Summary: Tyrosine phosphatase family
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Protein tyrosine phosphatase Edit Wikipedia article
Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1, trimer, Human
|PDB structures||RCSB PDB PDBe PDBsum|
Protein tyrosine phosphatases are a group of enzymes that remove phosphate groups from phosphorylated tyrosine residues on proteins. Protein tyrosine (pTyr) phosphorylation is a common post-translational modification that can create novel recognition motifs for protein interactions and cellular localization, affect protein stability, and regulate enzyme activity. As a consequence, maintaining an appropriate level of protein tyrosine phosphorylation is essential for many cellular functions. Tyrosine-specific protein phosphatases (PTPase; EC 22.214.171.124) catalyse the removal of a phosphate group attached to a tyrosine residue, using a cysteinyl-phosphate enzyme intermediate. These enzymes are key regulatory components in signal transduction pathways (such as the MAP kinase pathway) and cell cycle control, and are important in the control of cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, transformation, and synaptic plasticity.
Together with tyrosine kinases, PTPs regulate the phosphorylation state of many important signalling molecules, such as the MAP kinase family. PTPs are increasingly viewed as integral components of signal transduction cascades, despite less study and understanding compared to tyrosine kinases.
PTPs have been implicated in regulation of many cellular processes, including, but not limited to:
- Cell growth
- Cellular differentiation
- Mitotic cycles
- Oncogenic transformation
- Receptor endocytosis
Links to all 107 members of the protein tyrosine phosphatase family can be found in the template at the bottom of this article.
The class I PTPs, are the largest group of PTPs with 99 members, which can be further subdivided into
- 38 classical PTPs
- 21 receptor tyrosine phosphatase
- 17 nonreceptor-type PTPs
- 61 VH-1-like or dual-specific phosphatases (DSPs)
Dual-specificity phosphatases (dTyr and dSer/dThr) dual-specificity protein-tyrosine phosphatases. Ser/Thr and Tyr dual-specificity phosphatases are a group of enzymes with both Ser/Thr (EC 126.96.36.199) and tyrosine-specific protein phosphatase (EC 188.8.131.52) activity able to remove the serine/threonine or the tyrosine-bound phosphate group from a wide range of phosphoproteins, including a number of enzymes that have been phosphorylated under the action of a kinase. Dual-specificity protein phosphatases (DSPs) regulate mitogenic signal transduction and control the cell cycle.
Elevated levels of activated PTPN5 negatively affects synaptic stability and plays a role in Alzheimer’s disease, Fragile X Syndrome schizophrenia, and Parkinson’s disease. Decreased levels of PTPN5 has been implicated in Huntington's disease, cerebral ischemia alcohol abuse, and stress disorders. Together these findings indicate that only at optimal levels of PTPN5 is synaptic function unimpaired.
The class II PTPs contain only one member, low-molecular-weight phosphotyrosine phosphatase (LMPTP).
Cdc25 phosphatases (dTyr and/or dThr)
The class IV PTPs contains four members, Eya1-4.
This class is believed to have evolved separately from the other three.
Based on their cellular localization, PTPases are also classified as:
- Receptor-like, which are transmembrane receptors that contain PTPase domains. In terms of structure, all known receptor PTPases are made up of a variable-length extracellular domain, followed by a transmembrane region and a C-terminal catalytic cytoplasmic domain. Some of the receptor PTPases contain fibronectin type III (FN-III) repeats, immunoglobulin-like domains, MAM domains, or carbonic anhydrase-like domains in their extracellular region. In general, the cytoplasmic region contains two copies of the PTPase domain. The first seems to have enzymatic activity, whereas the second is inactive.
- Non-receptor (intracellular) PTPases
All PTPases, other than those of the eya family, carry the highly conserved active site motif C(X)5R (PTP signature motif), employ a common catalytic mechanism, and possess a similar core structure made of a central parallel beta-sheet with flanking alpha-helices containing a beta-loop-alpha-loop that encompasses the PTP signature motif. Functional diversity between PTPases is endowed by regulatory domains and subunits.
