Summary: C2 domain of PTEN tumour-suppressor protein
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C2 domain of PTEN tumour-suppressor protein Provide feedback
This is the C2 domain-like domain, in greek key form, of the PTEN protein, phosphatidyl-inositol triphosphate phosphatase, and it is the C-terminus. This domain may well include a CBR3 loop which means it plays a central role in membrane binding. This domain associates across an extensive interface with the N-terminal phosphatase domain DSPc (PF00782) suggesting that the C2 domain productively positions the catalytic part of the protein onto the membrane .
Lee JO, Yang H, Georgescu MM, Di Cristofano A, Maehama T, Shi Y, Dixon JE, Pandolfi P, Pavletich NP; , Cell. 1999;99:323-334.: Crystal structure of the PTEN tumor suppressor: implications for its phosphoinositide phosphatase activity and membrane association. PUBMED:10555148 EPMC:10555148
This tab holds annotation information from the InterPro database.
InterPro entry IPR014020
Tensins constitute an eukaryotic family of lipid phosphatases that are defined by the presence of two adjacent domains: a lipid phosphatase domain and a C2-like domain. The tensin-type C2 domain has a structure similar to the classical C2 domain (see INTERPRO) that mediates the Ca2+-dependent membrane recruitment of several signalling proteins. However the tensin-type C2 domain lacks two of the three conserved loops that bind Ca2+, and in this respect it is similar to the C2 domains of PKC-type [PUBMED:11395408, PUBMED:11858936]. The tensin-type C2 domain can bind phopholipid membranes in a Ca2+ independent manner [PUBMED:10555148]. In the tumour suppressor protein PTEN, the best characterised member of the family, the lipid phosphatase domain was shown to specifically dephosphorylate the D3 position of the inositol ring of the lipid second messenger, phosphatydilinositol-3-4-5-triphosphate (PIP3). The lipid phosphatase domain contains the signature motif HCXXGXXR present in the active sites of protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) and dual specificity phosphatases (DSPs). Furthermore, two invariant lysines are found only in the tensin-type phosphatase motif (HCKXGKXR) and are suspected to interact with the phosphate group at position D1 and D5 of the inositol ring [PUBMED:11395408, PUBMED:10555148].
The C2 domain is found at the C terminus of the tumour suppressor protein PTEN (phosphatidyl-inositol triphosphate phosphatase). This domain may include a CBR3 loop, indicating a central role in membrane binding. This domain associates across an extensive interface with the N-terminal phosphatase domain DSPc suggesting that the C2 domain productively positions the catalytic part of the protein on the membrane. The crystal structure of the PTEN tumour suppressor has been solved [PUBMED:10555148]. The lipid phosphatase domain has a structure similar to the dual specificity phosphatase (see INTERPRO). However, PTEN has a larger active site pocket that could be important to accommodate PI(3,4,5)P3.
Proteins known to contain a phosphatase and a C2 tensin-type domain are listed below:
- Tensin, a focal-adhesion molecule that binds to actin filaments. It may be involved in cell migration, cartilage development and in linking signal transduction pathways to the cytoskeleton.
- Phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10 protein (PTEN). It antagonizes PI 3-kinase signalling by dephosphorylating the 3-position of the inositol ring of PI(3,4,5)P3 and thus inactivates downstream signalling. It plays major roles both during development and in the adult to control cell size, growth, and survival.
- Auxilin. It binds clathrin heavy chain and promotes its assembly into regular cages.
- Cyclin G-associated kinase or auxilin-2. It is a potential regulator of clathrin-mediated membrane trafficking.
Below is a listing of the unique domain organisations or architectures in which this domain is found. More...
The graphic that is shown by default represents the longest sequence with a given architecture. Each row contains the following information:
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This superfamily includes C2 domains and C2-like domains.
The clan contains the following 16 members:Aida_C2 Anillin B9-C2 C2 C2-C2_1 CC2D2AN-C2 CEP76-C2 DOCK-C2 IcmF_C MNNL NT-C2 PI3K_C2 PTEN_C2 RPGR1_C Spond_N YEATS
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We make a range of alignments for each Pfam-A family:
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- alignment generated by searching the metagenomics sequence database using the family HMM
You can see the alignments as HTML or in three different sequence viewers:
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We make a range of alignments for each Pfam-A family. You can see a description of each above. You can view these alignments in various ways but please note that some types of alignment are never generated while others may not be available for all families, most commonly because the alignments are too large to handle.
1Cannot generate PP/Heatmap alignments for seeds; no PP data available
Key: available, not generated, — not available.
