Summary: Cystic fibrosis TM conductance regulator (CFTR), regulator domain
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Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator Edit Wikipedia article
|, ABC35, ABCC7, CF, CFTR/MRP, MRP7, TNR-dJ760C5.1, cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator, CF transmembrane conductance regulator|
The CFTR gene codes for an ABC transporter-class ion channel protein that conducts chloride ions across epithelial cell membranes. Mutations of the CFTR gene affecting chloride ion channel function lead to dysregulation of epithelial fluid transport in the lung, pancreas and other organs, resulting in cystic fibrosis. Complications include thickened mucus in the lungs with frequent respiratory infections, and pancreatic insufficiency giving rise to malnutrition and diabetes. These conditions lead to chronic disability and reduced life expectancy. In male patients, the progressive obstruction and destruction of the developing vas deferens (spermatic cord) and epididymis appear to result from abnormal intraluminal secretions, causing congenital absence of the vas deferens and male infertility.
The gene that encodes the human CFTR protein is found on chromosome 7, on the long arm at position q31.2. from base pair 116,907,253 to base pair 117,095,955. CFTR orthologs  occur in the jawed vertebrates.
The CFTR gene has been used in animals as a nuclear DNA phylogenetic marker. Large genomic sequences of this gene have been used to explore the phylogeny of the major groups of mammals, and confirmed the grouping of placental orders into four major clades: Xenarthra, Afrotheria, Laurasiatheria, and Euarchonta plus Glires.
Nearly 1000 cystic fibrosis-causing mutations have been described. The most common mutation, DeltaF508 (Î”F508) results from a deletion (Î”) of three nucleotides which results in a loss of the amino acid phenylalanine (F) at the 508th position on the protein. As a result, the protein does not fold normally and is more quickly degraded. The vast majority of mutations are infrequent. The distribution and frequency of mutations varies among different populations which has implications for genetic screening and counseling.
Mutations consist of replacements, duplications, deletions or shortenings in the CFTR gene. This may result in proteins that may not function, work less effectively, are more quickly degraded, or are present in inadequate numbers.
It has been hypothesized that mutations in the CFTR gene may confer a selective advantage to heterozygous individuals. Cells expressing a mutant form of the CFTR protein are resistant to invasion by the Salmonella typhi bacterium, the agent of typhoid fever, and mice carrying a single copy of mutant CFTR are resistant to diarrhea caused by cholera toxin.
DeltaF508 (Î”F508), full name CFTRÎ”F508 or F508del-CFTR (rs113993960), is a specific mutation within the CFTR gene involving a deletion of three nucleotides spanning positions 507 and 508 of the CFTR gene on chromosome 7, which ultimately results in the loss of a single codon for the amino acid phenylalanine (F). A person with the CFTRÎ”F508 mutation will produce an abnormal CFTR protein that lacks this phenylalanine residue and which cannot fold properly. This protein does not escape the endoplasmic reticulum for further processing. Having two copies of this mutation (one inherited from each parent) is by far the most common cause of cystic fibrosis (CF), responsible for nearly two-thirds of cases worldwide.
The CFTR protein is largely expressed in cells of the pancreas, intestinal and respiratory epithelia, and all exocrine glands. When properly folded, it is shuttled to the cell membrane, where it becomes a transmembrane protein responsible for opening channels which release chloride ions out of cells; it also simultaneously inhibits the uptake of sodium ions by another channel protein. Both of these functions help to maintain an ion gradient that causes osmosis to draw water out of the cells. The Î”F508 mutation leads to the misfolding of CFTR and its eventual degradation in the ER. In organisms with two complements of the mutation, the protein is entirely absent from the cell membrane, and these critical ion transport functions are not performed.
Having a homozygous pair of genes with the Î”F508 mutation prevents the CFTR protein from assuming its normal position in the cell membrane. This causes increased water retention in cells, corresponding dehydration of the extracellular space, and an associated cascade of effects on various parts of the body. These effects include: thicker mucous membranes in the epithelia of afflicted organs; obstruction of narrow respiratory airways as a result of thicker mucous and inhibition of the free movement of mucocilia; congenital absence of the vas deferens due to increased mucus thickness during fetal development; pancreatic insufficiency due to blockage of the pancreatic duct with mucus; and increased risk of respiratory infection due to build-up of thick, nutrient-rich mucus where bacteria thrive. These are the symptoms of cystic fibrosis, a genetic disorder; however, Î”F508 is not the only mutation that causes this disorder.
