Summary: Tetratricopeptide repeat
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Tetratricopeptide Edit Wikipedia article
The tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) is a structural motif. It consists of a degenerate 34 amino acid sequence motif identified in a wide variety of proteins. It is found in tandem arrays of 3–16 motifs, which form scaffolds to mediate protein–protein interactions and often the assembly of multiprotein complexes. These alpha-helix pair repeats usually fold together to produce a single, linear solenoid domain called a TPR domain. Proteins with such domains include the anaphase-promoting complex (APC) subunits cdc16, cdc23 and cdc27, the NADPH oxidase subunit p67-phox, hsp90-binding immunophilins, transcription factors, the PKR protein kinase inhibitor, the major receptor for peroxisomal matrix protein import PEX5 and mitochondrial import proteins.
The structure of the PP5 protein was the first structure to be determined. The structure solved by X-ray crystallography by Das and colleagues showed that the TPR sequence motif was composed of a pair of antiparallel alpha helices. The PP5 structure contained 3 tandem TPR repeats which showed the sequential TPR repeats formed an alpha-helical solenoid structure.
A typical TPR structure is characterized by interactions between helices A and B of the first motif and helix A’ of the next TPR. Although the nature of such interactions may vary, the first two helices of the TPR motif typically have a packing angle of ~24 degrees within a single motif. Repeats of more than three TPR motifs generate a right handed superhelix characterized by both a concave and a convex face, of which the concave face is usually involved in ligand binding. 
In terms of sequence, a TPR possesses a mixture of small and large hydrophobic residues, nonetheless, no positions are fully invariant. There are however certain residues that are usually conserved including Tryptophan 4, Leucine 7, Glycine 8, Tyrosine 11, Alanine 20, Phenylalanine 24, Alanine 27 and Proline 32. Among those 8, Alanine at positions 8, 20 and 27 tend to be more conserved. The other positions have a stronger preference for either small, large or aromatic amino acids rather than a specific residue. In between helices, residue conservation plays more of a structural role with helix breaking residues present. Between adjacent TPR, residues have roles with both structural and functional implications.
TPR containing peptides
The Hop adaptor protein mediates the association of the molecular chaperones Hsp70 and Hsp90. It contains three 3-TPR repeats each with its own peptide-binding specificity. Its TPR1 domain is known to recognize the C-terminal of Hsp70 while TPR2 binds to the C-terminal of Hsp90. Both C-terminal sequences end with an EEVD motif and the nature of the interaction is both electrostatic and hydrophobic.
The PEX5 protein is a receptor for PTS1 (peroxisomal targeting signal tripeptide which directs proteins into peroxisomes). It interacts with the signal via TPR motifs. Most of its contacts with the C-terminal tripeptide PTS1 are in the concave face of TPRs 1, 2 and 3.
Neutrophil cytosolic factor 2
Neutrophil cytosolic factor 2 is an essential to NADPH oxidase complex which in turn produces superoxides in return to microbial infection. The binding of the Rac GTPase is a key step into the assembly of the complex and the TPRs in the phox unit mediate the assembly of the multiprotein complex by acting a binding scaffold.
Human genes encoding proteins containing this motif include:
- AAG2, ANAPC7
- CABIN1, CDC16, CDC23, CDC27, CNOT10, CTR9
- DNAJC3, DNAJC7, DYX1C1
- FAM10A4, FAM10A5, FKBP4, FKBP5, FKBP8, FKBPL
- GPSM1, GPSM2, GTF3C3
- IFIT1, IFIT1L, IFIT2, IFIT3, IFIT5, IFT140, IFT88
- KLC1, KLC2, KLC3, KLC4, KNS2
- NARG1, NARG1L, NASP, NCF2, NFKBIL2, NOXA1, NPHP3
- PEX5, PEX5L, PPID, PPP5C, PRPF6
- RANBP2, RANBP2L2, RANBP2L6, RAPSN, RGPD5, RGPD7, RPAP3
- SGTA, SGTB, SH3TC1, SH3TC2, SPAG1, SRP72, ST13, STIP1, STUB1, SUGT1
- TMTC1, TMTC2, TMTC3, TMTC4, TOMM34, TOMM70A
- TTC1, TTC3, TTC4, TTC5, TTC6, TTC7A, TTC7B, TTC8, TTC9C, TTC12, TTC13, TTC14, TTC15, TTC16, TTC17, TTC18, TTC21A, TTC21B, TTC22, TTC24, TTC25, TTC27, TTC28, TTC29, TTC30A, TTC30B, TTC31, TTC33, TTC37
- UNC45A, UNC45B, UTX, UTY
- Blatch GL, Lässle M (Nov 1999). "The tetratricopeptide repeat: a structural motif mediating protein-protein interactions". BioEssays. 21 (11): 932–9. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1521-1878(199911)21:11<932::AID-BIES5>3.0.CO;2-N. PMID 10517866.
