Summary: Intraflagellar transport complex B, subunit 20
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Intraflagellar transport Edit Wikipedia article
Intraflagellar transport or IFT is a bidirectional motility along axonemal microtubules that is essential for the formation (ciliogenesis) and maintenance of most eukaryotic cilia and flagella. It is thought to be required to build all cilia that assemble within a membrane projection from the cell surface. Plasmodium falciparum cilia and the sperm flagella of Drosophila are examples of cilia that assemble in the cytoplasm and do not require IFT. The process of IFT involves movement of large protein complexes called IFT particles or trains from the cell body to the ciliary tip and followed by their return to the cell body. The outward or anterograde movement is powered by kinesin-2 while the inward or retrograde movement is powered by cytoplasmic dynein 2/1b. The IFT particles are composed of about 20 proteins organized in two subcomplexes called complex A and B.
IFT was first reported in 1993 by graduate student Keith Kozminski while working in the lab of Dr. Joel Rosenbaum at Yale University. The process of IFT has been best characterized in the biflagellate alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as well as the sensory cilia of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.
It has been suggested based on localization studies that IFT proteins also function outside of cilia.
IFT describes the bi-directional movement of non-membrane-bound particles along the doublet microtubules of the flagellar axoneme, between the axoneme and the plasma membrane. Studies have shown that the movement of IFT particles along the microtubule is carried out by two different microtubule-based motors; the anterograde (towards the flagellar tip) motor is heterotrimeric kinesin-2, and the retrograde (towards the cell body) motor is cytoplasmic dynein 1b. IFT particles carry axonemal subunits to the site of assembly at the tip of the axoneme; thus, IFT is necessary for axonemal growth. Therefore, since the axoneme needs a continually fresh supply of proteins, an axoneme with defective IFT machinery will slowly shrink in the absence of replacement protein subunits. In healthy flagella, IFT particles reverse direction at the tip of the axoneme, and are thought to carry used proteins, or "turnover products," back to the base of the flagellum.
The IFT particles themselves consist of two sub-complexes, each made up of several individual IFT proteins. The two complexes, known as 'A' and 'B,' are separable via sucrose centrifugation (both complexes at approximately 16S, but under increased ionic strength complex B sediments more slowly, thus segregating the two complexes). The many subunits of the IFT complexes have been named according to their molecular weights:
- complex A contains IFT144, IFT140, IFT139, IFT122, IFT121 and IFT43
- complex B contains IFT172, IFT88, IFT81, IFT80, IFT74, IFT72, IFT57, IFT52, IFT46, IFT27, and IFT20
The biochemical properties and biological functions of these IFT subunits are just beginning to be elucidated, for example they interact with components of the basal body like CEP170 or proteins which are required for cilium formation like tubulin chaperone and membrane proteins.
Due to the importance of IFT in maintaining functional cilia, defective IFT machinery has now been implicated in many disease phenotypes generally associated with non-functional (or absent) cilia. IFT88, for example, encodes a protein also known as Tg737 or Polaris in mouse and human, and the loss of this protein has been found to cause an autosomal-recessive polycystic kidney disease model phenotype in mice. Other human diseases such as retinal degeneration, situs inversus (a reversal of the body's left-right axis), Senior-Loken syndrome, liver disease, primary ciliary dyskinesia, nephronophthisis, Alstrom syndrome, Meckel-Gruber syndrome, Sensenbrenner syndrome, Jeune syndrome, and Bardet-Biedl syndrome, which causes both cystic kidneys and retinal degeneration, have been linked to the IFT machinery. This diverse group of genetic syndromes and genetic diseases are now understood to arise due to malfunctioning cilia, and the term "ciliopathy" is now used to indicate their common origin. These and possibly many more disorders may be better understood via study of IFT.
|IFT gene||Other name||Human disease||reference|
|IFT144||WDR19||Jeune syndrome, Sensenbrenner syndrome|||
|IFT172||SLB||Jeune syndrome, Mainzer-Saldino syndrome|||
One of the most recent discoveries regarding IFT is its potential role in signal transduction. IFT has been shown to be necessary for the movement of other signaling proteins within the cilia, and therefore may play a role in many different signaling pathways. Specifically, IFT has been implicated as a mediator of sonic hedgehog signaling, one of the most important pathways in embryogenesis.