Being a heterozygous carrier (having a single copy of Î”F508) results in decreased water loss during diarrhea because malfunctioning or absent CFTR proteins cannot maintain stable ion gradients across cell membranes. Typically there is a build-up of both Clâˆ’ and Na+ ions inside affected cells, creating a hypotonic solution outside the cells and causing water to diffuse into the cells by osmosis. Several studies indicate that heterozygous carriers are at increased risk for various symptoms. For example, it has been shown that heterozygosity for cystic fibrosis is associated with increased airway reactivity, and heterozygotes may be at risk for poor pulmonary function. Heterozygotes with wheeze have been shown to be at higher risk for poor pulmonary function or development and progression of chronic obstructive lung disease. One gene for cystic fibrosis is sufficient to produce mild lung abnormalities even in the absence of infection.
The CFTR gene is located on the long arm of chromosome 7, at position q31.2, and ultimately codes for a sequence of 1,480 amino acids. Normally, the three DNA base pairs A-T-C (paired with T-A-G on the opposite strand) at the gene's 507th position form the template for the mRNA codon A-U-C for isoleucine, while the three DNA base pairs T-T-T (paired with A-A-A) at the adjacent 508th position form the template for the codon U-U-U for phenylalanine. The Î”F508 mutation is a deletion of the C-G pair from position 507 along with the first two T-A pairs from position 508, leaving the DNA sequence A-T-T (paired with T-A-A) at position 507, which is transcribed into the mRNA codon A-U-U. Since A-U-U also codes for isoleucine, position 507's amino acid does not change, and the mutation's net effect is equivalent to a deletion ("Î”") of the sequence resulting in the codon for phenylalanine at position 508.
Î”F508 is present on at least one copy of chromosome 7 in approximately one in 30 Caucasians. Presence of the mutation on both copies causes the autosomal recessive disease cystic fibrosis. Scientists have estimated that the original mutation occurred over 52,000 years ago in Northern Europe. The young allele age may be a consequence of past selection. One hypothesis as to why the otherwise detrimental mutation has been maintained by natural selection is that a single copy may present a positive effect by reducing water loss during cholera, though the introduction of pathogenic Vibrio cholerae into Europe did not occur until the late 18th century. Another theory posits that CF carriers (heterozygotes for Î”F508) are more resistant to typhoid fever, since CFTR has been shown to act as a receptor for Salmonella typhi bacteria to enter intestinal epithelial cells.
Cystic fibrosis Î”F508 heterozygotes may be overrepresented among individuals with asthma and may have poorer lung function than non-carriers. Carriers of a single CF mutation have a higher prevalence of chronic rhinosinusitis than the general population. Approximately 50% of cystic fibrosis cases in Europe are due to homozygous Î”F508 mutations (this varies widely by region), while the allele frequency of Î”F508 is about 70%. The remaining cases are caused by over 1,500 other mutations, including R117H, 1717-1G>A, and 2789+56G>A. These mutations, when combined with each other or even a single copy of Î”F508, may cause CF symptoms. The genotype is not strongly correlated with severity of the CF, though specific symptoms have been linked to certain mutations.
The CFTR gene is approximately 189 kb in length, with 27 exons and 26 introns. CFTR is a glycoprotein with 1480 amino acids. The protein consists of five domains. There are two transmembrane domains, each with six spans of alpha helices. These are each connected to a nucleotide binding domain (NBD) in the cytoplasm. The first NBD is connected to the second transmembrane domain by a regulatory "R" domain that is a unique feature of CFTR, not present in other ABC transporters. The ion channel only opens when its R-domain has been phosphorylated by PKA and ATP is bound at the NBDs. The carboxyl terminal of the protein is anchored to the cytoskeleton by a PDZ-interacting domain. Caveat: The crystal structure included at the top is not the full CFTR channel (the cartoon version is OK). The correct PDB accession number for the channel structure is 5UAK. The structure shown (PDB# 1XMI) shows a homopentameric assembly of mutated NBD1, the first nucleotide binding domain (NBD1) of the transporter.
Location and function
CFTR functions as a phosphorylation and ATP-gated anion channel, increasing the conductance for certain anions (e.g. Clâˆ’) to flow down their electrochemical gradient. ATP-driven conformational changes in CFTR open and close a gate to allow transmembrane flow of anions down their electrochemical gradient. This in contrast to other ABC proteins, in which ATP-driven conformational changes fuel uphill substrate transport across cellular membranes. Essentially, CFTR is an ion channel that evolved as a 'broken' ABC transporter that leaks when in open conformation.