- Das AK, Cohen PW, Barford D (Mar 1998). "The structure of the tetratricopeptide repeats of protein phosphatase 5: implications for TPR-mediated protein-protein interactions". The EMBO Journal. 17 (5): 1192–9. doi:10.1093/emboj/17.5.1192. PMC . PMID 9482716.
- Wilson CG, Kajander T, Regan L (Jan 2005). "The crystal structure of NlpI. A prokaryotic tetratricopeptide repeat protein with a globular fold". The FEBS Journal. 272 (1): 166–79. doi:10.1111/j.1432-1033.2004.04397.x. PMID 15634341.
- Scheufler C, Brinker A, Bourenkov G, Pegoraro S, Moroder L, Bartunik H, Hartl FU, Moarefi I (Apr 2000). "Structure of TPR domain-peptide complexes: critical elements in the assembly of the Hsp70-Hsp90 multichaperone machine". Cell. 101 (2): 199–210. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(00)80830-2. PMID 10786835.
- Gatto GJ, Geisbrecht BV, Gould SJ, Berg JM (Dec 2000). "Peroxisomal targeting signal-1 recognition by the TPR domains of human PEX5". Nature Structural Biology. 7 (12): 1091–5. doi:10.1038/81930. PMID 11101887.
- Lapouge K, Smith SJ, Walker PA, Gamblin SJ, Smerdon SJ, Rittinger K (Oct 2000). "Structure of the TPR domain of p67phox in complex with Rac.GTP". Molecular Cell. 6 (4): 899–907. doi:10.1016/S1097-2765(05)00091-2. PMID 11090627.
- Lima Mde F, Eloy NB, Pegoraro C, Sagit R, Rojas C, Bretz T, Vargas L, Elofsson A, de Oliveira AC, Hemerly AS, Ferreira PC (Nov 18, 2010). "Genomic evolution and complexity of the Anaphase-promoting Complex (APC) in land plants". BMC Plant Biology. 10: 254. doi:10.1186/1471-2229-10-254. PMC . PMID 21087491.
- Das AK, Cohen PW, Barford D (Mar 1998). "The structure of the tetratricopeptide repeats of protein phosphatase 5: implications for TPR-mediated protein-protein interactions". The EMBO Journal. 17 (5): 1192–9. doi:10.1093/emboj/17.5.1192. PMC . PMID 9482716.
- Whitfield C, Mainprize IL (Feb 2010). "TPR motifs: hallmarks of a new polysaccharide export scaffold". Structure. 18 (2): 151–3. doi:10.1016/j.str.2010.01.006. PMID 20159460.
- Krachler AM, Sharma A, Kleanthous C (Jul 2010). "Self-association of TPR domains: Lessons learned from a designed, consensus-based TPR oligomer". Proteins. 78 (9): 2131–43. doi:10.1002/prot.22726. PMID 20455268.
- Schapire AL, Valpuesta V, Botella MA (Sep 2006). "TPR Proteins in Plant Hormone Signaling". Plant Signaling & Behavior. 1 (5): 229–30. doi:10.4161/psb.1.5.3491. PMC . PMID 19704665.
- Cortajarena AL, Regan L (May 2006). "Ligand binding by TPR domains". Protein Science. 15 (5): 1193–8. doi:10.1110/ps.062092506. PMC . PMID 16641492.
- D'Andrea LD, Regan L (Dec 2003). "TPR proteins: the versatile helix". Trends in Biochemical Sciences. 28 (12): 655–62. doi:10.1016/j.tibs.2003.10.007. PMID 14659697.
- Goebl M, Yanagida M (May 1991). "The TPR snap helix: a novel protein repeat motif from mitosis to transcription". Trends in Biochemical Sciences. 16 (5): 173–7. doi:10.1016/0968-0004(91)90070-C. PMID 1882418.
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Internal database links
|SCOOP:||ANAPC3 BTAD Coatomer_E DUF2225 DUF3856 EST1_DNA_bind MIT NARP1 NUDE_C Rapsyn_N RPN7 SHNi-TPR SNAP SPO22 TPR_1 TPR_11 TPR_12 TPR_14 TPR_15 TPR_16 TPR_17 TPR_19 TPR_2 TPR_20 TPR_21 TPR_3 TPR_4 TPR_5 TPR_6 TPR_7 TPR_8 TPR_9 Wzy_C_2|
|Similarity to PfamA using HHSearch:||TPR_1 TPR_2 TPR_4 SHNi-TPR TPR_6 TPR_7 TPR_8 TPR_11 TPR_12 TPR_12|
This tab holds annotation information from the InterPro database.
