Summary: AAA domain
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For other uses see AAA (disambiguation)
|ATPases associated with diverse cellular activities (AAA)|
Structure of N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor.
AAA or AAA+ is an abbreviation for ATPases Associated with diverse cellular Activities. They share a common conserved module of approximately 230 amino acid residues. This is a large, functionally diverse protein family belonging to the AAA+ superfamily of ring-shaped P-loop NTPases, which exert their activity through the energy-dependent remodeling or translocation of macromolecules.
AAA proteins are functionally and organizationally diverse, and vary in activity, stability, and mechanism. Members of the AAA family are found in all organisms and they are essential for many cellular functions. They are involved in processes such as DNA replication, protein degradation, membrane fusion, microtubule severing, peroxisome biogenesis, signal transduction and the regulation of gene expression.
Structure and classification
The AAA+ domain contains two subdomains, an N-terminal alpha/beta domain that binds and hydrolyzes nucleotides (a Rossman fold) and a C-terminal alpha-helical domain. The N-terminal domain is 200-250 amino acids long and contains Walker A and Walker B motifs, and is shared in common with other P-loop NTPases, the superfamily which includes the AAA+ family. Most AAA+ proteins have additional domains that are used for oligomerization, substrate binding and/or regulation. These domains can lie N- or C-terminal to the AAA+ module.
Some classes of AAA proteins have an N-terminal non-ATPase domain which is followed by either one or two AAA domains (D1 and D2). In some proteins with two AAA domains, both are evolutionarily well conserved (like in Cdc48/p97). In others, either the D2 domain (like in Pex1p and Pex6p) or the D1 domain (in Sec18p/NSF) is better conserved in evolution.
While the classical AAA family was based on motifs, the family has been expanded using structural information and is now termed the AAA+ family.
AAA+ proteins are divided into seven basic clades, based on secondary structure elements included within or near the core AAA+ fold: clamp loader, initiator, classic, superfamily III helicase, HCLR, H2-insert, and PS-II insert.
AAA ATPases assemble into oligomeric assemblies (often homo-hexamers) that form a ring-shaped structure with a central pore. These proteins produce a molecular motor that couples ATP binding and hydrolysis to changes in conformational states that can be propagated through the assembly in order to act upon a target substrate, either translocating or remodelling the substrate.
The central pore may be involved in substrate processing. In the hexameric configuration, the ATP-binding site is positioned at the interface between the subunits. Upon ATP binding and hydrolysis, AAA enzymes undergo conformational changes in the AAA-domains as well as in the N-domains. These motions can be transmitted to substrate protein.
ATP hydrolysis by AAA+ ATPases is proposed to involve nucleophilic attack on the ATP gamma-phosphate by an activated water molecule, leading to movement of the N-terminal and C-terminal AAA+ subdomains relative to each other. This movement allows the exertion of mechanical force, amplified by other ATPase domains within the same oligomeric structure. The additional domains in the protein allow for regulation or direction of the force towards different goals.
AAA proteins are not restricted to eukaryotes. Prokaryotes have AAA which combine chaperone with proteolytic activity, for example in ClpAPS complex, which mediates protein degradation and recognition in E. coli. The basic recognition of proteins by AAAs is thought to occur through unfolded domains in the substrate protein. In HslU, a bacterial ClpX/ClpY homologue of the HSP100 family of AAA+ proteins, the N- and C-terminal subdomains move towards each other when nucleotides are bound and hydrolysed. The terminal domains are most distant in the nucleotide-free state and closest in the ADP-bound state. Thereby the opening of the central cavity is affected.
AAA+ proteins are involved in protein degradation, membrane fusion, DNA replication, microtubule dynamics, intracellular transport, transcriptional activation, protein refolding, disassembly of protein complexes and protein aggregates.
The AAA-type ATPase Cdc48p/p97 is perhaps the best-studied AAA protein. Misfolded secretory proteins are exported from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and degraded by the ER-associated degradation pathway (ERAD). Nonfunctional membrane and luminal proteins are extracted from the ER and degraded in the cytosol by proteasomes. Substrate retrotranslocation and extraction is assisted by the Cdc48p(Ufd1p/Npl4p) complex on the cytosolic side of the membrane. On the cytosolic side, the substrate is ubiquitinated by ER-based E2 and E3 enzymes before degradation by the 26S proteasome.