Individual PTPs may be expressed by all cell types, or their expression may be strictly tissue-specific. Most cells express 30% to 60% of all the PTPs, however hematopoietic and neuronal cells express a higher number of PTPs in comparison to other cell types. T cells and B cells of hematopoietic origin express around 60 to 70 different PTPs. The expression of several PTPS is restricted to hematopoietic cells, for example, LYP, SHP1, CD45, and HePTP. The expression of PTPN5 is restricted to the brain. Differential expression of PTPN5 is found in many brain regions, with no expression in the cerebellum.
- Dixon JE, Denu JM (1998). "Protein tyrosine phosphatases: mechanisms of catalysis and regulation". Curr Opin Chem Biol 2 (5): –. PMID 9818190.
- Paul S, Lombroso PJ (2003). "Receptor and nonreceptor protein tyrosine phosphatases in the nervous system". Cell. Mol. Life Sci. 60 (11): –. doi:10.1007/s00018-003-3123-7. PMID 14625689.
- Zhang Y, Kurup P, Xu J, Carty N, Fernandez SM, Nygaard HB, Pittenger C, Greengard P, Strittmatter SM, Nairn AC, Lombroso PJ (Nov 2010). "Genetic reduction of striatal-enriched tyrosine phosphatase (STEP) reverses cognitive and cellular deficits in an Alzheimer's disease mouse model". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 107 (44): 19014–9. doi:10.1073/pnas.1013543107. PMC 2973892. PMID 20956308.
- Goebel-Goody SM, Wilson-Wallis ED, Royston S, Tagliatela SM, Naegele JR, Lombroso PJ (Jul 2012). "Genetic manipulation of STEP reverses behavioral abnormalities in a fragile X syndrome mouse model". Genes, Brain, and Behavior 11 (5): 586–600. doi:10.1111/j.1601-183X.2012.00781.x. PMC 3922131. PMID 22405502.
- Kurup P, Zhang Y, Xu J, Venkitaramani DV, Haroutunian V, Greengard P, Nairn AC, Lombroso PJ (Apr 2010). "Abeta-mediated NMDA receptor endocytosis in Alzheimer's disease involves ubiquitination of the tyrosine phosphatase STEP61". The Journal of Neuroscience 30 (17): 5948–57. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0157-10.2010. PMC 2868326. PMID 20427654.
- Sun JP, Zhang ZY, Wang WQ (2003). "An overview of the protein tyrosine phosphatase superfamily". Curr Top Med Chem 3 (7): –. PMID 12678841.
- Alonso A, Sasin J, et al. (2004). "Protein tyrosine phosphatases in the human genome". Cell 117 (6): 699–711. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2004.05.018. PMID 15186772.
- Carty NC, Xu J, Kurup P, Brouillette J, Goebel-Goody SM, Austin DR, Yuan P, Chen G, Correa PR, Haroutunian V, Pittenger C, Lombroso PJ (2012). "The tyrosine phosphatase STEP: implications in schizophrenia and the molecular mechanism underlying antipsychotic medications". Translational Psychiatry 2 (7): e137. doi:10.1038/tp.2012.63. PMC 3410627. PMID 22781170.
- Kurup PK, Xu J, Videira RA, Ononenyi C, Baltazar G, Lombroso PJ, Nairn AC (Jan 2015). "STEP61 is a substrate of the E3 ligase parkin and is upregulated in Parkinson's disease". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 112 (4): 1202–7. doi:10.1073/pnas.1417423112. PMC 4313846. PMID 25583483.
- Saavedra A, Giralt A, Rué L, Xifró X, Xu J, Ortega Z, Lucas JJ, Lombroso PJ, Alberch J, Pérez-Navarro E (Jun 2011). "Striatal-enriched protein tyrosine phosphatase expression and activity in Huntington's disease: a STEP in the resistance to excitotoxicity". The Journal of Neuroscience 31 (22): 8150–62. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3446-10.2011. PMC 3472648. PMID 21632937.
- Gladding CM, Sepers MD, Xu J, Zhang LY, Milnerwood AJ, Lombroso PJ, Raymond LA (Sep 2012). "Calpain and STriatal-Enriched protein tyrosine phosphatase (STEP) activation contribute to extrasynaptic NMDA receptor localization in a Huntington's disease mouse model". Human Molecular Genetics 21 (17): 3739–52. doi:10.1093/hmg/dds154. PMC 3412376. PMID 22523092.