InterPro entry IPR011990
The tetratrico peptide repeat region (TPR) is a structural motif present in a wide range of proteins [PUBMED:7667876, PUBMED:9482716, PUBMED:1882418]. It mediates protein-protein interactions and the assembly of multiprotein complexes [PUBMED:14659697]. The TPR motif consists of 3-16 tandem-repeats of 34 amino acids residues, although individual TPR motifs can be dispersed in the protein sequence. Sequence alignment of the TPR domains reveals a consensus sequence defined by a pattern of small and large amino acids. TPR motifs have been identified in various different organisms, ranging from bacteria to humans. Proteins containing TPRs are involved in a variety of biological processes, such as cell cycle regulation, transcriptional control, mitochondrial and peroxisomal protein transport, neurogenesis and protein folding.
The X-ray structure of a domain containing three TPRs from protein phosphatase 5 revealed that TPR adopts a helix-turn-helix arrangement, with adjacent TPR motifs packing in a parallel fashion, resulting in a spiral of repeating anti-parallel alpha-helices [PUBMED:14659697]. The two helices are denoted helix A and helix B. The packing angle between helix A and helix B is ~24 degrees within a single TPR and generates a right-handed superhelical shape. Helix A interacts with helix B and with helix A' of the next TPR. Two protein surfaces are generated: the inner concave surface is contributed to mainly by residue on helices A, and the other surface presents residues from both helices A and B.
This domain consists of a multi-helical fold comprised of two curved layers of alpha helices arranged in a regular right-handed superhelix, where the repeats that make up this structure are arranged about a common axis [PUBMED:10361086]. These superhelical structures present an extensive solvent-accessible surface that is well suited to binding large substrates such as proteins and nucleic acids. This topology has been found with a number of repeats and domains, including the tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) (found in kinesin light chains, SNAP regulatory proteins, clathrin heavy chains and bacterial aspartyl-phosphate phosphatases), and the pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) (RNA-processing proteins). The TPR is likely to be an ancient repeat, since it is found in eukaryotes, bacteria and archaea, whereas the PPR repeat is found predominantly in higher plants. The superhelix formed from these repeats can bind ligands at a number of different regions, and has the ability to acquire multiple functional roles [PUBMED:11551174].
The mapping between Pfam and Gene Ontology is provided by InterPro. If you use this data please cite InterPro.
|Molecular function||protein binding (GO:0005515)|
Below is a listing of the unique domain organisations or architectures in which this domain is found. More...
The graphic that is shown by default represents the longest sequence with a given architecture. Each row contains the following information:
- the number of sequences which exhibit this architecture
a textual description of the architecture, e.g. Gla, EGF x 2, Trypsin.
This example describes an architecture with one
Gladomain, followed by two consecutive
EGFdomains, and finally a single
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Tetratricopeptide-like repeats are found in a numerous and diverse proteins involved in such functions as cell cycle regulation, transcriptional control, mitochondrial and peroxisomal protein transport, neurogenesis and protein folding.
The clan contains the following 132 members:Adaptin_N Alkyl_sulf_dimr ANAPC3 ANAPC5 API5 Arm Arm_2 Arm_3 B56 BTAD CAS_CSE1 ChAPs CLASP_N Clathrin Clathrin-link Clathrin_H_link Clathrin_propel Cnd1 Cnd3 Coatomer_E Cohesin_HEAT Cohesin_load COPI_C CRM1_C Cse1 DNA_alkylation Drf_FH3 Drf_GBD DUF1822 DUF2019 DUF2225 DUF3385 DUF3458_C DUF3808 DUF3856 DUF4042 DUF924 EST1 EST1_DNA_bind FAT Fis1_TPR_C Fis1_TPR_N Foie-gras_1 GUN4_N HAT HEAT HEAT_2 HEAT_EZ HEAT_PBS HemY_N IBB IBN_N IFRD KAP Leuk-A4-hydro_C LRV LRV_FeS MA3 MIF4G MIF4G_like MIF4G_like_2 Mo25 MRP-S27 NARP1 Neurochondrin Nipped-B_C Nro1 NSF Paf67 ParcG PC_rep PHAT PI3Ka PknG_TPR PPP5 PPR PPR_1 PPR_2 PPR_3 PPR_long PPTA Proteasom_PSMB PUF Rab5-bind Rapsyn_N RPN7 Sel1 SHNi-TPR SNAP SPO22 SRP_TPR_like ST7 Suf SusD-like SusD-like_2 SusD-like_3 SusD_RagB TAF6_C TAL_effector TAtT Tcf25 TIP120 TOM20_plant TPR_1 TPR_10 TPR_11 TPR_12 TPR_14 TPR_15 TPR_16 TPR_17 TPR_18 TPR_19 TPR_2 TPR_20 TPR_21 TPR_3 TPR_4 TPR_5 TPR_6 TPR_7 TPR_8 TPR_9 Upf2 V-ATPase_H_C V-ATPase_H_N Vac14_Fab1_bd Vitellogenin_N Vps39_1 W2 Xpo1 YfiO
We store a range of different sequence alignments for families. As well as the seed alignment from which the family is built, we provide the full alignment, generated by searching the sequence database (reference proteomes) using the family HMM. We also generate alignments using four representative proteomes (RP) sets, the UniProtKB sequence database, the NCBI sequence database, and our metagenomics sequence database. More...