CFTRs have two transmembrane domains, each linked to a nucleotide-binding domain. CFTR also contains another domain called the regulatory domain. Other members of the ABC transporter superfamily are involved in the uptake of nutrients in prokaryotes, or in the export of a variety of substrates in eukaryotes. ABC transporters have evolved to transduce the free energy of ATP hydrolysis to the uphill movement of substrates across the cell membrane. They have two main conformations, one where the cargo binding site is facing the cytosol or inward facing (ATP free), and one where it is outward facing (ATP bound). ATP binds to each nucleotide binding domain, which results in the subsequent NBD dimerization, leading to the rearrangement of the transmembrane helices. This changes the accessibility of the cargo binding site from an inward facing position to an outward facing one. ATP binding, and the hydrolysis that follows, drives the alternative exposure of the cargo binding site, ensuring a unidirectional transport of cargo against an electrochemical gradient. In CFTR, alternating between an inward-facing conformation to an outward-facing one results in channel gating. In particular, NBD dimerization (favoured by ATP binding) is coupled to transition to an outward-facing conformation in which an open transmembrane pathway for anions is formed. Subsequent hydrolysis (at the canonical active site, site 2, including Walker motifs of NBD2) destabilizes the NBD dimer and favours return to the inward-facing conformation, in which the anion permeation pathway is closed off .
In the airways of the lung, CFTR is most highly expressed by rare specialized cells called pulmonary ionocytes. In the skin CFTR is strongly expressed in the sebaceous and eccrine sweat glands. In the eccrine glands, CFTR is located on the apical membrane of the epithelial cells that make up the duct of these sweat glands.
Normally, the protein allows movement of chloride and thiocyanate ions (with a negative charge) out of an epithelial cell into the Airway Surface Liquid and mucus. Positively charged sodium ions follow passively, increasing the total electrolyte concentration in the mucus, resulting in the movement of water out of the cell via osmosis.
In epithelial cells with motile cilia lining the bronchus and the oviduct, CFTR is located on the apical cell membrane but not on cilia. In contrast, ENaC (Epithelial sodium channel) is located along the entire length of the cilia.
In sweat glands, defective CFTR results in reduced transport of sodium chloride and sodium thiocyanate in the reabsorptive duct and therefore saltier sweat. This is the basis of a clinically important sweat test for cystic fibrosis often used diagnostically with genetic screening.
Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator has been shown to interact with:
It is inhibited by the anti-diarrhoea drug crofelemer.
- Congenital bilateral absence of vas deferens: Males with congenital bilateral absence of the vas deferens most often have a mild mutation (a change that allows partial function of the gene) in one copy of the CFTR gene and a cystic fibrosis-causing mutation in the other copy of CFTR.
- Cystic fibrosis: More than 1,800 mutations in the CFTR gene have been found but the majority of these have not been associated with cystic fibrosis. Most of these mutations either substitute one amino acid (a building block of proteins) for another amino acid in the CFTR protein or delete a small amount of DNA in the CFTR gene. The most common mutation, called Î”F508, is a deletion (Î”) of one amino acid (phenylalanine) at position 508 in the CFTR protein. This altered protein never reaches the cell membrane because it is degraded shortly after it is made. All disease-causing mutations in the CFTR gene prevent the channel from functioning properly, leading to a blockage of the movement of salt and water into and out of cells. As a result of this blockage, cells that line the passageways of the lungs, pancreas, and other organs produce abnormally thick, sticky mucus. This mucus obstructs the airways and glands, causing the characteristic signs and symptoms of cystic fibrosis. In addition, only thin mucus can be removed by cilia; thick mucus cannot, so it traps bacteria that give rise to chronic infections.
- Cholera: ADP-ribosylation caused by cholera toxin results in increased production of cyclic AMP which in turn opens the CFTR channel which leads to oversecretion of Clâˆ’. Na+ and H2O follow Clâˆ’ into the small intestine, resulting in dehydration and loss of electrolytes.
CFTR has been a drug target in efforts to find treatments for related conditions. Ivacaftor (trade name Kalydeco, developed as VX-770) is a drug approved by the FDA in 2012 for people with cystic fibrosis who have specific CFTR mutations. Ivacaftor was developed by Vertex Pharmaceuticals in conjunction with the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation and is the first drug that treats the underlying cause rather than the symptoms of the disease. Called "the most important new drug of 2012", and "a wonder drug" it is one of the most expensive drugs, costing over US$300,000 per year, which has led to criticism of Vertex for the high cost.
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- Wang S, Raab RW, Schatz PJ, Guggino WB, Li M (May 1998). "Peptide binding consensus of the NHE-RF-PDZ1 domain matches the C-terminal sequence of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR)". FEBS Letters. 427 (1): 103â€“8. doi:10.1016/S0014-5793(98)00402-5. PMID 9613608.
- Moyer BD, Duhaime M, Shaw C, Denton J, Reynolds D, Karlson KH, Pfeiffer J, Wang S, Mickle JE, Milewski M, Cutting GR, Guggino WB, Li M, Stanton BA (September 2000). "The PDZ-interacting domain of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator is required for functional expression in the apical plasma membrane". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 275 (35): 27069â€“74. doi:10.1074/jbc.M004951200. PMID 10852925.
