Summary: P-loop containing dynein motor region D3
This is the Wikipedia entry entitled "AAA proteins". More...
The Wikipedia text that you see displayed here is a download from Wikipedia. This means that the information we display is a copy of the information from the Wikipedia database. The button next to the article title ("Edit Wikipedia article") takes you to the edit page for the article directly within Wikipedia. You should be aware you are not editing our local copy of this information. Any changes that you make to the Wikipedia article will not be displayed here until we next download the article from Wikipedia. We currently download new content on a nightly basis.
Does Pfam agree with the content of the Wikipedia entry ?
Pfam has chosen to link families to Wikipedia articles. In some case we have created or edited these articles but in many other cases we have not made any direct contribution to the content of the article. The Wikipedia community does monitor edits to try to ensure that (a) the quality of article annotation increases, and (b) vandalism is very quickly dealt with. However, we would like to emphasise that Pfam does not curate the Wikipedia entries and we cannot guarantee the accuracy of the information on the Wikipedia page.
Editing Wikipedia articles
Before you edit for the first time
Wikipedia is a free, online encyclopedia. Although anyone can edit or contribute to an article, Wikipedia has some strong editing guidelines and policies, which promote the Wikipedia standard of style and etiquette. Your edits and contributions are more likely to be accepted (and remain) if they are in accordance with this policy.
You should take a few minutes to view the following pages:
How your contribution will be recorded
Anyone can edit a Wikipedia entry. You can do this either as a new user or you can register with Wikipedia and log on. When you click on the "Edit Wikipedia article" button, your browser will direct you to the edit page for this entry in Wikipedia. If you are a registered user and currently logged in, your changes will be recorded under your Wikipedia user name. However, if you are not a registered user or are not logged on, your changes will be logged under your computer's IP address. This has two main implications. Firstly, as a registered Wikipedia user your edits are more likely seen as valuable contribution (although all edits are open to community scrutiny regardless). Secondly, if you edit under an IP address you may be sharing this IP address with other users. If your IP address has previously been blocked (due to being flagged as a source of 'vandalism') your edits will also be blocked. You can find more information on this and creating a user account at Wikipedia.
If you have problems editing a particular page, contact us at email@example.com and we will try to help.
The community annotation is a new facility of the Pfam web site. If you have problems editing or experience problems with these pages please contact us.
AAA proteins Edit Wikipedia article
|ATPases associated with diverse cellular activities (AAA)|
Structure of N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor.
AAA or AAA+ is an abbreviation for ATPases Associated with diverse cellular Activities. They share a common conserved module of approximately 230 amino acid residues. This is a large, functionally diverse protein family belonging to the AAA superfamily of ring-shaped P-loop NTPases, which exert their activity through the energy-dependent remodeling or translocation of macromolecules.
AAA proteins are functionally and organizationally diverse, and vary in activity, stability, and mechanism. Members of the AAA family are found in all organisms and they are essential for many cellular functions. They are involved in processes such as DNA replication, protein degradation, membrane fusion, microtubule severing, peroxisome biogenesis, signal transduction and the regulation of gene expression.
The AAA domain contains two subdomains, an N-terminal alpha/beta domain that binds and hydrolyzes nucleotides (a Rossman fold) and a C-terminal alpha-helical domain. The N-terminal domain is 200-250 amino acids long and contains Walker A and Walker B motifs, and is shared in common with other P-loop NTPases, the superfamily which includes the AAA family. Most AAA proteins have additional domains that are used for oligomerization, substrate binding and/or regulation. These domains can lie N- or C-terminal to the AAA module.
Some classes of AAA proteins have an N-terminal non-ATPase domain which is followed by either one or two AAA domains (D1 and D2). In some proteins with two AAA domains, both are evolutionarily well conserved (like in Cdc48/p97). In others, either the D2 domain (like in Pex1p and Pex6p) or the D1 domain (in Sec18p/NSF) is better conserved in evolution.
While the classical AAA family was based on motifs, the family has been expanded using structural information and is now termed the AAA family.
AAA proteins are divided into seven basic clades, based on secondary structure elements included within or near the core AAA fold: clamp loader, initiator, classic, superfamily III helicase, HCLR, H2-insert, and PS-II insert.
AAA ATPases assemble into oligomeric assemblies (often homo-hexamers) that form a ring-shaped structure with a central pore. These proteins produce a molecular motor that couples ATP binding and hydrolysis to changes in conformational states that can be propagated through the assembly in order to act upon a target substrate, either translocating or remodelling the substrate.
