gene Ontology is provided by InterPro. If you use this data please cite InterPro.
|Biological process||double-strand break repair via homologous recombination (GO:0000724)|
Below is a listing of the unique domain organisations or architectures in which this domain is found. More...
The graphic that is shown by default represents the longest sequence with a given architecture. Each row contains the following information:
- the number of sequences which exhibit this architecture
a textual description of the architecture, e.g. Gla, EGF x 2, Trypsin.
This example describes an architecture with one
Gladomain, followed by two consecutive
EGFdomains, and finally a single
- a link to the page in the Pfam site showing information about the sequence that the graphic describes
- the UniProt description of the protein sequence
- the number of residues in the sequence
- the Pfam graphic itself.
Note that you can see the family page for a particular domain by clicking on the graphic. You can also choose to see all sequences which have a given architecture by clicking on the Show link in each row.
Finally, because some families can be found in a very large number of architectures, we load only the first fifty architectures by default. If you want to see more architectures, click the button at the bottom of the page to load the next set.
Loading domain graphics...
The OB (oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide binding) was defined by Murzin . The common part of the OB-fold, has a five-stranded beta-sheet coiled to form a closed beta-barrel. This barrel is capped by an alpha-helix located between the third and fourth strands .
The clan contains the following 70 members:BOF BRCA-2_OB1 BRCA-2_OB3 CDC24_OB1 CDC24_OB2 CDC24_OB3 CSD CusF_Ec DNA_ligase_A_C DNA_ligase_OB DNA_ligase_OB_2 DUF1344 DUF2110 DUF223 DUF3127 DUF4539 EFP eIF-1a eIF-5a Elong-fact-P_C EutN_CcmL EXOSC1 MCM_OB mRNA_cap_C MRP-S35 NigD_N NlpE_C OB_aCoA_assoc OB_NTP_bind OB_RNB PCB_OB Phage_DNA_bind POT1 Prot_ATP_ID_OB RecG_wedge RecO_N RecO_N_2 Rep-A_N Rep_fac-A_3 Rep_fac-A_C REPA_OB_2 Rho_RNA_bind Ribosom_S12_S23 Ribosomal_L2 Ribosomal_S17 Ribosomal_S28e RMI2 RNA_pol_Rbc25 RNA_pol_Rpb8 RNA_pol_RpbG Rrp44_CSD1 Rrp44_S1 RsgA_N RuvA_N S1 S1-like S1_2 SSB Stn1 TEBP_beta Ten1 Ten1_2 TOBE TOBE_2 TOBE_3 TRAM tRNA_anti-codon tRNA_anti-like tRNA_anti_2 tRNA_bind
We store a range of different sequence alignments for families. As well as the seed alignment from which the family is built, we provide the full alignment, generated by searching the sequence database (reference proteomes) using the family HMM. We also generate alignments using four representative proteomes (RP) sets, the UniProtKB sequence database, the NCBI sequence database, and our metagenomics sequence database. More...
There are various ways to view or download the sequence alignments that we store. We provide several sequence viewers and a plain-text Stockholm-format file for download.
We make a range of alignments for each Pfam-A family:
- the curated alignment from which the HMM for the family is built
- the alignment generated by searching the sequence database using the HMM
- Representative Proteomes (RPs) at 15%, 35%, 55% and 75% co-membership thresholds
- alignment generated by searching the UniProtKB sequence database using the family HMM
- alignment generated by searching the NCBI sequence database using the family HMM
- alignment generated by searching the metagenomics sequence database using the family HMM
You can see the alignments as HTML or in three different sequence viewers:
- a Java applet developed at the University of Dundee. You will need Java installed before running jalview
- an HTML page showing the whole alignment.Please note: full Pfam alignments can be very large. These HTML views are extremely large and often cause problems for browsers. Please use either jalview or the Pfam viewer if you have trouble viewing the HTML version
- an HTML-based representation of the alignment, coloured according to the posterior-probability (PP) values from the HMM. As for the standard HTML view, heatmap alignments can also be very large and slow to render.