- Hall RA, Ostedgaard LS, Premont RT, Blitzer JT, Rahman N, Welsh MJ, Lefkowitz RJ (July 1998). "A C-terminal motif found in the beta2-adrenergic receptor, P2Y1 receptor and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator determines binding to the Na+/H+ exchanger regulatory factor family of PDZ proteins". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 95 (15): 8496â€“501. Bibcode:1998PNAS...95.8496H. doi:10.1073/pnas.95.15.8496. PMC 21104. PMID 9671706.
- Sun F, Hug MJ, Lewarchik CM, Yun CH, Bradbury NA, Frizzell RA (September 2000). "E3KARP mediates the association of ezrin and protein kinase A with the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator in airway cells". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 275 (38): 29539â€“46. doi:10.1074/jbc.M004961200. PMID 10893422.
- Naren AP, Nelson DJ, Xie W, Jovov B, Pevsner J, Bennett MK, Benos DJ, Quick MW, Kirk KL (November 1997). "Regulation of CFTR chloride channels by syntaxin and Munc18 isoforms". Nature. 390 (6657): 302â€“5. Bibcode:1997Natur.390..302N. doi:10.1038/36882. PMID 9384384.
- Egan ME (March 2016). "Genetics of Cystic Fibrosis: Clinical Implications". Clinics in Chest Medicine. 37 (1): 9â€“16. doi:10.1016/j.ccm.2015.11.002. PMID 26857764.
- De Boeck, Kris; Amaral, Margarida D (August 2016). "Progress in therapies for cystic fibrosis". The Lancet Respiratory Medicine. 4 (8): 662â€“674. doi:10.1016/S2213-2600(16)00023-0. PMID 27053340.
- Thiagarajah JR, Verkman AS (September 2012). "CFTR inhibitors for treating diarrheal disease". Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 92 (3): 287â€“90. doi:10.1038/clpt.2012.114. PMC 3643514. PMID 22850599.
- Jones AM, Helm JM (October 2009). "Emerging treatments in cystic fibrosis". Drugs. 69 (14): 1903â€“10. doi:10.2165/11318500-000000000-00000. PMID 19747007.
- McPhail GL, Clancy JP (April 2013). "Ivacaftor: the first therapy acting on the primary cause of cystic fibrosis". Drugs of Today. 49 (4): 253â€“60. doi:10.1358/dot.2013.49.4.1940984. PMID 23616952.
- "Phase 3 Study of VX-770 Shows Marked Improvement in Lung Function Among People with Cystic Fibrosis with G551D Mutation". Press Release. Cystic Fibrosis Foundation. 2011-02-23.
- Herper M (27 December 2012). "The Most Important New Drug Of 2012". Forbes.
- Nocera J (18 July 2014). "The $300,000 Drug". New York Times.
- Kulczycki LL, Kostuch M, Bellanti JA (January 2003). "A clinical perspective of cystic fibrosis and new genetic findings: relationship of CFTR mutations to genotype-phenotype manifestations". American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A. 116A (3): 262â€“7. doi:10.1002/ajmg.a.10886. PMID 12503104.
- Vankeerberghen A, Cuppens H, Cassiman JJ (March 2002). "The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator: an intriguing protein with pleiotropic functions". Journal of Cystic Fibrosis. 1 (1): 13â€“29. doi:10.1016/S1569-1993(01)00003-0. PMID 15463806.
- Tsui LC (1992). "Mutations and sequence variations detected in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene: a report from the Cystic Fibrosis Genetic Analysis Consortium". Human Mutation. 1 (3): 197â€“203. doi:10.1002/humu.1380010304. PMID 1284534.
- McIntosh I, Cutting GR (July 1992). "Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator and the etiology and pathogenesis of cystic fibrosis". FASEB Journal. 6 (10): 2775â€“82. doi:10.1096/fasebj.6.10.1378801. PMID 1378801.
- Drumm ML, Collins FS (1993). "Molecular biology of cystic fibrosis". Molecular Genetic Medicine. 3: 33â€“68. doi:10.1016/b978-0-12-462003-2.50006-7. ISBN 9780124620032. PMID 7693108.
- Kerem B, Kerem E (1996). "The molecular basis for disease variability in cystic fibrosis". European Journal of Human Genetics. 4 (2): 65â€“73. doi:10.1159/000472174. PMID 8744024.
- Devidas S, Guggino WB (October 1997). "CFTR: domains, structure, and function". Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes. 29 (5): 443â€“51. doi:10.1023/A:1022430906284. PMID 9511929.
