Summary: SBDS protein C-terminal domain
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|, SDS, SWDS, CGI-97, SBDS ribosome assembly guanine nucleotide exchange factor, ribosome maturation factor|
Ribosome maturation protein SBDS is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SBDS gene. An alternative transcript has been described, but its biological nature has not been determined. This gene has a closely linked pseudogene that is distally located. This gene encodes a member of a highly conserved protein family that exists from archaea to vertebrates and plants.
The encoded protein may function in RNA metabolism. The precise function of the SBDS protein is not known but it appears to play an important role in ribosome function or assembly. Knockdown of SBDS expression results in increased apoptosis in erythroid cells undergoing differentiation due to elevated ROS levels. Hence SBDS is critical for normal erythropoiesis.
This family is highly conserved in species ranging from archaea to vertebrates and plants. The family contains several Shwachman-Bodian-Diamond syndrome (SBDS) proteins from both mouse and humans. Shwachman-Diamond syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder with clinical features that include pancreatic exocrine insufficiency, haematological dysfunction and skeletal abnormalities. Members of this family play a role in RNA metabolism.
A number of uncharacterised hydrophilic proteins of about 30 kDa share regions of similarity. These include,
- Mouse protein 22A3.
- Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosome XII hypothetical protein YLR022c.
- Caenorhabditis elegans hypothetical protein W06E11.4.
- Methanococcus jannaschii hypothetical protein MJ0592.
SBDS N-terminal domain
|SBDS protein N-terminal domain|
This protein domain appears to be very important, since mutations in this domain are usually the cause of Shwachman-Bodian-Diamond syndrome. It shares distant structural and sequence homology to a protein named YHR087W found in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The protein YHR087W is involved in RNA metabolism, so it is probable that the SBDS N-terminal domain has the same function.
The N-terminal domains contains a novel mixed alphabeta fold, four beta-strands, and four alpha-helices arranged as a three beta stranded anti-parallel-sheet.
SBDS central domain
The function of this protein domain has been difficult to elucidate. It is possible that it has a role in binding to DNA or RNA. Protein binding to form a protein complex is also another possibility. It has been difficult to infer the function from the structure since this particular domain structure is found in archea.
SBDS C-terminal domain
|SBDS protein C-terminal domain|
Members of this family are thought to play a role in RNA metabolism. However, its precise function remains to be elucidated. Furthermore, its structure makes it very difficult to predict the protein domain's function.
Mutations within this gene are associated with . The two most common mutations associated with this syndrome are at positions 183–184 (TA→CT) resulting in a premature stop-codon (K62X) and a frameshift mutation at position 258 (2T→C) resulting in a stopcodon (C84fsX3).
- GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000126524 - Ensembl, May 2017
- GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000025337 - Ensembl, May 2017
- "Human PubMed Reference:".
- "Mouse PubMed Reference:".
- Boocock GR, Morrison JA, Popovic M, Richards N, Ellis L, Durie PR, Rommens JM (Jan 2003). "Mutations in SBDS are associated with Shwachman-Diamond syndrome". Nat Genet. 33 (1): 97–101. PMID 12496757. doi:10.1038/ng1062.
- "Entrez Gene: SBDS Shwachman-Bodian-Diamond syndrome".
- Orelio C, van der Sluis RM, Verkuijlen P, Nethe M, Hordijk PL, van den Berg TK, Kuijpers TW (2011). "Altered intracellular localization and mobility of SBDS protein upon mutation in Shwachman-Diamond syndrome". PLoS ONE. 6 (6): e20727. PMC . PMID 21695142. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0020727.
- Sen S, Wang H, Nghiem CL, Zhou K, Yau J, Tailor CS, Irwin MS, Dror Y (December 2011). "The ribosome-related protein, SBDS, is critical for normal erythropoiesis". Blood. 118 (24): 6407–17. PMID 21963601. doi:10.1182/blood-2011-02-335190.
- Savchenko A, Krogan N, Cort JR, Evdokimova E, Lew JM, Yee AA, Sánchez-Pulido L, Andrade MA, Bochkarev A, Watson JD, Kennedy MA, Greenblatt J, Hughes T, Arrowsmith CH, Rommens JM, Edwards AM (May 2005). "The Shwachman-Bodian-Diamond syndrome protein family is involved in RNA metabolism". J. Biol. Chem. 280 (19): 19213–20. PMID 15701634. doi:10.1074/jbc.M414421200.
