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6  structures 956  species 0  interactions 1080  sequences 28  architectures

Family: ORC5_C (PF14630)

Summary: Origin recognition complex (ORC) subunit 5 C-terminus

Pfam includes annotations and additional family information from a range of different sources. These sources can be accessed via the tabs below.

This is the Wikipedia entry entitled "ORC5". More...

ORC5 Edit Wikipedia article

ORC5
Identifiers
Aliases ORC5, ORC5L, ORC5P, ORC5T, PPP1R117, origin recognition complex subunit 5
External IDs MGI: 1347044 HomoloGene: 37636 GeneCards: ORC5
Gene location (Human)
Chromosome 7 (human)
Chr. Chromosome 7 (human)[1]
Chromosome 7 (human)
Genomic location for ORC5
Genomic location for ORC5
Band n/a Start 104,126,341 bp[1]
End 104,208,047 bp[1]
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE ORC5L 211212 s at fs.png

PBB GE ORC5L 204957 at fs.png
More reference expression data
Orthologs
Species Human Mouse
Entrez
Ensembl
UniProt
RefSeq (mRNA)

NM_001197292
NM_002553
NM_181747

NM_011959

RefSeq (protein)

NP_002544
NP_859531

NP_036089

Location (UCSC) Chr 7: 104.13 – 104.21 Mb Chr 7: 22.49 – 22.55 Mb
PubMed search [3] [4]
Wikidata
View/Edit Human View/Edit Mouse

Origin recognition complex subunit 5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ORC5 (ORC5L) gene.[5][6][7]

Function

The origin recognition complex (ORC) is a highly conserved six subunit protein complex essential for the initiation of the DNA replication in eukaryotic cells. Studies in yeast demonstrated that ORC binds specifically to origins of replication and serves as a platform for the assembly of additional initiation factors such as Cdc6 and Mcm proteins. The protein encoded by this gene is a subunit of the ORC complex. It has been shown to form a core complex with ORC2L, -3L, and 4L. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been described.[7]

Interactions

ORC5 has been shown to interact with:

References

  1. ^ a b c GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000164815 - Ensembl, May 2017
  2. ^ a b c GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000029012 - Ensembl, May 2017
  3. ^ "Human PubMed Reference:". 
  4. ^ "Mouse PubMed Reference:". 
  5. ^ Ishiai M, Dean FB, Okumura K, Abe M, Moon KY, Amin AA, Kagotani K, Taguchi H, Murakami Y, Hanaoka F, O'Donnell M, Hurwitz J, Eki T (Dec 1997). "Isolation of human and fission yeast homologues of the budding yeast origin recognition complex subunit ORC5: human homologue (ORC5L) maps to 7q22". Genomics. 46 (2): 294–8. PMID 9417919. doi:10.1006/geno.1997.5003. 
  6. ^ Tugal T, Zou-Yang XH, Gavin K, Pappin D, Canas B, Kobayashi R, Hunt T, Stillman B (Dec 1998). "The Orc4p and Orc5p subunits of the Xenopus and human origin recognition complex are related to Orc1p and Cdc6p". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 273 (49): 32421–9. PMID 9829972. doi:10.1074/jbc.273.49.32421. 
  7. ^ a b "Entrez Gene: ORC5L origin recognition complex, subunit 5-like (yeast)". 
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h Kneissl M, Pütter V, Szalay AA, Grummt F (Mar 2003). "Interaction and assembly of murine pre-replicative complex proteins in yeast and mouse cells". Journal of Molecular Biology. 327 (1): 111–28. PMID 12614612. doi:10.1016/s0022-2836(03)00079-2. 
  9. ^ a b Quintana DG, Thome KC, Hou ZH, Ligon AH, Morton CC, Dutta A (Oct 1998). "ORC5L, a new member of the human origin recognition complex, is deleted in uterine leiomyomas and malignant myeloid diseases". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 273 (42): 27137–45. PMID 9765232. doi:10.1074/jbc.273.42.27137. 
  10. ^ a b c Dhar SK, Delmolino L, Dutta A (Aug 2001). "Architecture of the human origin recognition complex". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 276 (31): 29067–71. PMID 11395502. doi:10.1074/jbc.M103078200. 
  11. ^ a b Vashee S, Simancek P, Challberg MD, Kelly TJ (Jul 2001). "Assembly of the human origin recognition complex". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 276 (28): 26666–73. PMID 11323433. doi:10.1074/jbc.M102493200. 
  12. ^ Pinto S, Quintana DG, Smith P, Mihalek RM, Hou ZH, Boynton S, Jones CJ, Hendricks M, Velinzon K, Wohlschlegel JA, Austin RJ, Lane WS, Tully T, Dutta A (May 1999). "latheo encodes a subunit of the origin recognition complex and disrupts neuronal proliferation and adult olfactory memory when mutant". Neuron. 23 (1): 45–54. PMID 10402192. doi:10.1016/s0896-6273(00)80752-7. 

