Summary: Neuropeptide S precursor protein
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Neuropeptide S Edit Wikipedia article
|, neuropeptide S|
Neuropeptide S (NPS) is a neuropeptide found in human and mammalian brain, mainly produced by neurons in the amygdala and between Barrington's nucleus and the locus coeruleus, although NPS-responsive neurons extend projections into many other brain areas. NPS binds specifically to a G protein-coupled receptor, NPSR. Animal studies show that NPS suppresses anxiety and appetite, induces wakefulness and hyperactivity, including hyper-sexuality, and plays a significant role in the extinction of conditioned fear. It has also been shown to significantly enhance dopamine activity in the mesolimbic pathway, and inhibits motility and increases permeability in neurocrine fashion acting through NO in the myenteric plexus in rats and humans.
The non-peptide NPS receptor antagonist SHA-68 blocks the effects of NPS in animals and is anxiogenic. Several peptide derived NPS agonists and antagonists have also been developed.
Below are the sequences of mature neuropeptide S in several representative species in which it is expressed:
- GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000214285 - Ensembl, May 2017
- GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000073804 - Ensembl, May 2017
- "Human PubMed Reference:".
- "Mouse PubMed Reference:".
- Xu YL, Gall CM, Jackson VR, Civelli O, Reinscheid RK (Jan 2007). "Distribution of neuropeptide S receptor mRNA and neurochemical characteristics of neuropeptide S-expressing neurons in the rat brain". The Journal of Comparative Neurology. 500 (1): 84–102. PMID 17099900. doi:10.1002/cne.21159.
- Jüngling K, Seidenbecher T, Sosulina L, Lesting J, Sangha S, Clark SD, Okamura N, Duangdao DM, Xu YL, Reinscheid RK, Pape HC (Jul 2008). "Neuropeptide S-mediated control of fear expression and extinction: role of intercalated GABAergic neurons in the amygdala". Neuron. 59 (2): 298–310. PMC . PMID 18667157. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2008.07.002.
- Meis S, Bergado-Acosta JR, Yanagawa Y, Obata K, Stork O, Munsch T (2008). Grothe B, ed. "Identification of a neuropeptide S responsive circuitry shaping amygdala activity via the endopiriform nucleus". PLoS One. 3 (7): e2695. PMC . PMID 18628994. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0002695.
- Reinscheid RK, Xu YL (Dec 2005). "Neuropeptide S and its receptor: a newly deorphanized G protein-coupled receptor system". The Neuroscientist. 11 (6): 532–8. PMID 16282594. doi:10.1177/1073858405276405.
- Reinscheid RK (2008). "Neuropeptide S: anatomy, pharmacology, genetics and physiological functions". Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation. 46: 145–58. PMID 18204825. doi:10.1007/400_2007_051.
- Xu YL, Reinscheid RK, Huitron-Resendiz S, Clark SD, Wang Z, Lin SH, Brucher FA, Zeng J, Ly NK, Henriksen SJ, de Lecea L, Civelli O (Aug 2004). "Neuropeptide S: a neuropeptide promoting arousal and anxiolytic-like effects". Neuron. 43 (4): 487–97. PMID 15312648. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2004.08.005.
- Reinscheid RK, Xu YL (Nov 2005). "Neuropeptide S as a novel arousal promoting peptide transmitter". The FEBS Journal. 272 (22): 5689–93. PMID 16279934. doi:10.1111/j.1742-4658.2005.04982.x.
- Okamura N, Reinscheid RK (Aug 2007). "Neuropeptide S: a novel modulator of stress and arousal". Stress. 10 (3): 221–6. PMID 17613937. doi:10.1080/10253890701248673.
- Leonard SK, Dwyer JM, Sukoff Rizzo SJ, Platt B, Logue SF, Neal SJ, Malberg JE, Beyer CE, Schechter LE, Rosenzweig-Lipson S, Ring RH (May 2008). "Pharmacology of neuropeptide S in mice: therapeutic relevance to anxiety disorders". Psychopharmacology. 197 (4): 601–11. PMID 18311561. doi:10.1007/s00213-008-1080-4.
- Rizzi A, Vergura R, Marzola G, Ruzza C, Guerrini R, Salvadori S, Regoli D, Calo G (May 2008). "Neuropeptide S is a stimulatory anxiolytic agent: a behavioural study in mice". British Journal of Pharmacology. 154 (2): 471–9. PMC . PMID 18376418. doi:10.1038/bjp.2008.96.
- Vitale G, Filaferro M, Ruggieri V, Pennella S, Frigeri C, Rizzi A, Guerrini R, Calò G (Dec 2008). "Anxiolytic-like effect of neuropeptide S in the rat defensive burying". Peptides. 29 (12): 2286–91. PMID 18793688. doi:10.1016/j.peptides.2008.08.014.
- Mochizuki T, Kim J, Sasaki K (May 2010). "Microinjection of neuropeptide S into the rat ventral tegmental area induces hyperactivity and increases extracellular levels of dopamine metabolites in the nucleus accumbens shell". Peptides. 31 (5): 926–31. PMID 20156501. doi:10.1016/j.peptides.2010.02.006.
- Wan Saudi WS, Halim MA, Rudholm-Feldreich T, Gillberg L, Rosenqvist E, Tengholm A, Sundbom M, Karlbom U, Näslund E, Webb DL, Sjöblom M, Hellström PM (Oct 2015). "Neuropeptide S inhibits gastrointestinal motility and increases mucosal permeability through nitric oxide". Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 309 (9): G625–34. PMID 26206857. doi:10.1152/ajpgi.00104.2015.