- Boocock GR, Morrison JA, Popovic M, Richards N, Ellis L, Durie PR, Rommens JM (January 2003). "Mutations in SBDS are associated with Shwachman-Diamond syndrome". Nat. Genet. 33 (1): 97–101. PMID 12496757. doi:10.1038/ng1062.
- Shammas C, Menne TF, Hilcenko C, Michell SR, Goyenechea B, Boocock GR, et al. (2005). "Structural and mutational analysis of the SBDS protein family. Insight into the leukemia-associated Shwachman-Diamond Syndrome.". J Biol Chem. 280 (19): 19221–9. PMID 15701631. doi:10.1074/jbc.M414656200.
- Lai CH, Chou CY, Ch'ang LY, et al. (2000). "Identification of novel human genes evolutionarily conserved in Caenorhabditis elegans by comparative proteomics.". Genome Res. 10 (5): 703–13. PMC . PMID 10810093. doi:10.1101/gr.10.5.703.
- Popovic M, Goobie S, Morrison J, et al. (2002). "Fine mapping of the locus for Shwachman-Diamond syndrome at 7q11, identification of shared disease haplotypes, and exclusion of TPST1 as a candidate gene.". Eur. J. Hum. Genet. 10 (4): 250–8. PMID 12032733. doi:10.1038/sj.ejhg.5200798.
- Strausberg RL, Feingold EA, Grouse LH, et al. (2003). "Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences.". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99 (26): 16899–903. PMC . PMID 12477932. doi:10.1073/pnas.242603899.
- Ota T, Suzuki Y, Nishikawa T, et al. (2004). "Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs.". Nat. Genet. 36 (1): 40–5. PMID 14702039. doi:10.1038/ng1285.
- Nakashima E, Mabuchi A, Makita Y, et al. (2004). "Novel SBDS mutations caused by gene conversion in Japanese patients with Shwachman-Diamond syndrome.". Hum. Genet. 114 (4): 345–8. PMID 14749921. doi:10.1007/s00439-004-1081-2.
- Woloszynek JR, Rothbaum RJ, Rawls AS, et al. (2004). "Mutations of the SBDS gene are present in most patients with Shwachman-Diamond syndrome.". Blood. 104 (12): 3588–90. PMID 15284109. doi:10.1182/blood-2004-04-1516.
- Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, et al. (2004). "The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).". Genome Res. 14 (10B): 2121–7. PMC . PMID 15489334. doi:10.1101/gr.2596504.
- Andersen JS, Lam YW, Leung AK, et al. (2005). "Nucleolar proteome dynamics.". Nature. 433 (7021): 77–83. PMID 15635413. doi:10.1038/nature03207.
- Kuijpers TW, Alders M, Tool AT, et al. (2005). "Hematologic abnormalities in Shwachman Diamond syndrome: lack of genotype-phenotype relationship.". Blood. 106 (1): 356–61. PMID 15769891. doi:10.1182/blood-2004-11-4371.
- Austin KM, Leary RJ, Shimamura A (2005). "The Shwachman-Diamond SBDS protein localizes to the nucleolus.". Blood. 106 (4): 1253–8. PMC . PMID 15860664. doi:10.1182/blood-2005-02-0807.
- Kawakami T, Mitsui T, Kanai M, et al. (2005). "Genetic analysis of Shwachman-Diamond syndrome: phenotypic heterogeneity in patients carrying identical SBDS mutations.". Tohoku J. Exp. Med. 206 (3): 253–9. PMID 15942154. doi:10.1620/tjem.206.253.
- Boocock GR, Marit MR, Rommens JM (2006). "Phylogeny, sequence conservation, and functional complementation of the SBDS protein family.". Genomics. 87 (6): 758–71. PMID 16529906. doi:10.1016/j.ygeno.2006.01.010.
- Erdos M, Alapi K, Balogh I, et al. (2007). "Severe Shwachman-Diamond syndrome phenotype caused by compound heterozygous missense mutations in the SBDS gene.". Exp. Hematol. 34 (11): 1517–21. PMID 17046571. doi:10.1016/j.exphem.2006.06.009.
- Nishimura G, Nakashima E, Hirose Y, et al. (2007). "The Shwachman-Bodian-Diamond syndrome gene mutations cause a neonatal form of spondylometaphysial dysplasia (SMD) resembling SMD Sedaghatian type.". J. Med. Genet. 44 (4): e73. PMC . PMID 17400792. doi:10.1136/jmg.2006.043869.