Further reading

  • Maruyama K, Sugano S (Jan 1994). "Oligo-capping: a simple method to replace the cap structure of eukaryotic mRNAs with oligoribonucleotides". Gene. 138 (1-2): 171–4. PMID 8125298. doi:10.1016/0378-1119(94)90802-8. 
  • Klemm RD, Austin RJ, Bell SP (Feb 1997). "Coordinate binding of ATP and origin DNA regulates the ATPase activity of the origin recognition complex". Cell. 88 (4): 493–502. PMID 9038340. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(00)81889-9. 
  • Suzuki Y, Yoshitomo-Nakagawa K, Maruyama K, Suyama A, Sugano S (Oct 1997). "Construction and characterization of a full length-enriched and a 5'-end-enriched cDNA library". Gene. 200 (1-2): 149–56. PMID 9373149. doi:10.1016/S0378-1119(97)00411-3. 
  • Quintana DG, Thome KC, Hou ZH, Ligon AH, Morton CC, Dutta A (Oct 1998). "ORC5L, a new member of the human origin recognition complex, is deleted in uterine leiomyomas and malignant myeloid diseases". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 273 (42): 27137–45. PMID 9765232. doi:10.1074/jbc.273.42.27137. 
  • Jiang W, McDonald D, Hope TJ, Hunter T (Oct 1999). "Mammalian Cdc7-Dbf4 protein kinase complex is essential for initiation of DNA replication". The EMBO Journal. 18 (20): 5703–13. PMC 1171637Freely accessible. PMID 10523313. doi:10.1093/emboj/18.20.5703. 
  • Thome KC, Dhar SK, Quintana DG, Delmolino L, Shahsafaei A, Dutta A (Nov 2000). "Subsets of human origin recognition complex (ORC) subunits are expressed in non-proliferating cells and associate with non-ORC proteins". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 275 (45): 35233–41. PMID 10954718. doi:10.1074/jbc.M005765200. 
  • Vashee S, Simancek P, Challberg MD, Kelly TJ (Jul 2001). "Assembly of the human origin recognition complex". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 276 (28): 26666–73. PMID 11323433. doi:10.1074/jbc.M102493200. 
  • Fröhling S, Nakabayashi K, Scherer SW, Döhner H, Döhner K (Apr 2001). "Mutation analysis of the origin recognition complex subunit 5 (ORC5L) gene in adult patients with myeloid leukemias exhibiting deletions of chromosome band 7q22". Human Genetics. 108 (4): 304–9. PMID 11379876. doi:10.1007/s004390100498. 
  • Dhar SK, Delmolino L, Dutta A (Aug 2001). "Architecture of the human origin recognition complex". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 276 (31): 29067–71. PMID 11395502. doi:10.1074/jbc.M103078200. 
  • Kneissl M, Pütter V, Szalay AA, Grummt F (Mar 2003). "Interaction and assembly of murine pre-replicative complex proteins in yeast and mouse cells". Journal of Molecular Biology. 327 (1): 111–28. PMID 12614612. doi:10.1016/S0022-2836(03)00079-2. 
  • Ramachandran N, Hainsworth E, Bhullar B, Eisenstein S, Rosen B, Lau AY, Walter JC, LaBaer J (Jul 2004). "Self-assembling protein microarrays". Science. 305 (5680): 86–90. PMID 15232106. doi:10.1126/science.1097639. 

