Summary: Oestrogen-type nuclear receptor final C-terminal
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Estrogen receptor Edit Wikipedia article
|estrogen receptor 1 (ER-alpha)|
A dimer of the ligand-binding region of ERα (PDB rendering based on ).
|Alt. symbols||ER-α, NR3A1|
|PDB||1ERE (RCSB PDB PDBe PDBj)|
|Locus||Chr. 6 q24-q27|
|estrogen receptor 2 (ER-beta)|
A dimer of the ligand-binding region of ERβ (PDB rendering based on ).
|Alt. symbols||ER-β, NR3A2|
|PDB||1QKM (RCSB PDB PDBe PDBj)|
|Locus||Chr. 14 q21-q22|
Estrogen receptors are a group of proteins found inside cells. They are receptors that are activated by the hormone estrogen (17β-estradiol). Two classes of estrogen receptor exist: ER, which is a member of the nuclear hormone family of intracellular receptors, and GPR30, which is a member of the rhodopsin-like family of G protein-coupled receptors. This article refers to the former (ER).
Once activated by estrogen, the ER is able to translocate into the nucleus and bind to DNA to regulate the activity of different genes (i.e. it is a DNA-binding transcription factor). However, it also has additional functions independent of DNA binding.
There are two different forms of the estrogen receptor, usually referred to as α and β, each encoded by a separate gene (ESR1 and ESR2, respectively). Hormone-activated estrogen receptors form dimers, and, since the two forms are coexpressed in many cell types, the receptors may form ERα (αα) or ERβ (ββ) homodimers or ERαβ (αβ) heterodimers. Estrogen receptor alpha and beta show significant overall sequence homology, and both are composed of five domains (listed from the N- to C-terminus; amino acid sequence numbers refer to human ER):(A-F domain)
The N-terminal A/B domain is able to transactivate gene transcription in the absence of bound ligand (e.g., the estrogen hormone). While this region is able to activate gene transcription without ligand, this activation is weak and more selective compared to the activation provided by the E domain. The C domain, also known as the DNA-binding domain, binds to estrogen response elements in DNA. The D domain is a hinge region that connects the C and E domains. The E domain contains the ligand binding cavity as well as binding sites for coactivator and corepressor proteins. The E-domain in the presence of bound ligand is able to activate gene transcription. The C-terminal F domain function is not entirely clear and is variable in length.
Due to alternative RNA splicing, several ER isoforms are known to exist. At least three ERalpha and five ERbeta isoforms have been identified. The ERbeta isoforms receptor subtypes can transactivate transcription only when a heterodimer with the functional ERß1 receptor of 59 kDa is formed. The ERß3 receptor was detected at high levels in the testis. The two other ERalpha isoforms are 36 and 46kDa.
Only in fish, but not in humans, an ERgamma receptor has been described.
Both ERs are widely expressed in different tissue types, however there are some notable differences in their expression patterns:
- The ERα is found in endometrium, breast cancer cells, ovarian stromal cells, and the hypothalamus. In males, ERα protein is found in the epithelium of the efferent ducts.
- The expression of the ERβ protein has been documented in ovarian granulosa cells, kidney, brain, bone, heart, lungs, intestinal mucosa, prostate, and endothelial cells.
The ERs are regarded to be cytoplasmic receptors in their unliganded state, but visualization research has shown that a fraction of the ERs resides in the nucleus. The "ERα" primary transcript gives rise to several alternatively spliced variants of unknown function.
Binding and functional selectivity
Different ligands may differ in their affinity for alpha and beta isoforms of the estrogen receptor:
- 17-beta-estradiol binds equally well to both receptors
- estrone, and raloxifene bind preferentially to the alpha receptor
- estriol, and genistein to the beta receptor
Subtype selective estrogen receptor modulators preferentially bind to either the α- or the β-subtype of the receptor. In addition, the different estrogen receptor combinations may respond differently to various ligands, which may translate into tissue selective agonistic and antagonistic effects. The ratio of α- to β- subtype concentration has been proposed to play a role in certain diseases.
