Summary: SCL-interrupting locus protein N-terminus
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This is the Wikipedia entry entitled "STIL". More...
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|, MCPH7, SIL, SCL/TAL1 interrupting locus, centriolar assembly protein|
This gene encodes a cytoplasmic protein implicated in regulation of the mitotic spindle checkpoint, a regulatory pathway that monitors chromosome segregation during cell division to ensure the proper distribution of chromosomes to daughter cells. The protein is phosphorylated in mitosis and in response to activation of the spindle checkpoint, and disappears when cells transition to G1 phase. It interacts with a mitotic regulator, and its expression is required to efficiently activate the spindle checkpoint. It is proposed to regulate Cdc2 kinase activity during spindle checkpoint arrest. Chromosomal deletions that fuse this gene and the adjacent locus commonly occur in T cell leukemias, and are thought to arise through illegitimate recombination events. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.
Homozygous mutations in the STIL gene cause primary microcephaly (small brain) in humans.
- GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000123473 - Ensembl, May 2017
- GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000028718 - Ensembl, May 2017
- "Human PubMed Reference:".
- "Mouse PubMed Reference:".
- Brown L, Cheng JT, Chen Q, Siciliano MJ, Crist W, Buchanan G, Baer R (Nov 1990). "Site-specific recombination of the tal-1 gene is a common occurrence in human T cell leukemia". EMBO J. 9 (10): 3343–51. PMC . PMID 2209547.
- "Entrez Gene: STIL SCL/TAL1 interrupting locus".
- Aplan PD, Lombardi DP, Reaman GH, et al. (1992). "Involvement of the putative hematopoietic transcription factor SCL in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia". Blood. 79 (5): 1327–33. PMID 1311214.
- Aplan PD, Lombardi DP, Kirsch IR (1991). "Structural characterization of SIL, a gene frequently disrupted in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia". Mol. Cell. Biol. 11 (11): 5462–9. PMC . PMID 1922059.
- Jonsson OG, Kitchens RL, Baer RJ, et al. (1991). "Rearrangements of the tal-1 locus as clonal markers for T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia". J. Clin. Invest. 87 (6): 2029–35. PMC . PMID 2040693. doi:10.1172/JCI115232.
- Aplan PD, Lombardi DP, Ginsberg AM, et al. (1991). "Disruption of the human SCL locus by "illegitimate" V-(D)-J recombinase activity". Science. 250 (4986): 1426–9. PMID 2255914. doi:10.1126/science.2255914.
- Kikuchi A, Hayashi Y, Kobayashi S, et al. (1993). "Clinical significance of TAL1 gene alteration in childhood T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia and lymphoma". Leukemia. 7 (7): 933–8. PMID 8321044.
- Collazo-Garcia N, Scherer P, Aplan PD (1997). "Cloning and characterization of a murine SIL gene". Genomics. 30 (3): 506–13. PMID 8825637. doi:10.1006/geno.1995.1271.
- Izraeli S, Colaizzo-Anas T, Bertness VL, et al. (1997). "Expression of the SIL gene is correlated with growth induction and cellular proliferation". Cell Growth Differ. 8 (11): 1171–9. PMID 9372240.
- Göttgens B, Barton LM, Gilbert JG, et al. (2000). "Analysis of vertebrate SCL loci identifies conserved enhancers". Nat. Biotechnol. 18 (2): 181–6. PMID 10657125. doi:10.1038/72635.
- Raghavan SC, Kirsch IR, Lieber MR (2001). "Analysis of the V(D)J recombination efficiency at lymphoid chromosomal translocation breakpoints". J. Biol. Chem. 276 (31): 29126–33. PMID 11390401. doi:10.1074/jbc.M103797200.
- Carlotti E, Pettenella F, Amaru R, et al. (2002). "Molecular characterization of a new recombination of the SIL/TAL-1 locus in a child with T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia". Br. J. Haematol. 118 (4): 1011–8. PMID 12199779. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2141.2002.03747.x.