This page is based on a Wikipedia article. The text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License.

This is the Wikipedia entry entitled "Origin recognition complex". More...

Origin recognition complex Edit Wikipedia article

Origin recognition complex subunit 2
Identifiers
Symbol ORC2
Pfam PF04084
InterPro IPR007220
Origin recognition complex (ORC) subunit 3 N-terminus
Identifiers
Symbol ORC3_N
Pfam PF07034
InterPro IPR010748
Origin recognition complex subunit 6 (ORC6)
Identifiers
Symbol ORC6
Pfam PF05460
InterPro IPR008721

In molecular biology, origin recognition complex (ORC) is a multi-subunit DNA binding complex (6 subunits) that binds in all eukaryotes in an ATP-dependent manner to origins of replication. The subunits of this complex are encoded by the ORC1, ORC2, ORC3, ORC4, ORC5 and ORC6 genes.[1][2][3] ORC is a central component for eukaryotic DNA replication, and remains bound to chromatin at replication origins throughout the cell cycle.[4]

ORC directs DNA replication throughout the genome and is required for its initiation.[5][6][7] ORC bound at replication origins serves as the foundation for assembly of the pre-replication complex (pre-RC), which includes Cdc6, Tah11 (a.k.a. Cdt1), and the Mcm2-Mcm7 complex.[8][9][10] Pre-RC assembly during G1 is required for replication licensing of chromosomes prior to DNA synthesis during S phase.[11][12][13] Cell cycle-regulated phosphorylation of Orc2, Orc6, Cdc6, and MCM by the cyclin-dependent protein kinase Cdc28 regulates initiation of DNA replication, including blocking reinitiation in G2/M phase.[4][14][15][16]

The ORC is present throughout the cell cycle bound to replication origins, but is only active in late mitosis and early G1.

In yeast, ORC also plays a role in the establishment of silencing at the mating-type loci Hidden MAT Left (HML) and Hidden MAT Right (HMR).[5][6][7] ORC participates in the assembly of transcriptionally silent chromatin at HML and HMR by recruiting the Sir1 silencing protein to the HML and HMR silencers.[7][17][18]

Both Orc1 and Orc5 bind ATP, though only Orc1 has ATPase activity.[19] The binding of ATP by Orc1 is required for ORC binding to DNA and is essential for cell viability.[10] The ATPase activity of Orc1 is involved in formation of the pre-RC.[20][21][22] ATP binding by Orc5 is crucial for the stability of ORC as a whole. Only the Orc1-5 subunits are required for origin binding; Orc6 is essential for maintenance of pre-RCs once formed.[23] Interactions within ORC suggest that Orc2-3-6 may form a core complex.[4]

Proteins

This process was initiated by the loading of Mcm2-7 onto the chromatid by the ORC and associated proteins

The following proteins are present in the ORC:

Origin Recognition Complex Protein Subunits[24]
Species Name S. cerevisiae S. pombe D. melanogaster Vertebrates
ORC 1-6 ORC 1-6 ORC 1-6 ORC 1-6
Cdc6 Cdc18 Cdc6 Cdc6
Cdt1/Tah11/Sid2 Cdt1 DUP Cdt1/RLF-B
Mcm2 Mcm2/Cdc19/Nda1 Mcm2 Mcm2
Mcm3 Mcm3 Mcm3 Mcm3
Cdc54/Mcm4 Cdc21 DPA Mcm4
Cdc46/Mcm5 Mcm5/Nda4 Mcm5 Mcm5
Mcm6 Mcm6/Mis5 Mcm6 Mcm6
Cdc47/Mcm7 Mcm7 Mcm7 mcm7

Morgan Figure 4-9 pg. 65

Autonomously replicating sequences (ARS)

Budding yeast

Autonomously Replicating Sequences, first discovered in budding yeast, are integral to the success of the ORC. These 100-200bp sequences facilitate replication activity during S phase. ARSs can be placed at any novel location of the chromosomes of budding yeast and will facilitate replication from those sites. A highly conserved sequence of 11bp (known as the A element) is thought to be essential for origin function in budding yeast.[24] The ORC was originally identified by its ability to bind to the A element of the ARS in budding yeast.