The concept of selective estrogen receptor modulators is based on the ability to promote ER interactions with different proteins such as transcriptional coactivator or corepressors. Furthermore, the ratio of coactivator to corepressor protein varies in different tissues. As a consequence, the same ligand may be an agonist in some tissue (where coactivators predominate) while antagonistic in other tissues (where corepressors dominate). Tamoxifen, for example, is an antagonist in breast and is, therefore, used as a breast cancer treatment but an ER agonist in bone (thereby preventing osteoporosis) and a partial agonist in the endometrium (increasing the risk of uterine cancer) .
In the absence of hormone, estrogen receptors are largely located in the cytosol. Hormone binding to the receptor triggers a number of events starting with migration of the receptor from the cytosol into the nucleus, dimerization of the receptor, and subsequent binding of the receptor dimer to specific sequences of DNA known as hormone response elements. The DNA/receptor complex then recruits other proteins that are responsible for the transcription of downstream DNA into mRNA and finally protein that results in a change in cell function. Estrogen receptors also occur within the cell nucleus, and both estrogen receptor subtypes have a DNA-binding domain and can function as transcription factors to regulate the production of proteins.
Direct acetylation of the estrogen receptor alpha at the lysine residues in hinge region by p300 regulates transactivation and hormone sensitivity.
In addition, some ER may associate with cell membranes by attachment to caveolin-1 and form complexes with G proteins, striatin, receptor tyrosine kinases (e.g., EGFR and IGF-1), and non-receptor tyrosine kinases (e.g., Src). Through striatin, some of this membrane bound ER may lead to increased levels of Ca2+ and nitric oxide (NO). Through the receptor tyrosine kinases, signals are sent to the nucleus through the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK/ERK) pathway and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (Pl3K/AKT) pathway. Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK)-3β inhibits transcription by nuclear ER by inhibiting phosphorylation of serine 118 of nuclear ERα. Phosphorylation of GSK-3β removes its inhibitory effect, and this can be achieved by the PI3K/AKT pathway and the MAPK/ERK pathway, via rsk.
Estrogen receptors are over-expressed in around 70% of breast cancer cases, referred to as "ER-positive", and can be demonstrated in such tissues using immunohistochemistry. Two hypotheses have been proposed to explain why this causes tumorigenesis, and the available evidence suggests that both mechanisms contribute:
- First, binding of estrogen to the ER stimulates proliferation of mammary cells, with the resulting increase in cell division and DNA replication, leading to mutations.
- Second, estrogen metabolism produces genotoxic waste.
The result of both processes is disruption of cell cycle, apoptosis and DNA repair, and, therefore, tumour formation. ERα is certainly associated with more differentiated tumours, while evidence that ERβ is involved is controversial. Different versions of the ESR1 gene have been identified (with single-nucleotide polymorphisms) and are associated with different risks of developing breast cancer.
Estrogen and the ERs have also been implicated in breast cancer, ovarian cancer, colon cancer, prostate cancer, and endometrial cancer. Advanced colon cancer is associated with a loss of ERβ, the predominant ER in colon tissue, and colon cancer is treated with ERβ-specific agonists.
Phytoestrogens such as quercetin can modulate estrogen receptor’s activities in such a way that it may prevent cancers including breasts, prostate, and colon all by promoting apoptosis. Quercetin selectively binds to the estrogen receptor beta (ERβ). This was tested in HeLa cells which were treated with a pure estrogen receptor antagonist which blocked both estradiol and quercetin from inducing the caspase-3 activation. ERβ is expressed in the human colon and activates a specific signal transduction pathway that controls apoptosis in the colon and works by being activated by estradiol and more recently found to possibly be activated by quercetin. Quercetin activates the ERβ along with the apoptotic cascade when caspase-3 is present by the phosphorylation of p38 kinase. In colon cancers and tumors ERβ and its pathway have been proven to be significantly decreased thus allowing the tumors to thrive.