- Calado RT, Graf SA, Wilkerson KL, et al. (2007). "Mutations in the SBDS gene in acquired aplastic anemia.". Blood. 110 (4): 1141–6. PMC . PMID 17478638. doi:10.1182/blood-2007-03-080044.
- Wang Y, Yagasaki H, Hama A, et al. (2007). "Mutation of SBDS and SH2D1A is not associated with aplastic anemia in Japanese children.". Haematologica. 92 (11): 1573. PMID 18024409. doi:10.3324/haematol.11568.
This tab holds the annotation information that is stored in the Pfam database. As we move to using Wikipedia as our main source of annotation, the contents of this tab will be gradually replaced by the Wikipedia tab.
SBDS protein C-terminal domain Provide feedback
This family is highly conserved in species ranging from archaea to vertebrates and plants. The family contains several Shwachman-Bodian-Diamond syndrome (SBDS) proteins from both mouse and humans. Shwachman-Diamond syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder with clinical features that include pancreatic exocrine insufficiency, haematological dysfunction and skeletal abnormalities. Members of this family play a role in RNA metabolism  .
Boocock GR, Morrison JA, Popovic M, Richards N, Ellis L, Durie PR, Rommens JM; , Nat Genet 2003;33:97-101.: Mutations in SBDS are associated with Shwachman-Diamond syndrome. PUBMED:12496757 EPMC:12496757
Savchenko A, Krogan N, Cort JR, Evdokimova E, Lew JM, Yee AA, Sanchez-Pulido L, Andrade MA, Bochkarev A, Watson JD, Kennedy MA, Greenblatt J, Hughes T, Arrowsmith CH, Rommens JM, Edwards AM; , J Biol Chem 2005; [Epub ahead of print]: The SHWACHMAN-Bodian-diamond syndromeprotein family is involved in RNA metabolism. PUBMED:15701634 EPMC:15701634
Shammas C, Menne TF, Hilcenko C, Michell SR, Goyenechea B, Boocock GR, Durie PR, Rommens JM, Warren AJ; , J Biol Chem 2005; [Epub ahead of print]: Structural and mutational analysis of the SBDS protein family: insight into the leukemia-associated shwachman-diamond syndrome. PUBMED:15701631 EPMC:15701631
External database links
This tab holds annotation information from the InterPro database.
InterPro entry IPR018978
This entry represents the C-terminal domain of proteins that are highly conserved in species ranging from archaea to vertebrates and plants [PUBMED:12496757]. The family contains several Shwachman-Bodian-Diamond syndrome (SBDS, OMIM 260400) proteins from both mouse and humans. Shwachman-Diamond syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder with clinical features that include pancreatic exocrine insufficiency, haematological dysfunction and skeletal abnormalities. It is characterised by bone marrow failure and leukemia predisposition. Members of this family play a role in RNA metabolism [PUBMED:15701631, PUBMED:15701634]. In yeast Sdo1 is involved in the biogenesis of the 60S ribosomal subunit and translational activation of ribosomes. Together with the EF-2-like GTPase RIA1 (EfI1), it triggers the GTP-dependent release of TIF6 from 60S pre-ribosomes in the cytoplasm, thereby activating ribosomes for translation competence by allowing 80S ribosome assembly and facilitating TIF6 recycling to the nucleus, where it is required for 60S rRNA processing and nuclear export. This data links defective late 60S subunit maturation to an inherited bone marrow failure syndrome associated with leukemia predisposition [PUBMED:17353896].
A number of uncharacterised hydrophilic proteins of about 30 kDa share regions of similarity. These include,
- Mouse protein 22A3.
- Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosome XII hypothetical protein YLR022c.
- Caenorhabditis elegans hypothetical protein W06E11.4.
- Methanocaldococcus jannaschii (Methanococcus jannaschii) hypothetical protein MJ0592.
The mapping between Pfam and Gene Ontology is provided by InterPro. If you use this data please cite InterPro.
|Biological process||ribosome biogenesis (GO:0042254)|
Below is a listing of the unique domain organisations or architectures in which this domain is found. More...
The graphic that is shown by default represents the longest sequence with a given architecture. Each row contains the following information:
- the number of sequences which exhibit this architecture
a textual description of the architecture, e.g. Gla, EGF x 2, Trypsin.