- Karkera JD, Izraeli S, Roessler E, et al. (2003). "The genomic structure, chromosomal localization, and analysis of SIL as a candidate gene for holoprosencephaly". Cytogenet. Genome Res. 97 (1–2): 62–7. PMID 12438740. doi:10.1159/000064057.
- Strausberg RL, Feingold EA, Grouse LH, et al. (2003). "Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99 (26): 16899–903. PMC . PMID 12477932. doi:10.1073/pnas.242603899.
- Colaizzo-Anas T, Aplan PD (2003). "Cloning and characterization of the SIL promoter". Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1625 (2): 207–13. PMID 12531481. doi:10.1016/S0167-4781(02)00597-3.
- Curry JD, Smith MT (2003). "Measurement of SIL-TAL1 fusion gene transcripts associated with human T-cell lymphocytic leukemia by real-time reverse transcriptase-PCR". Leuk. Res. 27 (7): 575–82. PMID 12681356. doi:10.1016/S0145-2126(02)00260-6.
- Cavé H, Suciu S, Preudhomme C, et al. (2004). "Clinical significance of HOX11L2 expression linked to t(5;14)(q35;q32), of HOX11 expression, and of SIL-TAL fusion in childhood T-cell malignancies: results of EORTC studies 58881 and 58951". Blood. 103 (2): 442–50. PMID 14504110. doi:10.1182/blood-2003-05-1495.
- Erez A, Perelman M, Hewitt SM, et al. (2004). "Sil overexpression in lung cancer characterizes tumors with increased mitotic activity". Oncogene. 23 (31): 5371–7. PMID 15107824. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1207685.
- Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, et al. (2004). "The Status, Quality, and Expansion of the NIH Full-Length cDNA Project: The Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC)". Genome Res. 14 (10B): 2121–7. PMC . PMID 15489334. doi:10.1101/gr.2596504.
- Campaner S, Kaldis P, Izraeli S, Kirsch IR (2005). "Sil Phosphorylation in a Pin1 Binding Domain Affects the Duration of the Spindle Checkpoint". Mol. Cell. Biol. 25 (15): 6660–72. PMC . PMID 16024801. doi:10.1128/MCB.25.15.6660-6672.2005.
- Kimura K, Wakamatsu A, Suzuki Y, et al. (2006). "Diversification of transcriptional modulation: Large-scale identification and characterization of putative alternative promoters of human genes". Genome Res. 16 (1): 55–65. PMC . PMID 16344560. doi:10.1101/gr.4039406.
Kumar A, Girimaji SC, Duvvari MR, Blanton SH (2009): Mutations in STIL, encoding a pericentriolar and centrosomal protein, cause primary microcephaly. American Journal of Human Genetics 84:286-290.
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This tab holds the annotation information that is stored in the Pfam database. As we move to using Wikipedia as our main source of annotation, the contents of this tab will be gradually replaced by the Wikipedia tab.
SCL-interrupting locus protein N-terminus Provide feedback
No Pfam abstract.
This tab holds annotation information from the InterPro database.
InterPro entry IPR026123
SIL (also called STIL/TAL1 interrupting locus) is an immediate-early gene that is essential for embryonic development and is implicated in T-cell leukemia-associated translocations [PUBMED:12006978, PUBMED:8825637]. Sil protein is necessary for proper mitotic spindle organisation in zebrafish and human cells and localizes to the mitotic spindle poles only during metaphase [PUBMED:17576815]. Mouse Sil was suggested to play a role as a positive regulator of the sonic hedgehog pathway, acting downstream of PTCH1 [PUBMED:11668681]. In human, cell cycle-dependent phosphorylation of Sil is required for its interaction with Pin1, a regulator of mitosis [PUBMED:16024801].
Primary microcephaly (MCPH) is an autosomal-recessive congenital disorder characterised by smaller-than-normal brain size and mental retardation. Three different homozygous mutations in SIL were identified in patients from three of the five families linked to the MCPH7 locus; all are predicted to truncate the Sil protein [PUBMED:19215732].
Below is a listing of the unique domain organisations or architectures in which this domain is found. More...
The graphic that is shown by default represents the longest sequence with a given architecture. Each row contains the following information:
- the number of sequences which exhibit this architecture
a textual description of the architecture, e.g. Gla, EGF x 2, Trypsin.