The central pore may be involved in substrate processing. In the hexameric configuration, the ATP-binding site is positioned at the interface between the subunits. Upon ATP binding and hydrolysis, AAA enzymes undergo conformational changes in the AAA-domains as well as in the N-domains. These motions can be transmitted to substrate protein.
ATP hydrolysis by AAA ATPases is proposed to involve nucleophilic attack on the ATP gamma-phosphate by an activated water molecule, leading to movement of the N-terminal and C-terminal AAA subdomains relative to each other. This movement allows the exertion of mechanical force, amplified by other ATPase domains within the same oligomeric structure. The additional domains in the protein allow for regulation or direction of the force towards different goals.
AAA proteins are not restricted to eukaryotes. Prokaryotes have AAA which combine chaperone with proteolytic activity, for example in ClpAPS complex, which mediates protein degradation and recognition in E. coli. The basic recognition of proteins by AAAs is thought to occur through unfolded domains in the substrate protein. In HslU, a bacterial ClpX/ClpY homologue of the HSP100 family of AAA proteins, the N- and C-terminal subdomains move towards each other when nucleotides are bound and hydrolysed. The terminal domains are most distant in the nucleotide-free state and closest in the ADP-bound state. Thereby the opening of the central cavity is affected.
AAA proteins are involved in protein degradation, membrane fusion, DNA replication, microtubule dynamics, intracellular transport, transcriptional activation, protein refolding, disassembly of protein complexes and protein aggregates.
The AAA-type ATPase Cdc48p/p97 is perhaps the best-studied AAA protein. Misfolded secretory proteins are exported from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and degraded by the ER-associated degradation pathway (ERAD). Nonfunctional membrane and luminal proteins are extracted from the ER and degraded in the cytosol by proteasomes. Substrate retrotranslocation and extraction is assisted by the Cdc48p(Ufd1p/Npl4p) complex on the cytosolic side of the membrane. On the cytosolic side, the substrate is ubiquitinated by ER-based E2 and E3 enzymes before degradation by the 26S proteasome.
Targeting to multivesicular bodies
Multivesicular bodies are endosomal compartments that sort ubiquitinated membrane proteins by incorporating them into vesicles. This process involves the sequential action of three multiprotein complexes, ESCRT I to III (ESCRT standing for 'endosomal sorting complexes required for transport'). Vps4p is a AAA-type ATPase involved in this MVB sorting pathway. It had originally been identified as a ”class E” vps (vacuolar protein sorting) mutant and was subsequently shown to catalyse the dissociation of ESCRT complexes. Vps4p is anchored via Vps46p to the endosomal membrane. Vps4p assembly is assisted by the conserved Vta1p protein, which regulates its oligomerzation status and ATPase activity.
AAA proteases use the energy from ATP hydrolysis to translocate a protein inside the protease for degradation.
Human proteins containing this domain
AFG3L1; AFG3L2; AK6; ATAD1; ATAD2; ATAD2B; ATAD3A; ATAD3B; ATAD3C; BCS1L; CDC6; CHTF18; CINAP; FIGN; FIGNL1; FTSH; IQCA; KATNA1; KATNAL1; KATNAL2; LONP1; LONP2; NSF; NVL; Nbla10058; ORC1L; PEX1; PEX6; PSMC1; PSMC2; PSMC3; PSMC4; PSMC5; PSMC6; RFC1; RFC2; RFC4; RFC5; RUVBL1; RUVBL2; SPAF; SPAST; SPATA5L1; SPG7; TRIP13; VCP; VPS4A; VPS4B; WRNIP1; YME1L1;
- Snider J, Houry WA (February 2008). "AAA proteins: diversity in function, similarity in structure". Biochem. Soc. Trans. 36 (Pt 1): 72–7. doi:10.1042/BST0360072. PMID 18208389.
- White SR, Lauring B (December 2007). "AAA ATPases: achieving diversity of function with conserved machinery". Traffic. 8 (12): 1657–67. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0854.2007.00642.x. PMID 17897320.
- Yu RC, Hanson PI, Jahn R, Brünger AT (September 1998). "Structure of the ATP-dependent oligomerization domain of N-ethylmaleimide sensitive factor complexed with ATP". Nat. Struct. Biol. 5 (9): 803–11. doi:10.1038/1843. PMID 9731775.
- Koonin EV, Aravind L, Leipe DD, Iyer LM (2004). "Evolutionary history and higher order classification of AAA ATPases". J. Struct. Biol. 146 (1–2): 11–31. doi:10.1016/j.jsb.2003.10.010. PMID 15037234.