Animals

Animal cells contain a much more cryptic version of an ARS, with no conserved sequences found as of yet. However, in animal cells, replication origins gather into bundles called replicon clusters. Each cluster's replicons are similar in length, but individual clusters have replicons of varying length. These replicons all have similar basic residues to which the ORC binds, which in many ways mimic the conserved 11bp A element. All of these clusters are simultaneously activated during S phase.[24]

Role in pre-RC assembly

The ORC is essential for the loading of MCM complexes (Pre-RC) onto DNA. This process is dependant on the ORC, Cdc6, and Cdt1 – involving several ATP controlled recruiting events. First, the ORC and Cdc6 form a complex on origin DNA (marked by ARS type regions). New ORC/Cdc6 complexes then recruit Cdt1/Mcm2-7 molecules to the site. Once this massive ORC/Cdc6/Cdt1/Mcm2-7 complex is formed, the ORC/Cdc6/Cdt1 molecules work together to load Mcm2-7 onto the DNA itself by hydrolysis of ATP by Cdc6. Cdc6's phosphorylative activity is dependant on both the ORC and origin DNA. This leads to Cdt1 having decreased stability on the DNA and falling off of the complex leading to Mcm2-7 loading on to the DNA.[25][24][26][27]

CDC6 Function.jpgEukPreRC.jpg

Origin binding activity

Although the ORC is composed of six discrete subunits, only one of these has been found to be significant - ORC1. In vivo studies have shown that Lys-263 and Arg-367 are the basic residues responsible for faithful ORC loading. These molecules represent the above mentioned ARS.[28] ORC1 interacts with ATP and these basic residues in order to bind the ORC to origin DNA. It has been established that this occurs far before replication, and that the ORC itself is already bound to Origin DNA by the time any Mcm2-7 loading occurs.[27] When Mcm2-7 is first loaded it completely encircles the DNA and helicase activity is inhibited. In S phase, the Mcm2-7 complex interacts with helicase cofactors Cdc45 and GINS to isolate a single DNA strand, unwind the origin, and begin replication down the chromosome. In order to have bidirectional replication, this process happens twice at an origin. Both loading events are mediated by one ORC via an identical process as the first.[29]