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This page displays the phylogenetic tree for this family's seed alignment. We use FastTree to calculate neighbour join trees with a local bootstrap based on 100 resamples (shown next to the tree nodes). FastTree calculates approximately-maximum-likelihood phylogenetic trees from our seed alignment.
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Curation and family details
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|Seed source:||Gene3D, pdb_1d5r|
|Author:||Finn RD , Coggill P|
|Number in seed:||49|
|Number in full:||2769|
|Average length of the domain:||138.60 aa|
|Average identity of full alignment:||25 %|
|Average coverage of the sequence by the domain:||13.84 %|
|HMM build commands:||
build method: hmmbuild -o /dev/null HMM SEED
search method: hmmsearch -Z 45638612 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq
|Family (HMM) version:||9|
|Download:||download the raw HMM for this family|
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This chart is a modified "sunburst" visualisation of the species tree for this family. It shows each node in the tree as a separate arc, arranged radially with the superkingdoms at the centre and the species arrayed around the outermost ring.
How the sunburst is generated
The tree is built by considering the taxonomic lineage of each sequence that has a match to this family. For each node in the resulting tree, we draw an arc in the sunburst. The radius of the arc, its distance from the root node at the centre of the sunburst, shows the taxonomic level ("superkingdom", "kingdom", etc). The length of the arc represents either the number of sequences represented at a given level, or the number of species that are found beneath the node in the tree. The weighting scheme can be changed using the sunburst controls.
In order to reduce the complexity of the representation, we reduce the number of taxonomic levels that we show. We consider only the following eight major taxonomic levels:
Colouring and labels
Segments of the tree are coloured approximately according to their superkingdom. For example, archeal branches are coloured with shades of orange, eukaryotes in shades of purple, etc. The colour assignments are shown under the sunburst controls. Where space allows, the name of the taxonomic level will be written on the arc itself.
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There are some situations that the sunburst tree cannot easily handle and for which we have work-arounds in place.
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Some species in the taxonomic tree may not have one or more of the main eight levels that we display. For example, Bos taurus is not assigned an order in the NCBI taxonomic tree. In such cases we mark the omitted level with, for example, "No order", in both the tooltip and the lineage summary.
Unmapped species names
The tree is built by looking at each sequence in the full alignment for the family. We take the name of the species given by UniProt and try to map that to the full taxonomic tree from NCBI. In some cases, the name chosen by UniProt does not map to any node in the NCBI tree, perhaps because the chosen name is listed as a synonym or a misspelling in the NCBI taxonomy.
So that these nodes are not simply omitted from the sunburst tree, we group them together in a separate branch (or segment of the sunburst tree). Since we cannot determine the lineage for these unmapped species, we show all levels between the superkingdom and the species as "uncategorised".
Since we reduce the species tree to only the eight main taxonomic levels, sequences that are mapped to the sub-species level in the tree would not normally be shown. Rather than leave out these species, we map them instead to their parent species. So, for example, for sequences belonging to one of the Vibrio cholerae sub-species in the NCBI taxonomy, we show them instead as belonging to the species Vibrio cholerae.
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The tree shows the occurrence of this domain across different species. More...
We show the species tree in one of two ways. For smaller trees we try to show an interactive representation, which allows you to select specific nodes in the tree and view them as an alignment or as a set of Pfam domain graphics.
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For all of the domain matches in a full alignment, we count the number that are found on all sequences in the alignment. This total is shown in the purple box.
We also count the number of unique sequences on which each domain is found, which is shown in green. Note that a domain may appear multiple times on the same sequence, leading to the difference between these two numbers.
Finally, we group sequences from the same organism according to the NCBI code that is assigned by UniProt, allowing us to count the number of distinct sequences on which the domain is found. This value is shown in the pink boxes.
We use the NCBI species tree to group organisms according to their taxonomy and this forms the structure of the displayed tree. Note that in some cases the trees are too large (have too many nodes) to allow us to build an interactive tree, but in most cases you can still view the tree in a plain text, non-interactive representation. Those species which are represented in the seed alignment for this domain are highlighted.
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There are 3 interactions for this family. More...
We determine these interactions using iPfam, which considers the interactions between residues in three-dimensional protein structures and maps those interactions back to Pfam families. You can find more information about the iPfam algorithm in the journal article that accompanies the website.
For those sequences which have a structure in the Protein DataBank, we use the mapping between UniProt, PDB and Pfam coordinate systems from the PDBe group, to allow us to map Pfam domains onto UniProt sequences and three-dimensional protein structures. The table below shows the structures on which the PTEN_C2 domain has been found. There are 37 instances of this domain found in the PDB. Note that there may be multiple copies of the domain in a single PDB structure, since many structures contain multiple copies of the same protein sequence.
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