Endocrine therapy for breast cancer involves selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMS), such as tamoxifen, which behave as ER antagonists in breast tissue, or aromatase inhibitors, such as anastrozole. ER status is used to determine sensitivity of breast cancer lesions to tamoxifen and aromatase inhibitors. Another SERM, raloxifene, has been used as a preventive chemotherapy for women judged to have a high risk of developing breast cancer. Another chemotherapeutic anti-estrogen, ICI 182,780 (Faslodex), which acts as a complete antagonist, also promotes degradation of the estrogen receptor.
However, de novo resistance to endocrine therapy undermines the efficacy of using competitive inhibitors like tamoxifen. Hormone deprivation through the use of aromatase inhibitors is also rendered futile. Massively parallel genome sequencing has revealed the common presence of point mutations on ESR1 that are drivers for resistance, and promote the agonist conformation of ERα without the bound ligand. Such constitutive, estrogen-independent activity is driven by specific mutations, such as the D538G or Y537S/C/N mutations, in the ligand binding domain of ESR1 and promote cell proliferation and tumor progression without hormone stimulation.
Studies in female mice have shown that estrogen receptor-alpha declines in the pre-optic hypothalamus as they grow old. Female mice that were given a calorically restricted diet during the majority of their lives maintained higher levels of ERα in the pre-optic hypothalamus than their non-calorically restricted counterparts.
A dramatic demonstration of the importance of estrogens in the regulation of fat deposition comes from transgenic mice that were genetically engineered to lack a functional aromatase gene. These mice have very low levels of estrogen and are obese. Obesity was also observed in estrogen deficient female mice lacking the follicle-stimulating hormone receptor. The effect of low estrogen on increased obesity has been linked to estrogen receptor alpha.
Estrogen receptors were first identified by Elwood V. Jensen at the University of Chicago in 1958, for which Jensen was awarded the Lasker Award. The gene for a second estrogen receptor (ERβ) was identified in 1996 by Kuiper et al. in rat prostate and ovary using degenerate ERalpha primers.
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- Bakas P, Liapis A, Vlahopoulos S, Giner M, Logotheti S, Creatsas G, Meligova AK, Alexis MN, Zoumpourlis V (December 2007). "Estrogen receptor alpha and beta in uterine fibroids: a basis for altered estrogen responsiveness". Fertil. Steril. 90 (5): 1878–85. doi:10.1016/j.fertnstert.2007.09.019. PMID 18166184.
- Shang Y, Brown M (2002). "Molecular determinants for the tissue specificity of SERMs". Science 295 (5564): 2465–8. doi:10.1126/science.1068537. PMID 11923541.
- Deroo BJ, Korach KS (2006). "Estrogen receptors and human disease". J. Clin. Invest. 116 (3): 561–7. doi:10.1172/JCI27987. PMC 2373424. PMID 16511588.
- Wang C, Fu M, Angeletti RH, Siconolfi-Baez L, Reutens AT, Albanese C, Lisanti MP, Katzenellenbogen BS, Kato S, Hopp T, Fuqua SA, Lopez GN, Kushner PJ, Pestell RG. (25 May 2001). "Direct acetylation of the estrogen receptor alpha hinge region by p300 regulates transactivation and hormone sensitivity.". J Biol Chem. 276 (21): 18375–83. PMID 11279135.
- Zivadinovic D, Gametchu B, Watson CS (2005). "Membrane estrogen receptor-alpha levels in MCF-7 breast cancer cells predict cAMP and proliferation responses". Breast Cancer Res. 7 (1): R101–12. doi:10.1186/bcr958. PMC 1064104. PMID 15642158.
- Björnström L, Sjöberg M (2004). "Estrogen receptor-dependent activation of AP-1 via non-genomic signalling". Nucl Recept 2 (1): 3. doi:10.1186/1478-1336-2-3. PMC 434532. PMID 15196329.
- Lu Q, Pallas DC, Surks HK, Baur WE, Mendelsohn ME, Karas RH (2004). "Striatin assembles a membrane signaling complex necessary for rapid, nongenomic activation of endothelial NO synthase by estrogen receptor alpha". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101 (49): 17126–31. doi:10.1073/pnas.0407492101. PMC 534607. PMID 15569929.