- Cole, DG; Diener, DR; Himelblau, AL; Beech, PL; Fuster, JC; Rosenbaum, JL (May 1998). "Chlamydomonas kinesin-II-dependent intraflagellar transport (IFT): IFT particles contain proteins required for ciliary assembly in Caenorhabditis elegans sensory neurons". J. Cell Biol. 141: 993–1008. doi:10.1083/jcb.141.4.993. PMC . PMID 9585417.
- Bhogaraju, S.; Taschner, M.; Morawetz, M.; Basquin, C.; Lorentzen, E. (2011). "Crystal structure of the intraflagellar transport complex 25/27". The EMBO Journal. 30 (10): 1907–1918. doi:10.1038/emboj.2011.110. PMC . PMID 21505417.
- Kozminski, KG; Johnson KA; Forscher P; Rosenbaum JL. (1993). "A motility in the eukaryotic flagellum unrelated to flagellar beating". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 90: 5519–23. doi:10.1073/pnas.90.12.5519. PMC . PMID 8516294.
- Orozco, JT; Wedaman KP; Signor D; Brown H; Rose L; Scholey JM (1999). "Movement of motor and cargo along cilia". Nature. 398 (6729): 674. doi:10.1038/19448. PMID 10227290.
- Sedmak T, Wolfrum U (April 2010). "Intraflagellar transport molecules in ciliary and nonciliary cells of the retina". J. Cell Biol. 189 (1): 171–86. doi:10.1083/jcb.200911095. PMC . PMID 20368623.
- Rosenbaum, JL; Witman GB (2002). "Intraflagellar Transport". Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 3: 813–25. doi:10.1038/nrm952. PMID 12415299.
- Scholey, JM (2008). "Intraflagellar transport motors in cilia: moving along the cell's antenna". Journal of Cell Biology. 180 (1): 23–29. doi:10.1083/jcb.200709133. PMC . PMID 18180368.
- Lucker BF, Behal RH, Qin H, et al. (July 2005). "Characterization of the intraflagellar transport complex B core: direct interaction of the IFT81 and IFT74/72 subunits". J. Biol. Chem. 280 (30): 27688–96. doi:10.1074/jbc.M505062200. PMID 15955805.
- Behal RH1, Miller MS, Qin H, Lucker BF, Jones A, Cole DG. (2012). "Subunit interactions and organization of the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii intraflagellar transport complex A proteins". J. Biol. Chem. 287 (15): 11689–703. doi:10.1074/jbc.M111.287102. PMC . PMID 22170070.
- Lamla S (2009). "Functional characterisation of the centrosomal protein Cep170". Dissertation. LMU Muenchen: Fakultät für Biologie.
- Badano, Jose L.; Norimasa Mitsuma; Phil L. Beales; Nicholas Katsanis (September 2006). "The Ciliopathies : An Emerging Class of Human Genetic Disorders". Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics. 7: 125–148. doi:10.1146/annurev.genom.7.080505.115610. PMID 16722803.
- Aldahmesh, M. A., Li, Y., Alhashem, A., Anazi, S., Alkuraya, H., Hashem, M., Awaji, A. A., Sogaty, S., Alkharashi, A., Alzahrani, S., Al Hazzaa, S. A., Xiong, Y., Kong, S., Sun, Z., Alkuraya, F. S. (2014). "IFT27, encoding a small GTPase component of IFT particles, is mutated in a consanguineous family with Bardet-Biedl syndrome". Hum. Mol. Genet. 23: 3307–3315. doi:10.1093/hmg/ddu044. PMC . PMID 24488770.
- Arts, H. H., Bongers, E. M. H. F., Mans, D. A., van Beersum, S. E. C., Oud, M. M., Bolat, E., Spruijt, L., Cornelissen, E. A. M., Schuurs-Hoeijmakers, J. H. M., de Leeuw, N., Cormier-Daire, V., Brunner, H. G., Knoers, N. V. A. M., Roepman, R. (2011). "C14ORF179 encoding IFT43 is mutated in Sensenbrenner syndrome". J. Med. Genet. 48: 390–395. doi:10.1136/jmg.2011.088864. PMID 21378380.