See also

References

  1. ^ Origin Recognition Complex at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH)
  2. ^ Dutta A, Bell SP (1997). "Initiation of DNA replication in eukaryotic cells". Annu. Rev. Cell Dev. Biol. 13: 293–332. doi:10.1146/annurev.cellbio.13.1.293. PMID 9442876. 
  3. ^ Chesnokov IN (2007). "Multiple functions of the origin recognition complex". Int. Rev. Cytol. 256: 69–109. doi:10.1016/S0074-7696(07)56003-1. PMID 17241905. 
  4. ^ a b c Matsuda K, Makise M, Sueyasu Y, Takehara M, Asano T, Mizushima T (December 2007). "Yeast two-hybrid analysis of the origin recognition complex of Saccharomyces cerevisiae: interaction between subunits and identification of binding proteins". FEMS Yeast Res. 7 (8): 1263–9. doi:10.1111/j.1567-1364.2007.00298.x. PMID 17825065. 
  5. ^ a b Bell SP, Stillman B (May 1992). "ATP-dependent recognition of eukaryotic origins of DNA replication by a multiprotein complex". Nature. 357 (6374): 128–34. doi:10.1038/357128a0. PMID 1579162. 
  6. ^ a b Bell SP, Mitchell J, Leber J, Kobayashi R, Stillman B (November 1995). "The multidomain structure of Orc1p reveals similarity to regulators of DNA replication and transcriptional silencing". Cell. 83 (4): 563–8. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(95)90096-9. PMID 7585959. 
  7. ^ a b c Gibson DG, Bell SP, Aparicio OM (June 2006). "Cell cycle execution point analysis of ORC function and characterization of the checkpoint response to ORC inactivation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae". Genes Cells. 11 (6): 557–73. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2443.2006.00967.x. PMID 16716188. 
  8. ^ Rao H, Stillman B (March 1995). "The origin recognition complex interacts with a bipartite DNA binding site within yeast replicators". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 92 (6): 2224–8. doi:10.1073/pnas.92.6.2224. PMC 42456Freely accessible. PMID 7892251. 
  9. ^ Rowley A, Cocker JH, Harwood J, Diffley JF (June 1995). "Initiation complex assembly at budding yeast replication origins begins with the recognition of a bipartite sequence by limiting amounts of the initiator, ORC". EMBO J. 14 (11): 2631–41. PMC 398377Freely accessible. PMID 7781615. 
  10. ^ a b Speck C, Chen Z, Li H, Stillman B (November 2005). "ATPase-dependent cooperative binding of ORC and Cdc6 to origin DNA". Nat. Struct. Mol. Biol. 12 (11): 965–71. doi:10.1038/nsmb1002. PMC 2952294Freely accessible. PMID 16228006. 
  11. ^ Kelly TJ, Brown GW (2000). "Regulation of chromosome replication". Annu. Rev. Biochem. 69: 829–80. doi:10.1146/annurev.biochem.69.1.829. PMID 10966477. 
  12. ^ Bell SP, Dutta A (2002). "DNA replication in eukaryotic cells". Annu. Rev. Biochem. 71: 333–74. doi:10.1146/annurev.biochem.71.110601.135425. PMID 12045100. 
  13. ^ Stillman B (February 2005). "Origin recognition and the chromosome cycle". FEBS Lett. 579 (4): 877–84. doi:10.1016/j.febslet.2004.12.011. PMID 15680967. 
  14. ^ Weinreich M, Liang C, Chen HH, Stillman B (September 2001). "Binding of cyclin-dependent kinases to ORC and Cdc6p regulates the chromosome replication cycle". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 98 (20): 11211–7. doi:10.1073/pnas.201387198. PMC 58709Freely accessible. PMID 11572976. 
  15. ^ Nguyen VQ, Co C, Li JJ (June 2001). "Cyclin-dependent kinases prevent DNA re-replication through multiple mechanisms". Nature. 411 (6841): 1068–73. doi:10.1038/35082600. PMID 11429609. 
  16. ^ Archambault V, Ikui AE, Drapkin BJ, Cross FR (August 2005). "Disruption of mechanisms that prevent rereplication triggers a DNA damage response". Mol. Cell. Biol. 25 (15): 6707–21. doi:10.1128/MCB.25.15.6707-6721.2005. PMC 1190345Freely accessible. PMID 16024805. 
  17. ^ Triolo T, Sternglanz R (May 1996). "Role of interactions between the origin recognition complex and SIR1 in transcriptional silencing". Nature. 381 (6579): 251–3. doi:10.1038/381251a0. PMID 8622770. 
  18. ^ Fox CA, Ehrenhofer-Murray AE, Loo S, Rine J (June 1997). "The origin recognition complex, SIR1, and the S phase requirement for silencing". Science. 276 (5318): 1547–51. doi:10.1126/science.276.5318.1547. PMID 9171055. 
  19. ^ Klemm RD, Austin RJ, Bell SP (February 1997). "Coordinate binding of ATP and origin DNA regulates the ATPase activity of the origin recognition complex". Cell. 88 (4): 493–502. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(00)81889-9. PMID 9038340. 
  20. ^ Klemm RD, Bell SP (July 2001). "ATP bound to the origin recognition complex is important for preRC formation". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 98 (15): 8361–7. doi:10.1073/pnas.131006898. PMC 37444Freely accessible. PMID 11459976. 
  21. ^ Bowers JL, Randell JC, Chen S, Bell SP (December 2004). "ATP hydrolysis by ORC catalyzes reiterative Mcm2-7 assembly at a defined origin of replication". Mol. Cell. 16 (6): 967–78. doi:10.1016/j.molcel.2004.11.038. PMID 15610739. 
  22. ^ Randell JC, Bowers JL, Rodriguez HK, Bell SP (January 2006). "Sequential ATP hydrolysis by Cdc6 and ORC directs loading of the Mcm2-7 helicase". Mol. Cell. 21 (1): 29–39. doi:10.1016/j.molcel.2005.11.023. PMID 16387651. 
  23. ^ Semple JW, Da-Silva LF, Jervis EJ, Ah-Kee J, Al-Attar H, Kummer L, Heikkila JJ, Pasero P, Duncker BP (November 2006). "An essential role for Orc6 in DNA replication through maintenance of pre-replicative complexes". EMBO J. 25 (21): 5150–8. doi:10.1038/sj.emboj.7601391. PMC 1630405Freely accessible. PMID 17053779. 
  24. ^ a b c d Morgan, David (2007). The Cell Cycle: Principles of Control. Primers in Biology. pp. 62–75. ISBN 978-0878935086. 
  25. ^ Fernández-Cid, Alejandra (Winter 2017). "An ORC/Cdc6/MCM2-7 Complex Is Formed in a Multistep Reaction to Serve as a Platform for MCM Double-Hexamer Assembly". Molecular Cell. 50: 577–588. doi:10.1016/j.molcel.2013.03.026 – via Science Direct. 
  26. ^ Randell, John (Winter 2017). "Sequential ATP Hydrolysis by Cdc6 and ORC Directs Loading of the Mcm2-7 Helicase". Molecular Cell. 21: 29–39. doi:10.1016/j.molcel.2005.11.023. PMID 16387651 – via Elsevier Science Direct. 
  27. ^ a b Speck, Christian (Winter 2017). "ATPase-dependent cooperative binding of ORC and Cdc6 to origin DNA". Nature Structural & Molecular Biology. 12: 965–971. doi:10.1038/nsmb1002. PMC 2952294Freely accessible. PMID 16228006 – via Nature.com. 
  28. ^ Kawakami, Hironori (Winter 2017). "Specific binding of eukaryotic ORC to DNA replication origins depends on highly conserved basic residues". Scientific Reports. 5. doi:10.1038/srep14929 – via Nature Research. 
  29. ^ Chistol, Gheorghe (Winter 2017). "Single-Molecule Visualization of MCM2-7 DNA Loading: Seeing Is Believing". Cell. 161: 429–430. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2015.04.006 – via Elsevier Science Direct. 