- Lupas AN, Frickey T (2004). "Phylogenetic analysis of AAA proteins". J. Struct. Biol. 146 (1–2): 2–10. doi:10.1016/j.jsb.2003.11.020. PMID 15037233.
- Erzberger JP, Berger JM (2006). "Evolutionary relationships and structural mechanisms of AAA proteins". Annu. Rev. Biophys. Biomol. Struct. 35: 93–114. doi:10.1146/annurev.biophys.35.040405.101933. PMID 16689629.
- Hanson PI, Whiteheart SW (July 2005). "AAA proteins: have engine, will work". Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 6 (7): 519–29. doi:10.1038/nrm1684. PMID 16072036.
- Snider J, Thibault G, Houry WA (2008). "The AAA superfamily of functionally diverse proteins". Genome Biol. 9 (4): 216. doi:10.1186/gb-2008-9-4-216. PMC . PMID 18466635.
- Smith DM, Benaroudj N, Goldberg A (2006). "Proteasomes and their associated ATPases: A destructive combination". J. Struct. Biol. 156 (1): 72–83. doi:10.1016/j.jsb.2006.04.012. PMID 16919475.
- Tucker PA, Sallai L (December 2007). "The AAA superfamily--a myriad of motions". Curr. Opin. Struct. Biol. 17 (6): 641–52. doi:10.1016/j.sbi.2007.09.012. PMID 18023171.
- Carter AP, Vale RD (February 2010). "Communication between the AAA ring and microtubule-binding domain of dynein". Biochem Cell Biol. 88 (1): 15–21. doi:10.1139/o09-127. PMC . PMID 20130675.
P-loop containing dynein motor region D3 Provide feedback
the 380 kDa motor unit of dynein belongs to the AAA class of chaperone-like ATPases. The core of the 380 kDa motor unit contains a concatenated chain of six AAA modules, of which four correspond to the ATP binding sites with P-loop signatures described previously, and two are modules in which the P loop has been lost in evolution. This particular family is the D3 and is an ATP binding site .
Internal database links
|SCOOP:||AAA AAA_16 AAA_22 AAA_5 T2SSE|
|Similarity to PfamA using HHSearch:||AAA AAA_5 AAA_16|
This tab holds annotation information from the InterPro database.
No InterPro data for this Pfam family.
- the number of sequences which exhibit this architecture
a textual description of the architecture, e.g. Gla, EGF x 2, Trypsin.
This example describes an architecture with one
Gladomain, followed by two consecutive
EGFdomains, and finally a single
- the UniProt description of the protein sequence
- the number of residues in the sequence
- the Pfam graphic itself.
Loading domain graphics...
AAA family proteins often perform chaperone-like functions that assist in the assembly, operation, or disassembly of protein complexes .
The clan contains the following 217 members:6PF2K AAA AAA-ATPase_like AAA_10 AAA_11 AAA_12 AAA_13 AAA_14 AAA_15 AAA_16 AAA_17 AAA_18 AAA_19 AAA_2 AAA_21 AAA_22 AAA_23 AAA_24 AAA_25 AAA_26 AAA_27 AAA_28 AAA_29 AAA_3 AAA_30 AAA_31 AAA_32 AAA_33 AAA_34 AAA_35 AAA_5 AAA_6 AAA_7 AAA_8 AAA_9 AAA_PrkA ABC_ATPase ABC_tran ABC_tran_Xtn Adeno_IVa2 Adenylsucc_synt ADK AFG1_ATPase AIG1 APS_kinase Arf ArgK ArsA_ATPase ATP-synt_ab ATP_bind_1 ATP_bind_2 ATPase ATPase_2 Bac_DnaA BCA_ABC_TP_C Beta-Casp Cas_Csn2 Cas_St_Csn2 CbiA CBP_BcsQ CDC73_C CENP-M CFTR_R CLP1_P CMS1 CoaE CobA_CobO_BtuR CobU cobW CPT CSM2 CTP_synth_N Cytidylate_kin Cytidylate_kin2 DAP3 DEAD DEAD_2 DLIC DNA_pack_C DNA_pack_N DNA_pol3_delta DNA_pol3_delta2 DnaB_C dNK DUF1611 DUF1726 DUF2075 DUF2326 DUF2478 DUF257 DUF2791 DUF2813 DUF3584 DUF463 DUF815 DUF853 DUF87 DUF927 Dynamin_N Dynein_heavy ERCC3_RAD25_C Exonuc_V_gamma FeoB_N Fer4_NifH Flavi_DEAD FTHFS FtsK_SpoIIIE G-alpha Gal-3-0_sulfotr GBP GBP_C GTP_EFTU Gtr1_RagA Guanylate_kin GvpD HDA2-3 Helicase_C Helicase_C_2 Helicase_C_4 Helicase_RecD Herpes_Helicase Herpes_ori_bp Herpes_TK Hydin_ADK IIGP IPPT IPT IstB_IS21 KAP_NTPase KdpD Kinesin KTI12 LAP1C Lon_2 LpxK MCM MEDS Mg_chelatase Microtub_bd MipZ MMR_HSR1 