- Gilissen, C., Arts, H. H., Hoischen, A., Spruijt, L., Mans, D. A., Arts, P., van Lier, B., Steehouwer, M., van Reeuwijk, J., Kant, S. G., Roepman, R., Knoers, N. V. A. M., Veltman, J. A., Brunner, H. G. (2010). "Exome sequencing identifies WDR35 variants involved in Sensenbrenner syndrome". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 87: 418–423. doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2010.08.004. PMC . PMID 20817137.
- Walczak-Sztulpa, J., Eggenschwiler, J., Osborn, D., Brown, D. A., Emma, F., Klingenberg, C., Hennekam, R. C., Torre, G., Garshasbi, M., Tzschach, A., Szczepanska, M., Krawczynski, M., Zachwieja, J., Zwolinska, D., Beales, P. L., Ropers, H.-H., Latos-Bielenska, A., Kuss, A. W. (2010). "Cranioectodermal dysplasia, Sensenbrenner syndrome, is a ciliopathy caused by mutations in the IFT122 gene". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 86: 949–956. doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2010.04.012. PMC . PMID 20493458.
- Perrault, I., Saunier, S., Hanein, S., Filhol, E., Bizet, A. A., Collins, F., Salih, M. A. M., Gerber, S., Delphin, N., Bigot, K., Orssaud, C., Silva, E., and 18 others. (2012). "Mainzer-Saldino syndrome is a ciliopathy caused by IFT140 mutations". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 90: 864–870. doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2012.03.006. PMC . PMID 22503633.
- Bredrup, C., Saunier, S., Oud, M. M., Fiskerstrand, T., Hoischen, A., Brackman, D., Leh, S. M., Midtbo, M., Filhol, E., Bole-Feysot, C., Nitschke, P., Gilissen, C., and 16 others. (2011). "Ciliopathies with skeletal anomalies and renal insufficiency due to mutations in the IFT-A gene WDR19". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 89: 634–643. doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2011.10.001. PMC . PMID 22019273.
- Halbritter, J., Bizet, A. A., Schmidts, M., Porath, J. D., Braun, D. A., Gee, H. Y., McInerney-Leo, A. M., Krug, P., Filhol, E., Davis, E. E., Airik, R., Czarnecki, P. G., and 38 others. (2013). "Defects in the IFT-B component IFT172 cause Jeune and Mainzer-Saldino syndromes in humans". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 93: 915–925. doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2013.09.012. PMC . PMID 24140113.
- Eggenschwiler JT, Anderson KV (January 2007). "Cilia and developmental signaling". Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol. 23: 345–73. doi:10.1146/annurev.cellbio.23.090506.123249. PMC . PMID 17506691.
- Orozco JT, Wedaman KP, Signor D, Brown H, Rose L, Scholey JM (April 1999). "Movement of motor and cargo along cilia". Nature. 398 (6729): 674. doi:10.1038/19448. PMID 10227290.
- Cole DG, Diener DR, Himelblau AL, Beech PL, Fuster JC, Rosenbaum JL (May 1998). "Chlamydomonas kinesin-II-dependent intraflagellar transport (IFT): IFT particles contain proteins required for ciliary assembly in Caenorhabditis elegans sensory neurons". J. Cell Biol. 141 (4): 993–1008. doi:10.1083/jcb.141.4.993. PMC . PMID 9585417.
- Pan X, Ou G, Civelekoglu-Scholey G, et al. (September 2006). "Mechanism of transport of IFT particles in C. elegans cilia by the concerted action of kinesin-II and OSM-3 motors". J. Cell Biol. 174 (7): 1035–45. doi:10.1083/jcb.200606003. PMC . PMID 17000880.
- Qin H, Burnette DT, Bae YK, Forscher P, Barr MM, Rosenbaum JL (September 2005). "Intraflagellar transport is required for the vectorial movement of TRPV channels in the ciliary membrane". Curr. Biol. 15 (18): 1695–9. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2005.08.047. PMID 16169494.
- Haycraft CJ, Banizs B, Aydin-Son Y, Zhang Q, Michaud EJ, Yoder BK (October 2005). "Gli2 and Gli3 localize to cilia and require the intraflagellar transport protein polaris for processing and function". PLoS Genet. 1 (4): e53. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.0010053. PMC . PMID 16254602.