You can download (or view in your browser) a text representation of a Pfam alignment in various formats:
You can also change the order in which sequences are listed in the alignment, change how insertions are represented, alter the characters that are used to represent gaps in sequences and, finally, choose whether to download the alignment or to view it in your browser directly.
You may find that large alignments cause problems for the viewers and the reformatting tool, so we also provide all alignments in Stockholm format. You can download either the plain text alignment, or a gzipped version of it.
We make a range of alignments for each Pfam-A family. You can see a description of each above. You can view these alignments in various ways but please note that some types of alignment are never generated while others may not be available for all families, most commonly because the alignments are too large to handle.
1Cannot generate PP/Heatmap alignments for seeds; no PP data available
Key: available, not generated, — not available.
Format an alignment
We make all of our alignments available in Stockholm format. You can download them here as raw, plain text files or as gzip-compressed files.
You can also download a FASTA format file containing the full-length sequences for all sequences in the full alignment.
HMM logos is one way of visualising profile HMMs. Logos provide a quick overview of the properties of an HMM in a graphical form. You can see a more detailed description of HMM logos and find out how you can interpret them here. More...
If you find these logos useful in your own work, please consider citing the following article:
This page displays the phylogenetic tree for this family's seed alignment. We use FastTree to calculate neighbour join trees with a local bootstrap based on 100 resamples (shown next to the tree nodes). FastTree calculates approximately-maximum-likelihood phylogenetic trees from our seed alignment.
Note: You can also download the data file for the tree.
Curation and family details
This section shows the detailed information about the Pfam family. You can see the definitions of many of the terms in this section in the glossary and a fuller explanation of the scoring system that we use in the scores section of the help pages.
|Number in seed:||100|
|Number in full:||473|
|Average length of the domain:||122.40 aa|
|Average identity of full alignment:||36 %|
|Average coverage of the sequence by the domain:||7.97 %|
|HMM build commands:||
build method: hmmbuild -o /dev/null HMM SEED
search method: hmmsearch -Z 26740544 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq
|Family (HMM) version:||9|
|Download:||download the raw HMM for this family|
Weight segments by...
Change the size of the sunburst
selected sequences to HMM
a FASTA-format file
- 0 sequences
- 0 species
This visualisation provides a simple graphical representation of the distribution of this family across species. You can find the original interactive tree in the More....
This chart is a modified "sunburst" visualisation of the species tree for this family. It shows each node in the tree as a separate arc, arranged radially with the superkingdoms at the centre and the species arrayed around the outermost ring.
How the sunburst is generated
The tree is built by considering the taxonomic lineage of each sequence that has a match to this family. For each node in the resulting tree, we draw an arc in the sunburst. The radius of the arc, its distance from the root node at the centre of the sunburst, shows the taxonomic level ("superkingdom", "kingdom", etc). The length of the arc represents either the number of sequences represented at a given level, or the number of species that are found beneath the node in the tree. The weighting scheme can be changed using the sunburst controls.
In order to reduce the complexity of the representation, we reduce the number of taxonomic levels that we show. We consider only the following eight major taxonomic levels:
Colouring and labels
Segments of the tree are coloured approximately according to their superkingdom. For example, archeal branches are coloured with shades of orange, eukaryotes in shades of purple, etc. The colour assignments are shown under the sunburst controls. Where space allows, the name of the taxonomic level will be written on the arc itself.
As you move your mouse across the sunburst, the current node will be highlighted. In the top section of the controls panel we show a summary of the lineage of the currently highlighed node. If you pause over an arc, a tooltip will be shown, giving the name of the taxonomic level in the title and a summary of the number of sequences and species below that node in the tree.
Anomalies in the taxonomy tree
There are some situations that the sunburst tree cannot easily handle and for which we have work-arounds in place.
Missing taxonomic levels
Some species in the taxonomic tree may not have one or more of the main eight levels that we display. For example, Bos taurus is not assigned an order in the NCBI taxonomic tree. In such cases we mark the omitted level with, for example, "No order", in both the tooltip and the lineage summary.