MMR_HSR1_C MobB MukB MutS_V Myosin_head NACHT NB-ARC NOG1 NTPase_1 NTPase_P4 ORC3_N ParA Parvo_NS1 PAXNEB PduV-EutP PhoH PIF1 Podovirus_Gp16 Polyoma_lg_T_C Pox_A32 PPK2 PPV_E1_C PRK PSY3 Rad17 Rad51 Ras RecA ResIII RHD3 RHSP RNA12 RNA_helicase Roc RsgA_GTPase RuvB_N SbcCD_C SecA_DEAD Septin Sigma54_activ_2 Sigma54_activat SKI SMC_N SNF2_N Spore_IV_A SRP54 SRPRB SulA Sulfotransfer_1 Sulfotransfer_2 Sulfotransfer_3 Sulphotransf T2SSE T4SS-DNA_transf Terminase_1 Terminase_3 Terminase_6 Terminase_GpA Thymidylate_kin TIP49 TK TniB Torsin TraG-D_C tRNA_lig_kinase TrwB_AAD_bind TsaE UvrB UvrD-helicase UvrD_C UvrD_C_2 Viral_helicase1 VirC1 VirE Zeta_toxin Zot
We make a range of alignments for each Pfam-A family:
- the curated alignment from which the HMM for the family is built
- the alignment generated by searching the sequence database using the HMM
- Representative Proteomes (RPs) at 15%, 35%, 55% and 75% co-membership thresholds
- alignment generated by searching the UniProtKB sequence database using the family HMM
- alignment generated by searching the NCBI sequence database using the family HMM
- alignment generated by searching the metagenomics sequence database using the family HMM
You can see the alignments as HTML or in three different sequence viewers:
1Cannot generate PP/Heatmap alignments for seeds; no PP data available
Key: available, not generated, — not available.
Format an alignment
If you find these logos useful in your own work, please consider citing the following article:
Note: You can also download the data file for the tree.
Curation and family details
|Seed source:||Pfam-B_14 (release 24.0)|
|Number in seed:||3|
|Number in full:||4107|
|Average length of the domain:||253.30 aa|
|Average identity of full alignment:||30 %|
|Average coverage of the sequence by the domain:||6.96 %|
|HMM build commands:||
build method: hmmbuild --amino -o /dev/null HMM SEED
search method: hmmsearch -Z 26740544 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq
|Family (HMM) version:||6|
|Download:||download the raw HMM for this family|
Weight segments by...
Change the size of the sunburst
selected sequences to HMM
a FASTA-format file
- 0 sequences
- 0 species
How the sunburst is generated
Colouring and labels
Anomalies in the taxonomy tree
Missing taxonomic levels
Unmapped species names
Too many species/sequences
The tree shows the occurrence of this domain across different species. More...
You can use the tree controls to manipulate how the interactive tree is displayed:
- show/hide the summary boxes
- highlight species that are represented in the seed alignment
- expand/collapse the tree or expand it to a given depth
- select a sub-tree or a set of species within the tree and view them graphically or as an alignment
- save a plain text representation of the tree
There are 4 interactions for this family. More...
We determine these interactions using iPfam, which considers the interactions between residues in three-dimensional protein structures and maps those interactions back to Pfam families. You can find more information about the iPfam algorithm in the journal article that accompanies the website.
For those sequences which have a structure in the Protein DataBank, we use the mapping between UniProt, PDB and Pfam coordinate systems from the PDBe group, to allow us to map Pfam domains onto UniProt sequences and three-dimensional protein structures. The table below shows the structures on which the AAA_7 domain has been found. There are 11 instances of this domain found in the PDB. Note that there may be multiple copies of the domain in a single PDB structure, since many structures contain multiple copies of the same protein seqence.
Loading structure mapping...