- Nagel G (December 1999). "Differential function of the two nucleotide binding domains on cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. 1461 (2): 263â€“74. doi:10.1016/S0005-2736(99)00162-5. PMID 10581360.
- Boyle MP (2000). "Unique presentations and chronic complications in adult cystic fibrosis: do they teach us anything about CFTR?". Respiratory Research. 1 (3): 133â€“5. doi:10.1186/rr23. PMC 59552. PMID 11667976.
- Greger R, Schreiber R, Mall M, Wissner A, Hopf A, Briel M, Bleich M, Warth R, Kunzelmann K (2001). "Cystic fibrosis and CFTR". PflÃ¼gers Archiv. 443 Suppl 1: S3â€“7. doi:10.1007/s004240100635. PMID 11845294.
- Bradbury NA (2001). "cAMP signaling cascades and CFTR: is there more to learn?". PflÃ¼gers Archiv. 443 Suppl 1: S85â€“91. doi:10.1007/s004240100651. PMID 11845310.
- Dahan D, Evagelidis A, Hanrahan JW, Hinkson DA, Jia Y, Luo J, Zhu T (2001). "Regulation of the CFTR channel by phosphorylation". PflÃ¼gers Archiv. 443 Suppl 1: S92â€“6. doi:10.1007/s004240100652. PMID 11845311.
- Cohn JA, Noone PG, Jowell PS (September 2002). "Idiopathic pancreatitis related to CFTR: complex inheritance and identification of a modifier gene". Journal of Investigative Medicine. 50 (5): 247Sâ€“255S. doi:10.1136/jim-50-suppl5-01. PMID 12227654.
- Schwartz M (February 2003). "[Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene: mutations and clinical phenotypes]". Ugeskrift for Laeger. 165 (9): 912â€“6. PMID 12661515.
- Wong LJ, Alper OM, Wang BT, Lee MH, Lo SY (July 2003). "Two novel null mutations in a Taiwanese cystic fibrosis patient and a survey of East Asian CFTR mutations". American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A. 120A (2): 296â€“8. doi:10.1002/ajmg.a.20039. PMID 12833420.
- Cuppens H, Cassiman JJ (October 2004). "CFTR mutations and polymorphisms in male infertility". International Journal of Andrology. 27 (5): 251â€“6. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2605.2004.00485.x. PMID 15379964.
- Cohn JA, Mitchell RM, Jowell PS (March 2005). "The impact of cystic fibrosis and PSTI/SPINK1 gene mutations on susceptibility to chronic pancreatitis". Clinics in Laboratory Medicine. 25 (1): 79â€“100. doi:10.1016/j.cll.2004.12.007. PMID 15749233.
- Southern KW, Peckham D (2004). "Establishing a diagnosis of cystic fibrosis". Chronic Respiratory Disease. 1 (4): 205â€“10. doi:10.1191/1479972304cd044rs. PMID 16281647.
- Kandula L, Whitcomb DC, Lowe ME (June 2006). "Genetic issues in pediatric pancreatitis". Current Gastroenterology Reports. 8 (3): 248â€“53. doi:10.1007/s11894-006-0083-8. PMID 16764792.
- Marcet B, Boeynaems JM (December 2006). "Relationships between cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator, extracellular nucleotides and cystic fibrosis". Pharmacology & Therapeutics. 112 (3): 719â€“32. doi:10.1016/j.pharmthera.2006.05.010. PMID 16828872.
- Wilschanski M, Durie PR (August 2007). "Patterns of GI disease in adulthood associated with mutations in the CFTR gene". Gut. 56 (8): 1153â€“63. doi:10.1136/gut.2004.062786. PMC 1955522. PMID 17446304.
- GeneReviews/NCBI/NIH/UW entry on CFTR-Related Disorders - Cystic Fibrosis (CF, Mucoviscidosis) and Congenital Absence of the Vas Deferens (CAVD)
- The Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator Protein
- The Human Gene Mutation Database - CFTR Records
- Cystic Fibrosis Mutation Database
- Oak Ridge National Laboratory CFTR Information
- CFTR at OMIM (National Center for Biotechnology Information)
This tab holds the annotation information that is stored in the Pfam database. As we move to using Wikipedia as our main source of annotation, the contents of this tab will be gradually replaced by the Wikipedia tab.
Cystic fibrosis TM conductance regulator (CFTR), regulator domain Provide feedback
No Pfam abstract.
This tab holds annotation information from the InterPro database.
InterPro entry IPR025837
Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) that belongs to the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily. It is a member of the ABC-C subfamily, which also contains the SUR receptors and the multidrug- resistance associated proteins (MRP) [ PUBMED:11435397 ]. The CFTR protein encodes a chloride ion channel, which is controlled by phosphorylation. It has a major role in electrolyte and fluid secretion. CFTR is important in the determination of fluid flow, ion concentration and transepithelial salt transport. Dysfunction of the CFTR channel causes the life-threatening disease, cystic fibrosis, in which trans-epithelial ion transport is disrupted [ PUBMED:9922375 ].