There are various ways to view or download the sequence alignments that we store. We provide several sequence viewers and a plain-text Stockholm-format file for download.
We make a range of alignments for each Pfam-A family:
- the curated alignment from which the HMM for the family is built
- the alignment generated by searching the sequence database using the HMM
- Representative Proteomes (RPs) at 15%, 35%, 55% and 75% co-membership thresholds
- alignment generated by searching the UniProtKB sequence database using the family HMM
- alignment generated by searching the NCBI sequence database using the family HMM
- alignment generated by searching the metagenomics sequence database using the family HMM
You can see the alignments as HTML or in three different sequence viewers:
- a Java applet developed at the University of Dundee. You will need Java installed before running jalview
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You can download (or view in your browser) a text representation of a Pfam alignment in various formats:
You can also change the order in which sequences are listed in the alignment, change how insertions are represented, alter the characters that are used to represent gaps in sequences and, finally, choose whether to download the alignment or to view it in your browser directly.
You may find that large alignments cause problems for the viewers and the reformatting tool, so we also provide all alignments in Stockholm format. You can download either the plain text alignment, or a gzipped version of it.
We make a range of alignments for each Pfam-A family. You can see a description of each above. You can view these alignments in various ways but please note that some types of alignment are never generated while others may not be available for all families, most commonly because the alignments are too large to handle.
1Cannot generate PP/Heatmap alignments for seeds; no PP data available
Key: available, not generated, — not available.
Format an alignment
We make all of our alignments available in Stockholm format. You can download them here as raw, plain text files or as gzip-compressed files.
You can also download a FASTA format file containing the full-length sequences for all sequences in the full alignment.
HMM logos is one way of visualising profile HMMs. Logos provide a quick overview of the properties of an HMM in a graphical form. You can see a more detailed description of HMM logos and find out how you can interpret them here. More...
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This page displays the phylogenetic tree for this family's seed alignment. We use FastTree to calculate neighbour join trees with a local bootstrap based on 100 resamples (shown next to the tree nodes). FastTree calculates approximately-maximum-likelihood phylogenetic trees from our seed alignment.
Note: You can also download the data file for the tree.
Curation and family details
This section shows the detailed information about the Pfam family. You can see the definitions of many of the terms in this section in the glossary and a fuller explanation of the scoring system that we use in the scores section of the help pages.
|Number in seed:||194|
|Number in full:||12921|
|Average length of the domain:||39.60 aa|
|Average identity of full alignment:||22 %|
|Average coverage of the sequence by the domain:||8.29 %|
|HMM build commands:||
build method: hmmbuild -o /dev/null HMM SEED
search method: hmmsearch -Z 26740544 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq
|Family (HMM) version:||5|
|Download:||download the raw HMM for this family|
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This visualisation provides a simple graphical representation of the distribution of this family across species. You can find the original interactive tree in the More....
This chart is a modified "sunburst" visualisation of the species tree for this family. It shows each node in the tree as a separate arc, arranged radially with the superkingdoms at the centre and the species arrayed around the outermost ring.
How the sunburst is generated
The tree is built by considering the taxonomic lineage of each sequence that has a match to this family. For each node in the resulting tree, we draw an arc in the sunburst. The radius of the arc, its distance from the root node at the centre of the sunburst, shows the taxonomic level ("superkingdom", "kingdom", etc). The length of the arc represents either the number of sequences represented at a given level, or the number of species that are found beneath the node in the tree. The weighting scheme can be changed using the sunburst controls.