Further reading

This article incorporates text from the public domain Pfam and InterPro IPR007220

This article incorporates text from the public domain Pfam and InterPro IPR010748

This article incorporates text from the public domain Pfam and InterPro IPR008721

This page is based on a Wikipedia article. The text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License.

This tab holds the annotation information that is stored in the Pfam database. As we move to using Wikipedia as our main source of annotation, the contents of this tab will be gradually replaced by the Wikipedia tab.

Origin recognition complex (ORC) subunit 5 C-terminus Provide feedback

This entry represents the C-terminus of origin recognition complex subunit 5 [1].

Literature references

  1. Ishiai M, Dean FB, Okumura K, Abe M, Moon KY, Amin AA, Kagotani K, Taguchi H, Murakami Y, Hanaoka F, O'Donnell M, Hurwitz J, Eki T;, Genomics. 1997;46:294-298.: Isolation of human and fission yeast homologues of the budding yeast origin recognition complex subunit ORC5: human homologue (ORC5L) maps to 7q22. PUBMED:9417919 EPMC:9417919


This tab holds annotation information from the InterPro database.

InterPro entry IPR020796

The Origin Recognition Complex (ORC) is a six-subunit ATP-dependent DNA-binding complex encoded in yeast by ORC1-6 [PUBMED:17241905]. ORC is a central component for eukaryotic DNA replication, and binds chromatin at replication origins throughout the cell cycle [PUBMED:17825065]. ORC directs DNA replication throughout the genome and is required for its initiation [PUBMED:1579162, PUBMED:7585959, PUBMED:16716188]. ORC bound at replication origins serves as the foundation for assembly of the pre-replicative complex (pre-RC), which includes Cdc6, Tah11 (aka Cdt1), and the Mcm2-7 complex [PUBMED:7892251, PUBMED:7781615, PUBMED:16228006]. Pre-RC assembly during G1 is required for replication licensing of chromosomes prior to DNA synthesis during S phase [PUBMED:10966477, PUBMED:12045100, PUBMED:15680967]. Cell cycle-regulated phosphorylation of ORC2, ORC6, Cdc6, and MCM by the cyclin-dependent protein kinase Cdc28 regulates initiation of DNA replication, including blocking reinitiation in G2/M phase [PUBMED:17825065, PUBMED:11572976, PUBMED:11429609, PUBMED:16024805].