Below is a listing of the unique domain organisations or architectures in which this domain is found. More...
The graphic that is shown by default represents the longest sequence with a given architecture. Each row contains the following information:
- the number of sequences which exhibit this architecture
a textual description of the architecture, e.g. Gla, EGF x 2, Trypsin.
This example describes an architecture with one
Gladomain, followed by two consecutive
EGFdomains, and finally a single
- a link to the page in the Pfam site showing information about the sequence that the graphic describes
- the UniProt description of the protein sequence
- the number of residues in the sequence
- the Pfam graphic itself.
Note that you can see the family page for a particular domain by clicking on the graphic. You can also choose to see all sequences which have a given architecture by clicking on the Show link in each row.
Finally, because some families can be found in a very large number of architectures, we load only the first fifty architectures by default. If you want to see more architectures, click the button at the bottom of the page to load the next set.
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AAA family proteins often perform chaperone-like functions that assist in the assembly, operation, or disassembly of protein complexes .
The clan contains the following 243 members:6PF2K AAA AAA-ATPase_like AAA_10 AAA_11 AAA_12 AAA_13 AAA_14 AAA_15 AAA_16 AAA_17 AAA_18 AAA_19 AAA_2 AAA_21 AAA_22 AAA_23 AAA_24 AAA_25 AAA_26 AAA_27 AAA_28 AAA_29 AAA_3 AAA_30 AAA_31 AAA_32 AAA_33 AAA_34 AAA_35 AAA_5 AAA_6 AAA_7 AAA_8 AAA_9 AAA_PrkA ABC_ATPase ABC_tran ABC_tran_Xtn Adeno_IVa2 Adenylsucc_synt ADK AFG1_ATPase AIG1 APS_kinase Arf ArsA_ATPase ATP-synt_ab ATP_bind_1 ATP_bind_2 ATPase ATPase_2 Bac_DnaA BCA_ABC_TP_C Beta-Casp bpMoxR Cas_Csn2 Cas_St_Csn2 CbiA CBP_BcsQ CDC73_C CENP-M CFTR_R CLP1_P CMS1 CoaE CobA_CobO_BtuR CobU cobW CPT CSM2 CTP_synth_N Cytidylate_kin Cytidylate_kin2 DAP3 DBINO DEAD DEAD_2 DLIC DNA_pack_C DNA_pack_N DNA_pol3_delta DNA_pol3_delta2 DnaB_C dNK DO-GTPase1 DO-GTPase2 DUF1611 DUF1726 DUF2075 DUF2326 DUF2478 DUF257 DUF2791 DUF2813 DUF3584 DUF463 DUF5906 DUF6079 DUF815 DUF853 DUF87 DUF927 Dynamin_N Dynein_heavy Elong_Iki1 ELP6 ERCC3_RAD25_C Exonuc_V_gamma FeoB_N Fer4_NifH Flavi_DEAD FTHFS FtsK_SpoIIIE G-alpha Gal-3-0_sulfotr GBP GBP_C GTP_EFTU Gtr1_RagA Guanylate_kin GvpD HDA2-3 Helicase_C Helicase_C_2 Helicase_C_4 Helicase_RecD Herpes_Helicase Herpes_ori_bp Herpes_TK HSA HydF_dimer HydF_tetramer Hydin_ADK IIGP IPPT IPT iSTAND IstB_IS21 KAP_NTPase KdpD Kinase-PPPase Kinesin KTI12 LAP1C Lon_2 LpxK MCM MeaB MEDS Mg_chelatase Microtub_bd MipZ MMR_HSR1 MMR_HSR1_C MobB MukB Mur_ligase_M MutS_V Myosin_head NACHT NAT_N NB-ARC NOG1 NTPase_1 NTPase_P4 OPA1_C ORC3_N P-loop_TraG ParA Parvo_NS1 PAXNEB PduV-EutP PhoH PIF1 Ploopntkinase1 Ploopntkinase2 Ploopntkinase3 Podovirus_Gp16 Polyoma_lg_T_C Pox_A32 PPK2 PPV_E1_C PRK PSY3 Rad17 Rad51 Ras RecA ResIII RHD3 RhoGAP_pG1_pG2 RHSP RNA12 RNA_helicase Roc RsgA_GTPase RuvB_N SbcCD_C SecA_DEAD Septin Sigma54_activ_2 Sigma54_activat SKI SMC_N SNF2-rel_dom Spore_III_AA Spore_IV_A SRP54 SRPRB SulA Sulfotransfer_1 Sulfotransfer_2 Sulfotransfer_3 Sulfotransfer_4 Sulfotransfer_5 Sulphotransf SWI2_SNF2 T2SSE T4SS-DNA_transf Terminase_1 Terminase_3 Terminase_6N Terminase_GpA Thymidylate_kin TIP49 TK TniB Torsin TraG-D_C tRNA_lig_kinase TrwB_AAD_bind TsaE UvrB UvrD-helicase UvrD_C UvrD_C_2 Viral_helicase1 VirC1 VirE YqeC Zeta_toxin Zot
We store a range of different sequence alignments for families. As well as the seed alignment from which the family is built, we provide the full alignment, generated by searching the sequence database (reference proteomes) using the family HMM. We also generate alignments using four representative proteomes (RP) sets and the UniProtKB sequence database. More...