Unmapped species names
The tree is built by looking at each sequence in the full alignment for the family. We take the name of the species given by UniProt and try to map that to the full taxonomic tree from NCBI. In some cases, the name chosen by UniProt does not map to any node in the NCBI tree, perhaps because the chosen name is listed as a synonym or a misspelling in the NCBI taxonomy.
So that these nodes are not simply omitted from the sunburst tree, we group them together in a separate branch (or segment of the sunburst tree). Since we cannot determine the lineage for these unmapped species, we show all levels between the superkingdom and the species as "uncategorised".
Since we reduce the species tree to only the eight main taxonomic levels, sequences that are mapped to the sub-species level in the tree would not normally be shown. Rather than leave out these species, we map them instead to their parent species. So, for example, for sequences belonging to one of the Vibrio cholerae sub-species in the NCBI taxonomy, we show them instead as belonging to the species Vibrio cholerae.
Too many species/sequences
For large species trees, you may see blank regions in the outer layers of the sunburst. These occur when there are large numbers of arcs to be drawn in a small space. If an arc is less than approximately one pixel wide, it will not be drawn and the space will be left blank. You may still be able to get some information about the species in that region by moving your mouse across the area, but since each arc will be very small, it will be difficult to accurately locate a particular species.
The tree shows the occurrence of this domain across different species. More...
We show the species tree in one of two ways. For smaller trees we try to show an interactive representation, which allows you to select specific nodes in the tree and view them as an alignment or as a set of Pfam domain graphics.
Unfortunately we have found that there are problems viewing the interactive tree when the it becomes larger than a certain limit. Furthermore, we have found that Internet Explorer can become unresponsive when viewing some trees, regardless of their size. We therefore show a text representation of the species tree when the size is above a certain limit or if you are using Internet Explorer to view the site.
If you are using IE you can still load the interactive tree by clicking the "Generate interactive tree" button, but please be aware of the potential problems that the interactive species tree can cause.
For all of the domain matches in a full alignment, we count the number that are found on all sequences in the alignment. This total is shown in the purple box.
We also count the number of unique sequences on which each domain is found, which is shown in green. Note that a domain may appear multiple times on the same sequence, leading to the difference between these two numbers.
Finally, we group sequences from the same organism according to the NCBI code that is assigned by UniProt, allowing us to count the number of distinct sequences on which the domain is found. This value is shown in the pink boxes.
We use the NCBI species tree to group organisms according to their taxonomy and this forms the structure of the displayed tree. Note that in some cases the trees are too large (have too many nodes) to allow us to build an interactive tree, but in most cases you can still view the tree in a plain text, non-interactive representation. Those species which are represented in the seed alignment for this domain are highlighted.
You can use the tree controls to manipulate how the interactive tree is displayed:
- show/hide the summary boxes
- highlight species that are represented in the seed alignment
- expand/collapse the tree or expand it to a given depth
- select a sub-tree or a set of species within the tree and view them graphically or as an alignment
- save a plain text representation of the tree
Please note: for large trees this can take some time. While the tree is loading, you can safely switch away from this tab but if you browse away from the family page entirely, the tree will not be loaded.
There are 2 interactions for this family. More...
We determine these interactions using iPfam, which considers the interactions between residues in three-dimensional protein structures and maps those interactions back to Pfam families. You can find more information about the iPfam algorithm in the journal article that accompanies the website.
For those sequences which have a structure in the Protein DataBank, we use the mapping between UniProt, PDB and Pfam coordinate systems from the PDBe group, to allow us to map Pfam domains onto UniProt sequences and three-dimensional protein structures. The table below shows the structures on which the BRCA-2_OB1 domain has been found. There are 4 instances of this domain found in the PDB. Note that there may be multiple copies of the domain in a single PDB structure, since many structures contain multiple copies of the same protein sequence.
Loading structure mapping...