- Kato S, Endoh H, Masuhiro Y, Kitamoto T, Uchiyama S, Sasaki H, Masushige S, Gotoh Y, Nishida E, Kawashima H, Metzger D, Chambon P (1995). "Activation of the estrogen receptor through phosphorylation by mitogen-activated protein kinase". Science 270 (5241): 1491–4. doi:10.1126/science.270.5241.1491. PMID 7491495.
- Prossnitz ER, Arterburn JB, Sklar LA (2007). "GPR30: A G protein-coupled receptor for estrogen". Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 265-266: 138–42. doi:10.1016/j.mce.2006.12.010. PMC 1847610. PMID 17222505.
- Otto C, Rohde-Schulz B, Schwarz G, Fuchs I, Klewer M, Brittain D, Langer G, Bader B, Prelle K, Nubbemeyer R, Fritzemeier KH (2008). "G protein-coupled receptor 30 localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum and is not activated by estradiol.". Endocrinology. 149 (10): 4846–56. doi:10.1210/en.2008-0269. PMID 18566127.
- Harris HA, Albert LM, Leathurby Y, Malamas MS, Mewshaw RE, Miller CP, Kharode YP, Marzolf J, Komm BS, Winneker RC, Frail DE, Henderson RA, Zhu Y, Keith JC (2003). "Evaluation of an estrogen receptor-beta agonist in animal models of human disease". Endocrinology 144 (10): 4241–9. doi:10.1210/en.2003-0550. PMID 14500559.
- Bulzomi P, Galluzzo P, Bolli A, Leone S, Acconcia F, Marino M (May 2012). "The pro-apoptotic effect of quercetin in cancer cell lines requires ERβ-dependent signals". J. Cell. Physiol. 227 (5): 1891–8. doi:10.1002/jcp.22917. PMID 21732360.
- Ascenzi P, Bocedi A, Marino M (August 2006). "Structure-function relationship of estrogen receptor alpha and beta: impact on human health". Mol. Aspects Med. 27 (4): 299–402. doi:10.1016/j.mam.2006.07.001. PMID 16914190.
- Konstantinopoulos PA, Kominea A, Vandoros G, Sykiotis GP, Andricopoulos P, Varakis I, Sotiropoulou-Bonikou G, Papavassiliou AG (June 2003). "Oestrogen receptor beta (ERbeta) is abundantly expressed in normal colonic mucosa, but declines in colon adenocarcinoma paralleling the tumour's dedifferentiation". Eur. J. Cancer 39 (9): 1251–8. PMID 12763213.
- Clemons M, Danson S, Howell A (2002). "Tamoxifen ("Nolvadex"): a review". Cancer Treat. Rev. 28 (4): 165–80. PMID 12363457.
- Fabian CJ, Kimler BF (2005). "Selective estrogen-receptor modulators for primary prevention of breast cancer". J. Clin. Oncol. 23 (8): 1644–55. doi:10.1200/JCO.2005.11.005. PMID 15755972.
- Oesterreich, S; Davidson, N. E. (2013). "The search for ESR1 mutations in breast cancer". Nature Genetics 45 (12): 1415–6. doi:10.1038/ng.2831. PMID 24270445.
- Li, S; Shen, D; Shao, J; Crowder, R; Liu, W; Prat, A; He, X; Liu, S; Hoog, J; Lu, C; Ding, L; Griffith, O. L.; Miller, C; Larson, D; Fulton, R. S.; Harrison, M; Mooney, T; McMichael, J. F.; Luo, J; Tao, Y; Goncalves, R; Schlosberg, C; Hiken, J. F.; Saied, L; Sanchez, C; Giuntoli, T; Bumb, C; Cooper, C; Kitchens, R. T.; Lin, A (2013). "Endocrine-therapy-resistant ESR1 variants revealed by genomic characterization of breast-cancer-derived xenografts". Cell Reports 4 (6): 1116–30. doi:10.1016/j.celrep.2013.08.022. PMC 3881975. PMID 24055055.