There are various ways to view or download the sequence alignments that we store. We provide several sequence viewers and a plain-text Stockholm-format file for download.
We make a range of alignments for each Pfam-A family:
- the curated alignment from which the HMM for the family is built
- the alignment generated by searching the sequence database using the HMM
- Representative Proteomes (RPs) at 15%, 35%, 55% and 75% co-membership thresholds
- alignment generated by searching the UniProtKB sequence database using the family HMM
You can see the alignments as HTML or in three different sequence viewers:
- a Java applet developed at the University of Dundee. You will need Java installed before running jalview
- an HTML page showing the whole alignment.Please note: full Pfam alignments can be very large. These HTML views are extremely large and often cause problems for browsers. Please use either jalview or the Pfam viewer if you have trouble viewing the HTML version
- an HTML-based representation of the alignment, coloured according to the posterior-probability (PP) values from the HMM. As for the standard HTML view, heatmap alignments can also be very large and slow to render.
You can download (or view in your browser) a text representation of a Pfam alignment in various formats:
You can also change the order in which sequences are listed in the alignment, change how insertions are represented, alter the characters that are used to represent gaps in sequences and, finally, choose whether to download the alignment or to view it in your browser directly.
You may find that large alignments cause problems for the viewers and the reformatting tool, so we also provide all alignments in Stockholm format. You can download either the plain text alignment, or a gzipped version of it.
We make a range of alignments for each Pfam-A family. You can see a description of each above. You can view these alignments in various ways but please note that some types of alignment are never generated while others may not be available for all families, most commonly because the alignments are too large to handle.
1Cannot generate PP/Heatmap alignments for seeds; no PP data available
Key: available, not generated, — not available.
Format an alignment
We make all of our alignments available in Stockholm format. You can download them here as raw, plain text files or as gzip-compressed files.
You can also download a FASTA format file containing the full-length sequences for all sequences in the full alignment.
HMM logos is one way of visualising profile HMMs. Logos provide a quick overview of the properties of an HMM in a graphical form. You can see a more detailed description of HMM logos and find out how you can interpret them here. More...
If you find these logos useful in your own work, please consider citing the following article:
This page displays the phylogenetic tree for this family's seed alignment. We use FastTree to calculate neighbour join trees with a local bootstrap based on 100 resamples (shown next to the tree nodes). FastTree calculates approximately-maximum-likelihood phylogenetic trees from our seed alignment.
Note: You can also download the data file for the tree.
Curation and family details
This section shows the detailed information about the Pfam family. You can see the definitions of many of the terms in this section in the glossary and a fuller explanation of the scoring system that we use in the scores section of the help pages.
|Number in seed:||14|
|Number in full:||465|
|Average length of the domain:||211.80 aa|
|Average identity of full alignment:||59 %|
|Average coverage of the sequence by the domain:||15.16 %|
|HMM build commands:||
build method: hmmbuild -o /dev/null HMM SEED
search method: hmmsearch -Z 57096847 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq
|Family (HMM) version:||8|
|Download:||download the raw HMM for this family|
Weight segments by...
Change the size of the sunburst
selected sequences to HMM
a FASTA-format file
- 0 sequences
- 0 species
This visualisation provides a simple graphical representation of the distribution of this family across species. You can find the original interactive tree in the More....
This chart is a modified "sunburst" visualisation of the species tree for this family. It shows each node in the tree as a separate arc, arranged radially with the superkingdoms at the centre and the species arrayed around the outermost ring.
How the sunburst is generated
The tree is built by considering the taxonomic lineage of each sequence that has a match to this family. For each node in the resulting tree, we draw an arc in the sunburst. The radius of the arc, its distance from the root node at the centre of the sunburst, shows the taxonomic level ("superkingdom", "kingdom", etc). The length of the arc represents either the number of sequences represented at a given level, or the number of species that are found beneath the node in the tree. The weighting scheme can be changed using the sunburst controls.