- Deb I, Manhas N, Poddar R, Rajagopal S, Allan AM, Lombroso PJ, Rosenberg GA, Candelario-Jalil E, Paul S (Nov 2013). "Neuroprotective role of a brain-enriched tyrosine phosphatase, STEP, in focal cerebral ischemia". The Journal of Neuroscience 33 (45): 17814–26. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2346-12.2013. PMC 3818554. PMID 24198371.
- Hicklin TR, Wu PH, Radcliffe RA, Freund RK, Goebel-Goody SM, Correa PR, Proctor WR, Lombroso PJ, Browning MD (Apr 2011). "Alcohol inhibition of the NMDA receptor function, long-term potentiation, and fear learning requires striatal-enriched protein tyrosine phosphatase". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 108 (16): 6650–5. doi:10.1073/pnas.1017856108. PMC 3081035. PMID 21464302.
- Darcq E, Hamida SB, Wu S, Phamluong K, Kharazia V, Xu J, Lombroso P, Ron D (Jun 2014). "Inhibition of striatal-enriched tyrosine phosphatase 61 in the dorsomedial striatum is sufficient to increased ethanol consumption". Journal of Neurochemistry 129 (6): 1024–34. doi:10.1111/jnc.12701. PMC 4055745. PMID 24588427.
- Yang CH, Huang CC, Hsu KS (May 2012). "A critical role for protein tyrosine phosphatase nonreceptor type 5 in determining individual susceptibility to develop stress-related cognitive and morphological changes". The Journal of Neuroscience 32 (22): 7550–62. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.5902-11.2012. PMID 22649233.
- Dabrowska J, Hazra R, Guo JD, Li C, Dewitt S, Xu J, Lombroso PJ, Rainnie DG (Dec 2013). "Striatal-enriched protein tyrosine phosphatase-STEPs toward understanding chronic stress-induced activation of corticotrophin releasing factor neurons in the rat bed nucleus of the stria terminalis". Biological Psychiatry 74 (11): 817–26. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2013.07.032. PMC 3818357. PMID 24012328.
- Wo YY, Shabanowitz J, Hunt DF, Davis JP, Mitchell GL, Van Etten RL, McCormack AL (1992). "Sequencing, cloning, and expression of human red cell-type acid phosphatase, a cytoplasmic phosphotyrosyl protein phosphatase". J. Biol. Chem. 267 (15): 10856–10865. PMID 1587862.
- Shekels LL, Smith AJ, Bernlohr DA, Van Etten RL (1992). "Identification of the adipocyte acid phosphatase as a PAO-sensitive tyrosyl phosphatase". Protein Sci. 1 (6): 710–721. doi:10.1002/pro.5560010603. PMC 2142247. PMID 1304913.
- William C. Plaxton; Michael T. McManus (2006). Control of primary metabolism in plants. Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 130–. ISBN 978-1-4051-3096-7. Retrieved 12 December 2010.
- Knapp S, Longman E, Debreczeni JE, Eswaran J, Barr AJ (2006). "The crystal structure of human receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase kappa phosphatase domain 1". Protein Sci. 15 (6): –. doi:10.1110/ps.062128706. PMC 2242534. PMID 16672235.
- Perrimon N, Johnson MR, Perkins LA, Melnick MB (1996). "The nonreceptor protein tyrosine phosphatase corkscrew functions in multiple receptor tyrosine kinase pathways in Drosophila". Dev. Biol. 180 (1): –. doi:10.1006/dbio.1996.0285. PMID 8948575.
- Barford D, Das AK, Egloff MP (1998). "The structure and mechanism of protein phosphatase s: insights into catalysis and regulation". Annu. Rev. Biophys. Biomol. Struct. 27 (1): –. doi:10.1146/annurev.biophys.27.1.133. PMID 9646865.
- Su XD, Taddei N, Stefani M, Ramponi G, Nordlund P (August 1994). "The crystal structure of a low-molecular-weight phosphotyrosine protein phosphatase". Nature 370 (6490): 575–8. doi:10.1038/370575a0. PMID 8052313.