- Hewitt KN, Boon WC, Murata Y, Jones ME, Simpson ER (2003). "The aromatase knockout mouse presents with a sexually dimorphic disruption to cholesterol homeostasis". Endocrinology 144 (9): 3895–903. doi:10.1210/en.2003-0244. PMID 12933663.
- Danilovich N, Babu PS, Xing W, Gerdes M, Krishnamurthy H, Sairam MR (2000). "Estrogen deficiency, obesity, and skeletal abnormalities in follicle-stimulating hormone receptor knockout (FORKO) female mice". Endocrinology 141 (11): 4295–308. doi:10.1210/en.141.11.4295. PMID 11089565.
- Ohlsson C, Hellberg N, Parini P, Vidal O, Bohlooly-Y M, Bohlooly M, Rudling M, Lindberg MK, Warner M, Angelin B, Gustafsson JA (2000). "Obesity and disturbed lipoprotein profile in estrogen receptor-alpha-deficient male mice". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 278 (3): 640–5. doi:10.1006/bbrc.2000.3827. PMID 11095962.
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This tab holds the annotation information that is stored in the Pfam database. As we move to using Wikipedia as our main source of annotation, the contents of this tab will be gradually replaced by the Wikipedia tab.
Oestrogen-type nuclear receptor final C-terminal Provide feedback
This is the very C-terminal region of a subfamily of nuclear receptors that includes oestrogen receptors and other subfamily 3 group A members. The actual function of this region is not known, but the domain is absent from all the other types of nuclear receptors. Oestrogen receptors modulate AP-1-dependent transcription  through two distinct mechanisms: via protein-protein interactions on DNA; and via non-genomic actions. The mechanism used depends on the cellular localisation of the receptor. In addition to the more extensively studied cross-talk on DNA, additional non-genomic actions might be very important in target tissues in which membrane-associated ERs are found. These non-genomic actions probably contribute to the overall physiological responses mediated by ligand-bound ERs  and might possibly be mediated via this C-terminal domain.
External database links
This tab holds annotation information from the InterPro database.
InterPro entry IPR024736
This entry represents C-terminal domain (also known as the F domain) of the estrogen-type receptors. The actual function of this domain is not known, but it is absent from all the other types of nuclear receptors. Oestrogen receptors modulate AP-1-dependent transcription [PUBMED:10751636] through two distinct mechanisms: via protein-protein interactions on DNA; and via non-genomic actions. The mechanism used depends on the cellular localisation of the receptor. In addition to the more extensively studied cross-talk on DNA, additional non-genomic actions might be very important in target tissues in which membrane-associated ERs are found. These non-genomic actions probably contribute to the overall physiological responses mediated by ligand-bound ERs [PUBMED:15196329] and might possibly be mediated via this C-terminal domain.
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|Seed source:||Willis S|
|Number in seed:||17|
|Number in full:||117|
|Average length of the domain:||42.60 aa|
|Average identity of full alignment:||53 %|
|Average coverage of the sequence by the domain:||8.76 %|
|HMM build commands:||
build method: hmmbuild -o /dev/null HMM SEED
search method: hmmsearch -Z 23193494 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq
|Family (HMM) version:||2|
|Download:||download the raw HMM for this family|
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a FASTA-format file
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This visualisation provides a simple graphical representation of the distribution of this family across species. You can find the original interactive tree in the More....
This chart is a modified "sunburst" visualisation of the species tree for this family. It shows each node in the tree as a separate arc, arranged radially with the superkingdoms at the centre and the species arrayed around the outermost ring.
How the sunburst is generated
The tree is built by considering the taxonomic lineage of each sequence that has a match to this family. For each node in the resulting tree, we draw an arc in the sunburst. The radius of the arc, its distance from the root node at the centre of the sunburst, shows the taxonomic level ("superkingdom", "kingdom", etc). The length of the arc represents either the number of sequences represented at a given level, or the number of species that are found beneath the node in the tree. The weighting scheme can be changed using the sunburst controls.