Targeting to multivesicular bodies
Multivesicular bodies are endosomal compartments that sort ubiquitinated membrane proteins by incorporating them into vesicles. This process involves the sequential action of three multiprotein complexes, ESCRT I to III (ESCRT standing for 'endosomal sorting complexes required for transport'). Vps4p is a AAA-type ATPase involved in this MVB sorting pathway. It had originally been identified as a ”class E” vps (vacuolar protein sorting) mutant and was subsequently shown to catalyse the dissociation of ESCRT complexes. Vps4p is anchored via Vps46p to the endosomal membrane. Vps4p assembly is assisted by the conserved Vta1p protein, which regulates its oligomerzation status and ATPase activity.
AAA proteases use the energy from ATP hydrolysis to translocate a protein inside the protease for degradation.
Human proteins containing this domain
AFG3L1; AFG3L2; AK6; ATAD1; ATAD2; ATAD2B; ATAD3A; ATAD3B; ATAD3C; BCS1L; CDC6; CHTF18; CINAP; FIGN; FIGNL1; FTSH; IQCA; KATNA1; KATNAL1; KATNAL2; LONP1; LONP2; NSF; NVL; Nbla10058; ORC1L; PEX1; PEX6; PSMC1; PSMC2; PSMC3; PSMC4; PSMC5; PSMC6; RFC1; RFC2; RFC4; RFC5; RUVBL1; RUVBL2; SPAF; SPAST; SPATA5L1; SPG7; TRIP13; VCP; VPS4A; VPS4B; WRNIP1; YME1L1;
- Snider J, Houry WA (February 2008). "AAA+ proteins: diversity in function, similarity in structure". Biochem. Soc. Trans. 36 (Pt 1): 72–7. doi:10.1042/BST0360072. PMID 18208389.
- White SR, Lauring B (December 2007). "AAA+ ATPases: achieving diversity of function with conserved machinery". Traffic 8 (12): 1657–67. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0854.2007.00642.x. PMID 17897320.
- Yu RC, Hanson PI, Jahn R, Brünger AT (September 1998). "Structure of the ATP-dependent oligomerization domain of N-ethylmaleimide sensitive factor complexed with ATP". Nat. Struct. Biol. 5 (9): 803–11. doi:10.1038/1843. PMID 9731775.
- Koonin EV, Aravind L, Leipe DD, Iyer LM (2004). "Evolutionary history and higher order classification of AAA+ ATPases". J. Struct. Biol. 146 (1–2): 11–31. doi:10.1016/j.jsb.2003.10.010. PMID 15037234.
- Lupas AN, Frickey T (2004). "Phylogenetic analysis of AAA proteins". J. Struct. Biol. 146 (1–2): 2–10. doi:10.1016/j.jsb.2003.11.020. PMID 15037233.
- Erzberger JP, Berger JM (2006). "Evolutionary relationships and structural mechanisms of AAA+ proteins". Annu. Rev. Biophys. Biomol. Struct. 35: 93–114. doi:10.1146/annurev.biophys.35.040405.101933. PMID 16689629.
- Hanson PI, Whiteheart SW (July 2005). "AAA+ proteins: have engine, will work". Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 6 (7): 519–29. doi:10.1038/nrm1684. PMID 16072036.
- Snider J, Thibault G, Houry WA (2008). "The AAA+ superfamily of functionally diverse proteins". Genome Biol. 9 (4): 216. doi:10.1186/gb-2008-9-4-216. PMC 2643927. PMID 18466635.
- Smith DM, Benaroudj N, Goldberg A (2006). "Proteasomes and their associated ATPases: A destructive combination". J. Struct. Biol. 156 (1): 72–83. doi:10.1016/j.jsb.2006.04.012. PMID 16919475.
- Tucker PA, Sallai L (December 2007). "The AAA+ superfamily--a myriad of motions". Curr. Opin. Struct. Biol. 17 (6): 641–52. doi:10.1016/j.sbi.2007.09.012. PMID 18023171.
- Carter AP, Vale RD (February 2010). "Communication between the AAA+ ring and microtubule-binding domain of dynein". Biochem Cell Biol. 88 (1): 15–21. doi:10.1139/o09-127. PMID 20130675.
