Summary: Cas6 Crispr
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The Cas6 Crispr family of proteins averaging 140 residues are characterised by having a GhGxxxxxGhG motif, where h indicates a hydrophobic residue, at the C-terminus . The CRISPR-Cas system is possibly a mechanism of defence against invading pathogens and plasmids that functions analogously to the RNA interference (RNAi) systems in eukaryotes .
Haft DH, Selengut J, Mongodin EF, Nelson KE; , PLoS Comput Biol. 2005;1:e60.: A guild of 45 CRISPR-associated (Cas) protein families and multiple CRISPR/Cas subtypes exist in prokaryotic genomes. PUBMED:16292354 EPMC:16292354
Makarova KS, Grishin NV, Shabalina SA, Wolf YI, Koonin EV; , Biol Direct. 2006;1:7.: A putative RNA-interference-based immune system in prokaryotes: computational analysis of the predicted enzymatic machinery, functional analogies with eukaryotic RNAi, and hypothetical mechanisms of action. PUBMED:16545108 EPMC:16545108
External database links
This tab holds annotation information from the InterPro database.
InterPro entry IPR014174
Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) are a family of DNA direct repeats separated by regularly sized non-repetitive spacer sequences that are found in most bacterial and archaeal genomes [PUBMED:17442114]. CRISPRs appear to provide acquired resistance against bacteriophages, possibly acting with an RNA interference-like mechanism to inhibit gene functions of invasive DNA elements [PUBMED:17379808, PUBMED:16545108]. Differences in the number and type of spacers between CRISPR repeats correlate with phage sensitivity. It is thought that following phage infection, bacteria integrate new spacers derived from phage genomic sequences, and that the removal or addition of particular spacers modifies the phage-resistance phenotype of the cell. Therefore, the specificity of CRISPRs may be determined by spacer-phage sequence similarity.
In addition, there are many protein families known as CRISPR-associated sequences (Cas), which are encoded in the vicinity of CRISPR loci [PUBMED:16292354]. CRISPR/cas gene regions can be quite large, with up to 20 different, tandem-arranged cas genes next to a CRISPR cluster or filling the region between two repeat clusters. Cas genes and CRISPRs are found on mobile genetic elements such as plasmids, and have undergone extensive horizontal transfer. Cas proteins are thought to be involved in the propagation and functioning of CRISPRs. Some Cas proteins show similarity to helicases and repair proteins, although the functions of most are unknown. Cas families can be divided into subtypes according to operon organisation and phylogeny.
Members of this entry resemble the Cas6 proteins described by INTERPRO in having a C-terminal motif GXGXXXXXGXG, where the single X of each GXG is hydrophobic and the spacer XXXXX has at least one Lys or Arg. Examples are found in cas gene operons of CRISPR regions in Anabaena variabilis (strain ATCC 29413/PCC 7937), Leptospira interrogans, Gemmata obscuriglobus UQM 2246, and twice in Myxococcus xanthus (strain DK 1622). Oddly, an orphan member is found in Thiobacillus denitrificans (strain ATCC 25259), whose genome does not seem to contain other evidence of CRISPR repeats or cas genes.
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This group of families is one of several protein families that are always found associated with prokaryotic CRISPRs, themselves a family of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats, DNA repeats found in nearly half of all bacterial and archaeal genomes. These DNA repeat regions have a remarkably regular structure: unique sequences of constant size, called spacers, sit between each pair of repeats . It has been shown that the CRISPRs are virus-derived sequences acquired by the host to enable them to resist viral infection. The Cas proteins from the host use the CRISPRs to mediate an antiviral response. After transcription of the CRISPR, a complex of Cas proteins termed Cascade cleaves a CRISPR RNA precursor in each repeat and retains the cleavage products containing the virus-derived sequence. Assisted by the helicase Cas3, these mature CRISPR RNAs then serve as small guide RNAs that enable Cascade to interfere with virus proliferation . Cas5 contains an endonuclease motif, whose inactivation leads to loss of resistance, even in the presence of phage-derived spacers .
The clan contains the following 7 members:Cas6 Cas_Cas5d Cas_Cas6 Cas_Cmr3 CRISPR_assoc DUF2276 RAMPs
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Curation and family details
|Author:||TIGRFAMs, Coggill P|
|Number in seed:||10|
|Number in full:||43|
|Average length of the domain:||199.20 aa|
|Average identity of full alignment:||32 %|
|Average coverage of the sequence by the domain:||90.31 %|
|HMM build commands:||
build method: hmmbuild -o /dev/null HMM SEED
search method: hmmsearch -Z 23193494 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq
|Family (HMM) version:||5|
|Download:||download the raw HMM for this family|
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