In yeast, ORC also plays a role in the establishment of silencing at the mating-type loci Hidden MAT Left (HML) and Hidden MAT Right (HMR) [PUBMED:1579162, PUBMED:7585959, PUBMED:16716188]. ORC participates in the assembly of transcriptionally silent chromatin at HML and HMR by recruiting the Sir1 silencing protein to the HML and HMR silencers [PUBMED:16716188, PUBMED:8622770, PUBMED:9171055].

Both ORC1 and ORC5 bind ATP, although only ORC1 has ATPase activity [PUBMED:9038340]. The binding of ATP by ORC1 is required for ORC binding to DNA and is essential for cell viability [PUBMED:16228006]. The ATPase activity of ORC1 is involved in formation of the pre-RC [PUBMED:11459976, PUBMED:15610739, PUBMED:16387651]. ATP binding by ORC5 is crucial for the stability of ORC as a whole. Only the ORC1-5 subunits are required for origin binding; ORC6 is essential for maintenance of pre-RCs once formed [PUBMED:17053779]. Interactions within ORC suggest that ORC2-3-6 may form a core complex [PUBMED:17825065].

ORC homologues have been found in various eukaryotes, including fission yeast, insects, amphibians, and humans [PUBMED:9442876].

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HMM logos is one way of visualising profile HMMs. Logos provide a quick overview of the properties of an HMM in a graphical form. You can see a more detailed description of HMM logos and find out how you can interpret them here. More...

Trees

This page displays the phylogenetic tree for this family's seed alignment. We use FastTree to calculate neighbour join trees with a local bootstrap based on 100 resamples (shown next to the tree nodes). FastTree calculates approximately-maximum-likelihood phylogenetic trees from our seed alignment.

Note: You can also download the data file for the tree.

Curation and family details

This section shows the detailed information about the Pfam family. You can see the definitions of many of the terms in this section in the glossary and a fuller explanation of the scoring system that we use in the scores section of the help pages.

Curation View help on the curation process

Seed source: Jackhmmer:O43913
Previous IDs: none
Type: Family
Sequence Ontology: SO:0100021
Author: Eberhardt R
Number in seed: 147
Number in full: 1080
Average length of the domain: 279.40 aa
Average identity of full alignment: 23 %
Average coverage of the sequence by the domain: 53.37 %

HMM information View help on HMM parameters

HMM build commands:
build method: hmmbuild -o /dev/null HMM SEED
search method: hmmsearch -Z 45638612 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq
Model details:
Parameter Sequence Domain
Gathering cut-off 26.0 26.0
Trusted cut-off 26.2 27.0
Noise cut-off 24.4 25.9
Model length: 285
Family (HMM) version: 6
Download: download the raw HMM for this family

Species distribution

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Colour assignments

Archea Archea Eukaryota Eukaryota
Bacteria Bacteria Other sequences Other sequences
Viruses Viruses Unclassified Unclassified
Viroids Viroids Unclassified sequence Unclassified sequence

Selections

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This visualisation provides a simple graphical representation of the distribution of this family across species. You can find the original interactive tree in the adjacent tab. More...

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Tree controls

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The tree shows the occurrence of this domain across different species. More...

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Please note: for large trees this can take some time. While the tree is loading, you can safely switch away from this tab but if you browse away from the family page entirely, the tree will not be loaded.

Structures

For those sequences which have a structure in the Protein DataBank, we use the mapping between UniProt, PDB and Pfam coordinate systems from the PDBe group, to allow us to map Pfam domains onto UniProt sequences and three-dimensional protein structures. The table below shows the structures on which the ORC5_C domain has been found. There are 6 instances of this domain found in the PDB. Note that there may be multiple copies of the domain in a single PDB structure, since many structures contain multiple copies of the same protein sequence.

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