This example describes an architecture with one
Gladomain, followed by two consecutive
EGFdomains, and finally a single
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This superfamily is characterised by being an alpha-beta 2-Layer Sandwich. It is found in EF2 proteins from both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, as well as in some tetracycline resistance proteins, peptide chain release factors ], and in the C-terminal region of the bacterial hypothetical protein, YigZ.
The clan contains the following 5 members:DUF1949 EFG_C EFG_II RF3_C SBDS_C
We store a range of different sequence alignments for families. As well as the seed alignment from which the family is built, we provide the full alignment, generated by searching the sequence database (reference proteomes) using the family HMM. We also generate alignments using four representative proteomes (RP) sets, the UniProtKB sequence database, the NCBI sequence database, and our metagenomics sequence database. More...
There are various ways to view or download the sequence alignments that we store. We provide several sequence viewers and a plain-text Stockholm-format file for download.
We make a range of alignments for each Pfam-A family:
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- Representative Proteomes (RPs) at 15%, 35%, 55% and 75% co-membership thresholds
- alignment generated by searching the UniProtKB sequence database using the family HMM
- alignment generated by searching the NCBI sequence database using the family HMM
- alignment generated by searching the metagenomics sequence database using the family HMM
You can see the alignments as HTML or in three different sequence viewers:
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You can download (or view in your browser) a text representation of a Pfam alignment in various formats:
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You may find that large alignments cause problems for the viewers and the reformatting tool, so we also provide all alignments in Stockholm format. You can download either the plain text alignment, or a gzipped version of it.
We make a range of alignments for each Pfam-A family. You can see a description of each above. You can view these alignments in various ways but please note that some types of alignment are never generated while others may not be available for all families, most commonly because the alignments are too large to handle.
1Cannot generate PP/Heatmap alignments for seeds; no PP data available
Key: available, not generated, — not available.
Format an alignment
We make all of our alignments available in Stockholm format. You can download them here as raw, plain text files or as gzip-compressed files.
You can also download a FASTA format file containing the full-length sequences for all sequences in the full alignment.
HMM logos is one way of visualising profile HMMs. Logos provide a quick overview of the properties of an HMM in a graphical form. You can see a more detailed description of HMM logos and find out how you can interpret them here. More...
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This page displays the phylogenetic tree for this family's seed alignment. We use FastTree to calculate neighbour join trees with a local bootstrap based on 100 resamples (shown next to the tree nodes). FastTree calculates approximately-maximum-likelihood phylogenetic trees from our seed alignment.
Note: You can also download the data file for the tree.
Curation and family details
This section shows the detailed information about the Pfam family. You can see the definitions of many of the terms in this section in the glossary and a fuller explanation of the scoring system that we use in the scores section of the help pages.
|Seed source:||Bateman A|
|Number in seed:||259|
|Number in full:||1525|
|Average length of the domain:||139.00 aa|
|Average identity of full alignment:||29 %|
|Average coverage of the sequence by the domain:||48.22 %|
|HMM build commands:||
build method: hmmbuild -o /dev/null HMM SEED
search method: hmmsearch -Z 45638612 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq
|Family (HMM) version:||10|
|Download:||download the raw HMM for this family|
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This visualisation provides a simple graphical representation of the distribution of this family across species. You can find the original interactive tree in the More....
This chart is a modified "sunburst" visualisation of the species tree for this family. It shows each node in the tree as a separate arc, arranged radially with the superkingdoms at the centre and the species arrayed around the outermost ring.
How the sunburst is generated
The tree is built by considering the taxonomic lineage of each sequence that has a match to this family. For each node in the resulting tree, we draw an arc in the sunburst. The radius of the arc, its distance from the root node at the centre of the sunburst, shows the taxonomic level ("superkingdom", "kingdom", etc). The length of the arc represents either the number of sequences represented at a given level, or the number of species that are found beneath the node in the tree. The weighting scheme can be changed using the sunburst controls.
In order to reduce the complexity of the representation, we reduce the number of taxonomic levels that we show. We consider only the following eight major taxonomic levels:
Colouring and labels
Segments of the tree are coloured approximately according to their superkingdom. For example, archeal branches are coloured with shades of orange, eukaryotes in shades of purple, etc. The colour assignments are shown under the sunburst controls. Where space allows, the name of the taxonomic level will be written on the arc itself.