- Briggs LJ, Davidge JA, Wickstead B, Ginger ML, Gull K (August 2004). "More than one way to build a flagellum: comparative genomics of parasitic protozoa". Curr. Biol. 14 (15): R611–2. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2004.07.041. PMID 15296774.
- For a time-lapse microscopic QuickTime movie and schematic cartoon of IFT, see Rosenbaum Lab IFT webpage.
This tab holds the annotation information that is stored in the Pfam database. As we move to using Wikipedia as our main source of annotation, the contents of this tab will be gradually replaced by the Wikipedia tab.
Intraflagellar transport complex B, subunit 20 Provide feedback
IFT20 is subunit 20 of the intraflagellar transport complex B . The intraflagellar transport complex assembles and maintains eukaryotic cilia and flagella. IFT20 is localised to the Golgi complex and is anchored there by the Golgi polypeptide, GMAP210, whereas all other subunits except IFT172 localise to cilia and the peri-basal body or centrosomal region at the base of cilia [1,2,3]. IFT20 accompanies Golgi-derived vesicles to the point of exocytosis near the basal bodies where the other IFT polypeptides are present, and where the intact IFT particle is assembled in association with the inner surface of the cell membrane. Passage of the IFT complex then follows, through the flagellar pore recognition site at the transition region, into the ciliary compartment. There also appears to be a role of intraflagellar transport (IFT) polypeptides in the formation of the immune synapse in non ciliated cells. The flagellum, in addition to being a sensory and motile organelle, is also a secretory organelle . A number of IFT components are expressed in haematopoietic cells, which have no cilia, indicating an unexpected role of IFT proteins in immune synapse-assembly and intracellular membrane trafficking in T lymphocytes; this suggests that the immune synapse could represent the functional homologue of the primary cilium in these cells [6,7].
Baker SA, Freeman K, Luby-Phelps K, Pazour GJ, Besharse JC;, J Biol Chem. 2003;278:34211-34218.: IFT20 links kinesin II with a mammalian intraflagellar transport complex that is conserved in motile flagella and sensory cilia. PUBMED:12821668 EPMC:12821668
Jurczyk A, Gromley A, Redick S, San Agustin J, Witman G, Pazour GJ, Peters DJ, Doxsey S;, J Cell Biol. 2004;166:637-643.: Pericentrin forms a complex with intraflagellar transport proteins and polycystin-2 and is required for primary cilia assembly. PUBMED:15337773 EPMC:15337773
Follit JA, Tuft RA, Fogarty KE, Pazour GJ;, Mol Biol Cell. 2006;17:3781-3792.: The intraflagellar transport protein IFT20 is associated with the Golgi complex and is required for cilia assembly. PUBMED:16775004 EPMC:16775004
This tab holds annotation information from the InterPro database.
InterPro entry IPR028172
Intraflagellar transport (IFT) particle, which consists of complex A and B, is involved in assembling and maintaining eukaryotic cilia and flagella. Intraflagellar transport protein 20 (IFT20) is a subunit of the intraflagellar transport complex B (consists of IFT172, 88, 81, 80, 74/72, 57/55, 52, 46, 27, 20) [PUBMED:12821668, PUBMED:15337773]. IFT20 is associated with the Golgi complex and may play a role in the trafficking of ciliary membrane proteins from the Golgi complex to the cilium [PUBMED:16775004, PUBMED:19112494]. Besides its function in cilia, IFT20 also regulates immune synapse assembly in T cells [PUBMED:19855387]. In an yeast two hybrid experiment, IFT20 exhibited a strong interaction with IFT57/Hippi and the kinesin II subunit, KIF3B [PUBMED:12821668].
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|Number in seed:||48|
|Number in full:||422|
|Average length of the domain:||107.60 aa|
|Average identity of full alignment:||40 %|
|Average coverage of the sequence by the domain:||83.11 %|
|HMM build commands:||
build method: hmmbuild -o /dev/null HMM SEED
search method: hmmsearch -Z 45638612 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq
|Family (HMM) version:||6|
|Download:||download the raw HMM for this family|
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