In order to reduce the complexity of the representation, we reduce the number of taxonomic levels that we show. We consider only the following eight major taxonomic levels:
Colouring and labels
Segments of the tree are coloured approximately according to their superkingdom. For example, archeal branches are coloured with shades of orange, eukaryotes in shades of purple, etc. The colour assignments are shown under the sunburst controls. Where space allows, the name of the taxonomic level will be written on the arc itself.
As you move your mouse across the sunburst, the current node will be highlighted. In the top section of the controls panel we show a summary of the lineage of the currently highlighed node. If you pause over an arc, a tooltip will be shown, giving the name of the taxonomic level in the title and a summary of the number of sequences and species below that node in the tree.
Anomalies in the taxonomy tree
There are some situations that the sunburst tree cannot easily handle and for which we have work-arounds in place.
Missing taxonomic levels
Some species in the taxonomic tree may not have one or more of the main eight levels that we display. For example, Bos taurus is not assigned an order in the NCBI taxonomic tree. In such cases we mark the omitted level with, for example, "No order", in both the tooltip and the lineage summary.
Unmapped species names
The tree is built by looking at each sequence in the full alignment for the family. We take the name of the species given by UniProt and try to map that to the full taxonomic tree from NCBI. In some cases, the name chosen by UniProt does not map to any node in the NCBI tree, perhaps because the chosen name is listed as a synonym or a misspelling in the NCBI taxonomy.
So that these nodes are not simply omitted from the sunburst tree, we group them together in a separate branch (or segment of the sunburst tree). Since we cannot determine the lineage for these unmapped species, we show all levels between the superkingdom and the species as "uncategorised".
Since we reduce the species tree to only the eight main taxonomic levels, sequences that are mapped to the sub-species level in the tree would not normally be shown. Rather than leave out these species, we map them instead to their parent species. So, for example, for sequences belonging to one of the Vibrio cholerae sub-species in the NCBI taxonomy, we show them instead as belonging to the species Vibrio cholerae.
Too many species/sequences
For large species trees, you may see blank regions in the outer layers of the sunburst. These occur when there are large numbers of arcs to be drawn in a small space. If an arc is less than approximately one pixel wide, it will not be drawn and the space will be left blank. You may still be able to get some information about the species in that region by moving your mouse across the area, but since each arc will be very small, it will be difficult to accurately locate a particular species.
The tree shows the occurrence of this domain across different species. More...
We show the species tree in one of two ways. For smaller trees we try to show an interactive representation, which allows you to select specific nodes in the tree and view them as an alignment or as a set of Pfam domain graphics.
Unfortunately we have found that there are problems viewing the interactive tree when the it becomes larger than a certain limit. Furthermore, we have found that Internet Explorer can become unresponsive when viewing some trees, regardless of their size. We therefore show a text representation of the species tree when the size is above a certain limit or if you are using Internet Explorer to view the site.
If you are using IE you can still load the interactive tree by clicking the "Generate interactive tree" button, but please be aware of the potential problems that the interactive species tree can cause.
For all of the domain matches in a full alignment, we count the number that are found on all sequences in the alignment. This total is shown in the purple box.
We also count the number of unique sequences on which each domain is found, which is shown in green. Note that a domain may appear multiple times on the same sequence, leading to the difference between these two numbers.
Finally, we group sequences from the same organism according to the NCBI code that is assigned by UniProt, allowing us to count the number of distinct sequences on which the domain is found. This value is shown in the pink boxes.
We use the NCBI species tree to group organisms according to their taxonomy and this forms the structure of the displayed tree. Note that in some cases the trees are too large (have too many nodes) to allow us to build an interactive tree, but in most cases you can still view the tree in a plain text, non-interactive representation. Those species which are represented in the seed alignment for this domain are highlighted.
You can use the tree controls to manipulate how the interactive tree is displayed:
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Please note: for large trees this can take some time. While the tree is loading, you can safely switch away from this tab but if you browse away from the family page entirely, the tree will not be loaded.
There are 4 interactions for this family. More...
We determine these interactions using iPfam, which considers the interactions between residues in three-dimensional protein structures and maps those interactions back to Pfam families. You can find more information about the iPfam algorithm in the journal article that accompanies the website.
For those sequences which have a structure in the Protein DataBank, we use the mapping between UniProt, PDB and Pfam coordinate systems from the PDBe group, to allow us to map Pfam domains onto UniProt sequences and three-dimensional protein structures. The table below shows the structures on which the TPR_10 domain has been found. There are 12 instances of this domain found in the PDB. Note that there may be multiple copies of the domain in a single PDB structure, since many structures contain multiple copies of the same protein sequence.
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