- Stuckey JA, Schubert HL, Fauman EB, Zhang ZY, Dixon JE, Saper MA (August 1994). "Crystal structure of Yersinia protein tyrosine phosphatase at 2.5 A and the complex with tungstate". Nature 370 (6490): 571–5. doi:10.1038/370571a0. PMID 8052312.
- Yuvaniyama J, Denu JM, Dixon JE, Saper MA (May 1996). "Crystal structure of the dual specificity protein phosphatase VHR". Science 272 (5266): 1328–31. doi:10.1126/science.272.5266.1328. PMID 8650541.
- Aceti DJ, Bitto E, Yakunin AF, et al. (October 2008). "Structural and functional characterization of a novel phosphatase from the Arabidopsis thaliana gene locus At1g05000". Proteins 73 (1): 241–53. doi:10.1002/prot.22041. PMID 18433060.
- Mustelin T, Vang T, Bottini N (2005). "Protein tyrosine phosphatases and the immune response". Nat. Rev. Immunol. 5 (1): 43–57. doi:10.1038/nri1530. PMID 15630428.
- Lombroso PJ, Murdoch G, Lerner M (Aug 1991). "Molecular characterization of a protein-tyrosine-phosphatase enriched in striatum". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 88 (16): 7242–6. doi:10.1073/pnas.88.16.7242. PMC 52270. PMID 1714595.
- Bult A, Zhao F, Dirkx R, Sharma E, Lukacsi E, Solimena M, Naegele JR, Lombroso PJ (Dec 1996). "STEP61: a member of a family of brain-enriched PTPs is localized to the endoplasmic reticulum". The Journal of Neuroscience 16 (24): 7821–31. PMID 8987810.
- Lombroso PJ, Naegele JR, Sharma E, Lerner M (Jul 1993). "A protein tyrosine phosphatase expressed within dopaminoceptive neurons of the basal ganglia and related structures". The Journal of Neuroscience 13 (7): 3064–74. PMID 8331384.
- PTP Summary and Relevant Publications at Monash University
- Protein-Tyrosine-Phosphatase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH)
- EC 184.108.40.206
This tab holds the annotation information that is stored in the Pfam database. As we move to using Wikipedia as our main source of annotation, the contents of this tab will be gradually replaced by the Wikipedia tab.
Tyrosine phosphatase family Provide feedback
Internal database links
|Similarity to PfamA using HHSearch:||Y_phosphatase2 DUF442 PTPlike_phytase|
This tab holds annotation information from the InterPro database.
InterPro entry IPR026893This is a family of putative tyrosine/serine-protein phosphatases. A member of this family, IphP, is a cyanobacterial dual-specificity protein phosphatase with MAP kinase phosphatase activity [PUBMED:7681825, PUBMED:8652537].
Below is a listing of the unique domain organisations or architectures in which this domain is found. More...
The graphic that is shown by default represents the longest sequence with a given architecture. Each row contains the following information:
- the number of sequences which exhibit this architecture
a textual description of the architecture, e.g. Gla, EGF x 2, Trypsin.
This example describes an architecture with one
Gladomain, followed by two consecutive
EGFdomains, and finally a single
- a link to the page in the Pfam site showing information about the sequence that the graphic describes
- the UniProt description of the protein sequence
- the number of residues in the sequence
- the Pfam graphic itself.
Note that you can see the family page for a particular domain by clicking on the graphic. You can also choose to see all sequences which have a given architecture by clicking on the Show link in each row.
Finally, because some families can be found in a very large number of architectures, we load only the first fifty architectures by default. If you want to see more architectures, click the button at the bottom of the page to load the next set.
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This family includes tyrosine and dual specificity phosphatase enzymes.
The clan contains the following 10 members:CDKN3 DSPc DSPn DUF442 Init_tRNA_PT Myotub-related PTPlike_phytase Y_phosphatase Y_phosphatase2 Y_phosphatase3
We store a range of different sequence alignments for families. As well as the seed alignment from which the family is built, we provide the full alignment, generated by searching the sequence database (reference proteomes) using the family HMM. We also generate alignments using four representative proteomes (RP) sets, the UniProtKB sequence database, the NCBI sequence database, and our metagenomics sequence database. More...
There are various ways to view or download the sequence alignments that we store. We provide several sequence viewers and a plain-text Stockholm-format file for download.