- Okamura N, Habay SA, Zeng J, Chamberlin AR, Reinscheid RK (Jun 2008). "Synthesis and pharmacological in vitro and in vivo profile of 3-oxo-1,1-diphenyl-tetrahydro-oxazolo[3,4-a]pyrazine-7-carboxylic acid 4-fluoro-benzylamide (SHA 68), a selective antagonist of the neuropeptide S receptor". The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. 325 (3): 893–901. PMC . PMID 18337476. doi:10.1124/jpet.107.135103.
- Roth AL, Marzola E, Rizzi A, Arduin M, Trapella C, Corti C, Vergura R, Martinelli P, Salvadori S, Regoli D, Corsi M, Cavanni P, Caló G, Guerrini R (Jul 2006). "Structure-activity studies on neuropeptide S: identification of the amino acid residues crucial for receptor activation". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 281 (30): 20809–16. PMID 16720571. doi:10.1074/jbc.M601846200.
- Camarda V, Trapella C, Calo G, Guerrini R, Rizzi A, Ruzza C, Fiorini S, Marzola E, Reinscheid RK, Regoli D, Salvadori S (Feb 2008). "Synthesis and biological activity of human neuropeptide S analogues modified in position 2". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 51 (3): 655–8. PMID 18181564. doi:10.1021/jm701204n.
- Camarda V, Trapella C, Calo' G, Guerrini R, Rizzi A, Ruzza C, Fiorini S, Marzola E, Reinscheid RK, Regoli D, Salvadori S (Oct 2008). "Structure-activity study at positions 3 and 4 of human neuropeptide S". Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry. 16 (19): 8841–5. PMID 18793857. doi:10.1016/j.bmc.2008.08.073.
- Guerrini R, Camarda V, Trapella C, Calò G, Rizzi A, Ruzza C, Fiorini S, Marzola E, Reinscheid RK, Regoli D, Salvadori S (Jan 2009). "Synthesis and biological activity of human neuropeptide S analogues modified in position 5: identification of potent and pure neuropeptide S receptor antagonists". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 52 (2): 524–9. PMC . PMID 19113861. doi:10.1021/jm8012294.
- Camarda V, Rizzi A, Ruzza C, Zucchini S, Marzola G, Marzola E, Guerrini R, Salvadori S, Reinscheid RK, Regoli D, Calò G (Feb 2009). "In vitro and in vivo pharmacological characterization of the neuropeptide s receptor antagonist [D-Cys(tBu)5]neuropeptide S". The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. 328 (2): 549–55. PMC . PMID 18971372. doi:10.1124/jpet.108.143867.
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Neuropeptide S precursor protein Provide feedback
No Pfam abstract.
Beck B, Fernette B, Stricker-Krongrad A;, Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005;332:859-865.: Peptide S is a novel potent inhibitor of voluntary and fast-induced food intake in rats. PUBMED:15919054 EPMC:15919054
This tab holds annotation information from the InterPro database.
InterPro entry IPR028138Neuropeptide S (NPS) is a bioactive peptide that may be involved in several biological processes, including food intake, locomotion, wakefulness, arousal, and anxiety. NPS activates its cognate G protein-coupled receptor (NPSR1) at low nanomolar agonist concentrations and induces elevation of intracellular Ca2+ and cAMP [PUBMED:15312648, PUBMED:15919054, PUBMED:17613937].
The mapping between Pfam and Gene Ontology is provided by InterPro. If you use this data please cite InterPro.
|Cellular component||extracellular region (GO:0005576)|
|Biological process||neuropeptide signaling pathway (GO:0007218)|
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1Cannot generate PP/Heatmap alignments for seeds; no PP data available
Key: available, not generated, — not available.
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This page displays the phylogenetic tree for this family's seed alignment. We use FastTree to calculate neighbour join trees with a local bootstrap based on 100 resamples (shown next to the tree nodes). FastTree calculates approximately-maximum-likelihood phylogenetic trees from our seed alignment.
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|Number in seed:||7|
|Number in full:||72|
|Average length of the domain:||65.00 aa|
|Average identity of full alignment:||66 %|
|Average coverage of the sequence by the domain:||74.57 %|
|HMM build commands:||
build method: hmmbuild -o /dev/null HMM SEED
search method: hmmsearch -Z 45638612 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq
|Family (HMM) version:||6|
|Download:||download the raw HMM for this family|
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How the sunburst is generated
The tree is built by considering the taxonomic lineage of each sequence that has a match to this family. For each node in the resulting tree, we draw an arc in the sunburst. The radius of the arc, its distance from the root node at the centre of the sunburst, shows the taxonomic level ("superkingdom", "kingdom", etc). The length of the arc represents either the number of sequences represented at a given level, or the number of species that are found beneath the node in the tree. The weighting scheme can be changed using the sunburst controls.
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Unmapped species names
The tree is built by looking at each sequence in the full alignment for the family. We take the name of the species given by UniProt and try to map that to the full taxonomic tree from NCBI. In some cases, the name chosen by UniProt does not map to any node in the NCBI tree, perhaps because the chosen name is listed as a synonym or a misspelling in the NCBI taxonomy.
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The tree shows the occurrence of this domain across different species. More...
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For all of the domain matches in a full alignment, we count the number that are found on all sequences in the alignment. This total is shown in the purple box.
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