In order to reduce the complexity of the representation, we reduce the number of taxonomic levels that we show. We consider only the following eight major taxonomic levels:
Colouring and labels
Segments of the tree are coloured approximately according to their superkingdom. For example, archeal branches are coloured with shades of orange, eukaryotes in shades of purple, etc. The colour assignments are shown under the sunburst controls. Where space allows, the name of the taxonomic level will be written on the arc itself.
As you move your mouse across the sunburst, the current node will be highlighted. In the top section of the controls panel we show a summary of the lineage of the currently highlighed node. If you pause over an arc, a tooltip will be shown, giving the name of the taxonomic level in the title and a summary of the number of sequences and species below that node in the tree.
Anomalies in the taxonomy tree
There are some situations that the sunburst tree cannot easily handle and for which we have work-arounds in place.
Missing taxonomic levels
Some species in the taxonomic tree may not have one or more of the main eight levels that we display. For example, Bos taurus is not assigned an order in the NCBI taxonomic tree. In such cases we mark the omitted level with, for example, "No order", in both the tooltip and the lineage summary.
Unmapped species names
The tree is built by looking at each sequence in the full alignment for the family. We take the name of the species given by UniProt and try to map that to the full taxonomic tree from NCBI. In some cases, the name chosen by UniProt does not map to any node in the NCBI tree, perhaps because the chosen name is listed as a synonym or a misspelling in the NCBI taxonomy.
So that these nodes are not simply omitted from the sunburst tree, we group them together in a separate branch (or segment of the sunburst tree). Since we cannot determine the lineage for these unmapped species, we show all levels between the superkingdom and the species as "uncategorised".
Since we reduce the species tree to only the eight main taxonomic levels, sequences that are mapped to the sub-species level in the tree would not normally be shown. Rather than leave out these species, we map them instead to their parent species. So, for example, for sequences belonging to one of the Vibrio cholerae sub-species in the NCBI taxonomy, we show them instead as belonging to the species Vibrio cholerae.
Too many species/sequences
For large species trees, you may see blank regions in the outer layers of the sunburst. These occur when there are large numbers of arcs to be drawn in a small space. If an arc is less than approximately one pixel wide, it will not be drawn and the space will be left blank. You may still be able to get some information about the species in that region by moving your mouse across the area, but since each arc will be very small, it will be difficult to accurately locate a particular species.
The tree shows the occurrence of this domain across different species. More...
We show the species tree in one of two ways. For smaller trees we try to show an interactive representation, which allows you to select specific nodes in the tree and view them as an alignment or as a set of Pfam domain graphics.
Unfortunately we have found that there are problems viewing the interactive tree when the it becomes larger than a certain limit. Furthermore, we have found that Internet Explorer can become unresponsive when viewing some trees, regardless of their size. We therefore show a text representation of the species tree when the size is above a certain limit or if you are using Internet Explorer to view the site.
If you are using IE you can still load the interactive tree by clicking the "Generate interactive tree" button, but please be aware of the potential problems that the interactive species tree can cause.
For all of the domain matches in a full alignment, we count the number that are found on all sequences in the alignment. This total is shown in the purple box.
We also count the number of unique sequences on which each domain is found, which is shown in green. Note that a domain may appear multiple times on the same sequence, leading to the difference between these two numbers.
Finally, we group sequences from the same organism according to the NCBI code that is assigned by UniProt, allowing us to count the number of distinct sequences on which the domain is found. This value is shown in the pink boxes.
We use the NCBI species tree to group organisms according to their taxonomy and this forms the structure of the displayed tree. Note that in some cases the trees are too large (have too many nodes) to allow us to build an interactive tree, but in most cases you can still view the tree in a plain text, non-interactive representation. Those species which are represented in the seed alignment for this domain are highlighted.
You can use the tree controls to manipulate how the interactive tree is displayed:
- show/hide the summary boxes
- highlight species that are represented in the seed alignment
- expand/collapse the tree or expand it to a given depth
- select a sub-tree or a set of species within the tree and view them graphically or as an alignment
- save a plain text representation of the tree
Please note: for large trees this can take some time. While the tree is loading, you can safely switch away from this tab but if you browse away from the family page entirely, the tree will not be loaded.
For those sequences which have a structure in the Protein DataBank, we use the mapping between UniProt, PDB and Pfam coordinate systems from the PDBe group, to allow us to map Pfam domains onto UniProt sequences and three-dimensional protein structures. The table below shows the structures on which the CFTR_R domain has been found. There are 62 instances of this domain found in the PDB. Note that there may be multiple copies of the domain in a single PDB structure, since many structures contain multiple copies of the same protein sequence.
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