As you move your mouse across the sunburst, the current node will be highlighted. In the top section of the controls panel we show a summary of the lineage of the currently highlighed node. If you pause over an arc, a tooltip will be shown, giving the name of the taxonomic level in the title and a summary of the number of sequences and species below that node in the tree.
Anomalies in the taxonomy tree
There are some situations that the sunburst tree cannot easily handle and for which we have work-arounds in place.
Missing taxonomic levels
Some species in the taxonomic tree may not have one or more of the main eight levels that we display. For example, Bos taurus is not assigned an order in the NCBI taxonomic tree. In such cases we mark the omitted level with, for example, "No order", in both the tooltip and the lineage summary.
Unmapped species names
The tree is built by looking at each sequence in the full alignment for the family. We take the name of the species given by UniProt and try to map that to the full taxonomic tree from NCBI. In some cases, the name chosen by UniProt does not map to any node in the NCBI tree, perhaps because the chosen name is listed as a synonym or a misspelling in the NCBI taxonomy.
So that these nodes are not simply omitted from the sunburst tree, we group them together in a separate branch (or segment of the sunburst tree). Since we cannot determine the lineage for these unmapped species, we show all levels between the superkingdom and the species as "uncategorised".
Since we reduce the species tree to only the eight main taxonomic levels, sequences that are mapped to the sub-species level in the tree would not normally be shown. Rather than leave out these species, we map them instead to their parent species. So, for example, for sequences belonging to one of the Vibrio cholerae sub-species in the NCBI taxonomy, we show them instead as belonging to the species Vibrio cholerae.
Too many species/sequences
For large species trees, you may see blank regions in the outer layers of the sunburst. These occur when there are large numbers of arcs to be drawn in a small space. If an arc is less than approximately one pixel wide, it will not be drawn and the space will be left blank. You may still be able to get some information about the species in that region by moving your mouse across the area, but since each arc will be very small, it will be difficult to accurately locate a particular species.
The tree shows the occurrence of this domain across different species. More...
We show the species tree in one of two ways. For smaller trees we try to show an interactive representation, which allows you to select specific nodes in the tree and view them as an alignment or as a set of Pfam domain graphics.
Unfortunately we have found that there are problems viewing the interactive tree when the it becomes larger than a certain limit. Furthermore, we have found that Internet Explorer can become unresponsive when viewing some trees, regardless of their size. We therefore show a text representation of the species tree when the size is above a certain limit or if you are using Internet Explorer to view the site.
If you are using IE you can still load the interactive tree by clicking the "Generate interactive tree" button, but please be aware of the potential problems that the interactive species tree can cause.
For all of the domain matches in a full alignment, we count the number that are found on all sequences in the alignment. This total is shown in the purple box.
We also count the number of unique sequences on which each domain is found, which is shown in green. Note that a domain may appear multiple times on the same sequence, leading to the difference between these two numbers.
Finally, we group sequences from the same organism according to the NCBI code that is assigned by UniProt, allowing us to count the number of distinct sequences on which the domain is found. This value is shown in the pink boxes.
We use the NCBI species tree to group organisms according to their taxonomy and this forms the structure of the displayed tree. Note that in some cases the trees are too large (have too many nodes) to allow us to build an interactive tree, but in most cases you can still view the tree in a plain text, non-interactive representation. Those species which are represented in the seed alignment for this domain are highlighted.
You can use the tree controls to manipulate how the interactive tree is displayed:
- show/hide the summary boxes
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- expand/collapse the tree or expand it to a given depth
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Please note: for large trees this can take some time. While the tree is loading, you can safely switch away from this tab but if you browse away from the family page entirely, the tree will not be loaded.
There are 2 interactions for this family. More...
We determine these interactions using iPfam, which considers the interactions between residues in three-dimensional protein structures and maps those interactions back to Pfam families. You can find more information about the iPfam algorithm in the journal article that accompanies the website.
For those sequences which have a structure in the Protein DataBank, we use the mapping between UniProt, PDB and Pfam coordinate systems from the PDBe group, to allow us to map Pfam domains onto UniProt sequences and three-dimensional protein structures. The table below shows the structures on which the SBDS_C domain has been found. There are 10 instances of this domain found in the PDB. Note that there may be multiple copies of the domain in a single PDB structure, since many structures contain multiple copies of the same protein sequence.
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