AAA domain Provide feedback
This family of domains contain a P-loop motif that is characteristic of the AAA superfamily. Many of the proteins in this family are conjugative transfer proteins. This family includes the PrrC protein that is thought to be the active component of the anticodon nuclease .
Levitz R, Chapman D, Amitsur M, Green R, Snyder L, Kaufmann G;, EMBO J. 1990;9:1383-1389.: The optional E. coli prr locus encodes a latent form of phage T4-induced anticodon nuclease. PUBMED:1691706 EPMC:1691706
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AAA family proteins often perform chaperone-like functions that assist in the assembly, operation, or disassembly of protein complexes .
The clan contains the following 198 members:6PF2K AAA AAA-ATPase_like AAA_10 AAA_11 AAA_12 AAA_13 AAA_14 AAA_15 AAA_16 AAA_17 AAA_18 AAA_19 AAA_2 AAA_21 AAA_22 AAA_23 AAA_24 AAA_25 AAA_26 AAA_27 AAA_28 AAA_29 AAA_3 AAA_30 AAA_31 AAA_32 AAA_33 AAA_34 AAA_35 AAA_5 AAA_6 AAA_7 AAA_8 AAA_PrkA ABC_ATPase ABC_tran Adeno_IVa2 Adenylsucc_synt ADK AFG1_ATPase AIG1 APS_kinase Arch_ATPase Arf ArgK ArsA_ATPase ATP-synt_ab ATP_bind_1 ATP_bind_2 Bac_DnaA CbiA CBP_BcsQ CDC73_C CLP1_P CMS1 CoaE CobA_CobO_BtuR CobU cobW CPT CTP_synth_N Cytidylate_kin Cytidylate_kin2 DAP3 DEAD DEAD_2 DLIC DNA_pack_C DNA_pack_N DNA_pol3_delta DNA_pol3_delta2 DnaB_C dNK DUF1611 DUF2075 DUF2478 DUF258 DUF2791 DUF2813 DUF3584 DUF463 DUF815 DUF853 DUF87 DUF927 Dynamin_N ERCC3_RAD25_C Exonuc_V_gamma FeoB_N Fer4_NifH Flavi_DEAD FTHFS FtsK_SpoIIIE G-alpha Gal-3-0_sulfotr GBP GTP_EFTU Gtr1_RagA Guanylate_kin GvpD HDA2-3 Helicase_C Helicase_C_2 Helicase_C_4 Helicase_RecD Herpes_Helicase Herpes_ori_bp Herpes_TK IIGP IPPT IPT IstB_IS21 KaiC KAP_NTPase KdpD Kinesin Kinesin-relat_1 Kinesin-related KTI12 Lon_2 LpxK MCM MEDS Mg_chelatase Microtub_bd MipZ MMR_HSR1 MobB MukB MutS_V Myosin_head NACHT NB-ARC NOG1 NTPase_1 NTPase_P4 ParA Parvo_NS1 PAXNEB PduV-EutP PhoH PIF1 Podovirus_Gp16 Polyoma_lg_T_C Pox_A32 PPK2 PPV_E1_C PRK Rad17 Rad51 Ras RecA ResIII RHD3 RHSP RNA12 RNA_helicase Roc RuvB_N SbcCD_C SecA_DEAD Septin Sigma54_activ_2 Sigma54_activat SKI SMC_N SNF2_N Spore_IV_A SRP54 SRPRB Sulfotransfer_1 Sulfotransfer_2 Sulfotransfer_3 Sulphotransf T2SSE T4SS-DNA_transf Terminase_1 Terminase_3 Terminase_6 Terminase_GpA Thymidylate_kin TIP49 TK TniB Torsin TraG-D_C tRNA_lig_kinase TrwB_AAD_bind TsaE UvrD-helicase UvrD_C UvrD_C_2 Viral_helicase1 VirC1 VirE Zeta_toxin Zot
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Curation and family details
|Number in seed:||43|
|Number in full:||2381|
|Average length of the domain:||546.10 aa|
|Average identity of full alignment:||22 %|
|Average coverage of the sequence by the domain:||87.05 %|
|HMM build commands:||
build method: hmmbuild -o /dev/null HMM SEED
search method: hmmsearch -Z 80369284 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq
|Family (HMM) version:||2|
|Download:||download the raw HMM for this family|
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