In order to reduce the complexity of the representation, we reduce the number of taxonomic levels that we show. We consider only the following eight major taxonomic levels:
Colouring and labels
Segments of the tree are coloured approximately according to their superkingdom. For example, archeal branches are coloured with shades of orange, eukaryotes in shades of purple, etc. The colour assignments are shown under the sunburst controls. Where space allows, the name of the taxonomic level will be written on the arc itself.
As you move your mouse across the sunburst, the current node will be highlighted. In the top section of the controls panel we show a summary of the lineage of the currently highlighed node. If you pause over an arc, a tooltip will be shown, giving the name of the taxonomic level in the title and a summary of the number of sequences and species below that node in the tree.
Anomalies in the taxonomy tree
There are some situations that the sunburst tree cannot easily handle and for which we have work-arounds in place.
Missing taxonomic levels
Some species in the taxonomic tree may not have one or more of the main eight levels that we display. For example, Bos taurus is not assigned an order in the NCBI taxonomic tree. In such cases we mark the omitted level with, for example, "No order", in both the tooltip and the lineage summary.
Unmapped species names
The tree is built by looking at each sequence in the full alignment for the family. We take the name of the species given by UniProt and try to map that to the full taxonomic tree from NCBI. In some cases, the name chosen by UniProt does not map to any node in the NCBI tree, perhaps because the chosen name is listed as a synonym or a misspelling in the NCBI taxonomy.
So that these nodes are not simply omitted from the sunburst tree, we group them together in a separate branch (or segment of the sunburst tree). Since we cannot determine the lineage for these unmapped species, we show all levels between the superkingdom and the species as "uncategorised".
Since we reduce the species tree to only the eight main taxonomic levels, sequences that are mapped to the sub-species level in the tree would not normally be shown. Rather than leave out these species, we map them instead to their parent species. So, for example, for sequences belonging to one of the Vibrio cholerae sub-species in the NCBI taxonomy, we show them instead as belonging to the species Vibrio cholerae.
Too many species/sequences
For large species trees, you may see blank regions in the outer layers of the sunburst. These occur when there are large numbers of arcs to be drawn in a small space. If an arc is less than approximately one pixel wide, it will not be drawn and the space will be left blank. You may still be able to get some information about the species in that region by moving your mouse across the area, but since each arc will be very small, it will be difficult to accurately locate a particular species.
The tree shows the occurrence of this domain across different species. More...
We show the species tree in one of two ways. For smaller trees we try to show an interactive representation, which allows you to select specific nodes in the tree and view them as an alignment or as a set of Pfam domain graphics.
Unfortunately we have found that there are problems viewing the interactive tree when the it becomes larger than a certain limit. Furthermore, we have found that Internet Explorer can become unresponsive when viewing some trees, regardless of their size. We therefore show a text representation of the species tree when the size is above a certain limit or if you are using Internet Explorer to view the site.
If you are using IE you can still load the interactive tree by clicking the "Generate interactive tree" button, but please be aware of the potential problems that the interactive species tree can cause.
For all of the domain matches in a full alignment, we count the number that are found on all sequences in the alignment. This total is shown in the purple box.
We also count the number of unique sequences on which each domain is found, which is shown in green. Note that a domain may appear multiple times on the same sequence, leading to the difference between these two numbers.
Finally, we group sequences from the same organism according to the NCBI code that is assigned by UniProt, allowing us to count the number of distinct sequences on which the domain is found. This value is shown in the pink boxes.
We use the NCBI species tree to group organisms according to their taxonomy and this forms the structure of the displayed tree. Note that in some cases the trees are too large (have too many nodes) to allow us to build an interactive tree, but in most cases you can still view the tree in a plain text, non-interactive representation. Those species which are represented in the seed alignment for this domain are highlighted.
You can use the tree controls to manipulate how the interactive tree is displayed:
- show/hide the summary boxes
- highlight species that are represented in the seed alignment
- expand/collapse the tree or expand it to a given depth
- select a sub-tree or a set of species within the tree and view them graphically or as an alignment
- save a plain text representation of the tree
Please note: for large trees this can take some time. While the tree is loading, you can safely switch away from this tab but if you browse away from the family page entirely, the tree will not be loaded.