We make a range of alignments for each Pfam-A family:
- the curated alignment from which the HMM for the family is built
- the alignment generated by searching the sequence database using the HMM
- Representative Proteomes (RPs) at 15%, 35%, 55% and 75% co-membership thresholds
- alignment generated by searching the UniProtKB sequence database using the family HMM
- alignment generated by searching the NCBI sequence database using the family HMM
- alignment generated by searching the metagenomics sequence database using the family HMM
You can see the alignments as HTML or in three different sequence viewers:
- a Java applet developed at the University of Dundee. You will need Java installed before running jalview
- an HTML page showing the whole alignment.Please note: full Pfam alignments can be very large. These HTML views are extremely large and often cause problems for browsers. Please use either jalview or the Pfam viewer if you have trouble viewing the HTML version
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You can download (or view in your browser) a text representation of a Pfam alignment in various formats:
You can also change the order in which sequences are listed in the alignment, change how insertions are represented, alter the characters that are used to represent gaps in sequences and, finally, choose whether to download the alignment or to view it in your browser directly.
You may find that large alignments cause problems for the viewers and the reformatting tool, so we also provide all alignments in Stockholm format. You can download either the plain text alignment, or a gzipped version of it.
We make a range of alignments for each Pfam-A family. You can see a description of each above. You can view these alignments in various ways but please note that some types of alignment are never generated while others may not be available for all families, most commonly because the alignments are too large to handle.
1Cannot generate PP/Heatmap alignments for seeds; no PP data available
Key: available, not generated, — not available.
Format an alignment
We make all of our alignments available in Stockholm format. You can download them here as raw, plain text files or as gzip-compressed files.
You can also download a FASTA format file containing the full-length sequences for all sequences in the full alignment.
HMM logos is one way of visualising profile HMMs. Logos provide a quick overview of the properties of an HMM in a graphical form. You can see a more detailed description of HMM logos and find out how you can interpret them here. More...
If you find these logos useful in your own work, please consider citing the following article:
This page displays the phylogenetic tree for this family's seed alignment. We use FastTree to calculate neighbour join trees with a local bootstrap based on 100 resamples (shown next to the tree nodes). FastTree calculates approximately-maximum-likelihood phylogenetic trees from our seed alignment.
Note: You can also download the data file for the tree.
Curation and family details
This section shows the detailed information about the Pfam family. You can see the definitions of many of the terms in this section in the glossary and a fuller explanation of the scoring system that we use in the scores section of the help pages.
|Number in seed:||261|
|Number in full:||1782|
|Average length of the domain:||231.10 aa|
|Average identity of full alignment:||22 %|
|Average coverage of the sequence by the domain:||77.88 %|
|HMM build commands:||
build method: hmmbuild -o /dev/null HMM SEED
search method: hmmsearch -Z 17690987 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq
|Family (HMM) version:||4|
|Download:||download the raw HMM for this family|
Weight segments by...
Change the size of the sunburst
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- 0 sequences
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This visualisation provides a simple graphical representation of the distribution of this family across species. You can find the original interactive tree in the More....
This chart is a modified "sunburst" visualisation of the species tree for this family. It shows each node in the tree as a separate arc, arranged radially with the superkingdoms at the centre and the species arrayed around the outermost ring.
How the sunburst is generated
The tree is built by considering the taxonomic lineage of each sequence that has a match to this family. For each node in the resulting tree, we draw an arc in the sunburst. The radius of the arc, its distance from the root node at the centre of the sunburst, shows the taxonomic level ("superkingdom", "kingdom", etc). The length of the arc represents either the number of sequences represented at a given level, or the number of species that are found beneath the node in the tree. The weighting scheme can be changed using the sunburst controls.
In order to reduce the complexity of the representation, we reduce the number of taxonomic levels that we show. We consider only the following eight major taxonomic levels:
Colouring and labels
Segments of the tree are coloured approximately according to their superkingdom. For example, archeal branches are coloured with shades of orange, eukaryotes in shades of purple, etc. The colour assignments are shown under the sunburst controls. Where space allows, the name of the taxonomic level will be written on the arc itself.
As you move your mouse across the sunburst, the current node will be highlighted. In the top section of the controls panel we show a summary of the lineage of the currently highlighed node. If you pause over an arc, a tooltip will be shown, giving the name of the taxonomic level in the title and a summary of the number of sequences and species below that node in the tree.
Anomalies in the taxonomy tree
There are some situations that the sunburst tree cannot easily handle and for which we have work-arounds in place.
Missing taxonomic levels
Some species in the taxonomic tree may not have one or more of the main eight levels that we display. For example, Bos taurus is not assigned an order in the NCBI taxonomic tree. In such cases we mark the omitted level with, for example, "No order", in both the tooltip and the lineage summary.
Unmapped species names
The tree is built by looking at each sequence in the full alignment for the family. We take the name of the species given by UniProt and try to map that to the full taxonomic tree from NCBI. In some cases, the name chosen by UniProt does not map to any node in the NCBI tree, perhaps because the chosen name is listed as a synonym or a misspelling in the NCBI taxonomy.
So that these nodes are not simply omitted from the sunburst tree, we group them together in a separate branch (or segment of the sunburst tree). Since we cannot determine the lineage for these unmapped species, we show all levels between the superkingdom and the species as "uncategorised".
Since we reduce the species tree to only the eight main taxonomic levels, sequences that are mapped to the sub-species level in the tree would not normally be shown. Rather than leave out these species, we map them instead to their parent species. So, for example, for sequences belonging to one of the Vibrio cholerae sub-species in the NCBI taxonomy, we show them instead as belonging to the species Vibrio cholerae.
Too many species/sequences
For large species trees, you may see blank regions in the outer layers of the sunburst. These occur when there are large numbers of arcs to be drawn in a small space. If an arc is less than approximately one pixel wide, it will not be drawn and the space will be left blank. You may still be able to get some information about the species in that region by moving your mouse across the area, but since each arc will be very small, it will be difficult to accurately locate a particular species.
The tree shows the occurrence of this domain across different species. More...
We show the species tree in one of two ways. For smaller trees we try to show an interactive representation, which allows you to select specific nodes in the tree and view them as an alignment or as a set of Pfam domain graphics.
Unfortunately we have found that there are problems viewing the interactive tree when the it becomes larger than a certain limit. Furthermore, we have found that Internet Explorer can become unresponsive when viewing some trees, regardless of their size. We therefore show a text representation of the species tree when the size is above a certain limit or if you are using Internet Explorer to view the site.
If you are using IE you can still load the interactive tree by clicking the "Generate interactive tree" button, but please be aware of the potential problems that the interactive species tree can cause.
For all of the domain matches in a full alignment, we count the number that are found on all sequences in the alignment. This total is shown in the purple box.
We also count the number of unique sequences on which each domain is found, which is shown in green. Note that a domain may appear multiple times on the same sequence, leading to the difference between these two numbers.
Finally, we group sequences from the same organism according to the NCBI code that is assigned by UniProt, allowing us to count the number of distinct sequences on which the domain is found. This value is shown in the pink boxes.
We use the NCBI species tree to group organisms according to their taxonomy and this forms the structure of the displayed tree. Note that in some cases the trees are too large (have too many nodes) to allow us to build an interactive tree, but in most cases you can still view the tree in a plain text, non-interactive representation. Those species which are represented in the seed alignment for this domain are highlighted.
You can use the tree controls to manipulate how the interactive tree is displayed:
- show/hide the summary boxes
- highlight species that are represented in the seed alignment
- expand/collapse the tree or expand it to a given depth
- select a sub-tree or a set of species within the tree and view them graphically or as an alignment
- save a plain text representation of the tree
Please note: for large trees this can take some time. While the tree is loading, you can safely switch away from this tab but if you browse away from the family page entirely, the tree will not be loaded.
For those sequences which have a structure in the Protein DataBank, we use the mapping between UniProt, PDB and Pfam coordinate systems from the PDBe group, to allow us to map Pfam domains onto UniProt sequences and three-dimensional protein structures. The table below shows the structures on which the Y_phosphatase3 domain has been found. There are 3 instances of this domain found in the PDB. Note that there may be multiple copies of the domain in a single PDB structure, since many structures contain multiple copies of the same protein seqence.
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