This example describes an architecture with one
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We store a range of different sequence alignments for families. As well as the seed alignment from which the family is built, we provide the full alignment, generated by searching the sequence database (reference proteomes) using the family HMM. We also generate alignments using four representative proteomes (RP) sets, the UniProtKB sequence database, the NCBI sequence database, and our metagenomics sequence database. More...
There are various ways to view or download the sequence alignments that we store. We provide several sequence viewers and a plain-text Stockholm-format file for download.
We make a range of alignments for each Pfam-A family:
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- Representative Proteomes (RPs) at 15%, 35%, 55% and 75% co-membership thresholds
- alignment generated by searching the UniProtKB sequence database using the family HMM
- alignment generated by searching the NCBI sequence database using the family HMM
- alignment generated by searching the metagenomics sequence database using the family HMM
You can see the alignments as HTML or in three different sequence viewers:
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We make a range of alignments for each Pfam-A family. You can see a description of each above. You can view these alignments in various ways but please note that some types of alignment are never generated while others may not be available for all families, most commonly because the alignments are too large to handle.
1Cannot generate PP/Heatmap alignments for seeds; no PP data available
Key: available, not generated, — not available.
Format an alignment
We make all of our alignments available in Stockholm format. You can download them here as raw, plain text files or as gzip-compressed files.
You can also download a FASTA format file containing the full-length sequences for all sequences in the full alignment.
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This page displays the phylogenetic tree for this family's seed alignment. We use FastTree to calculate neighbour join trees with a local bootstrap based on 100 resamples (shown next to the tree nodes). FastTree calculates approximately-maximum-likelihood phylogenetic trees from our seed alignment.
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Curation and family details
This section shows the detailed information about the Pfam family. You can see the definitions of many of the terms in this section in the glossary and a fuller explanation of the scoring system that we use in the scores section of the help pages.
|Author:||Eberhardt RY, Coggill P, Hetherington K|
|Number in seed:||16|
|Number in full:||161|
|Average length of the domain:||297.90 aa|
|Average identity of full alignment:||38 %|
|Average coverage of the sequence by the domain:||31.36 %|
|HMM build commands:||
build method: hmmbuild -o /dev/null HMM SEED
search method: hmmsearch -Z 26740544 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq
|Family (HMM) version:||5|
|Download:||download the raw HMM for this family|
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This visualisation provides a simple graphical representation of the distribution of this family across species. You can find the original interactive tree in the More....
This chart is a modified "sunburst" visualisation of the species tree for this family. It shows each node in the tree as a separate arc, arranged radially with the superkingdoms at the centre and the species arrayed around the outermost ring.
How the sunburst is generated
The tree is built by considering the taxonomic lineage of each sequence that has a match to this family. For each node in the resulting tree, we draw an arc in the sunburst. The radius of the arc, its distance from the root node at the centre of the sunburst, shows the taxonomic level ("superkingdom", "kingdom", etc). The length of the arc represents either the number of sequences represented at a given level, or the number of species that are found beneath the node in the tree. The weighting scheme can be changed using the sunburst controls.
In order to reduce the complexity of the representation, we reduce the number of taxonomic levels that we show. We consider only the following eight major taxonomic levels:
Colouring and labels
Segments of the tree are coloured approximately according to their superkingdom. For example, archeal branches are coloured with shades of orange, eukaryotes in shades of purple, etc. The colour assignments are shown under the sunburst controls. Where space allows, the name of the taxonomic level will be written on the arc itself.
As you move your mouse across the sunburst, the current node will be highlighted. In the top section of the controls panel we show a summary of the lineage of the currently highlighed node. If you pause over an arc, a tooltip will be shown, giving the name of the taxonomic level in the title and a summary of the number of sequences and species below that node in the tree.
Anomalies in the taxonomy tree
There are some situations that the sunburst tree cannot easily handle and for which we have work-arounds in place.
Missing taxonomic levels
Some species in the taxonomic tree may not have one or more of the main eight levels that we display. For example, Bos taurus is not assigned an order in the NCBI taxonomic tree. In such cases we mark the omitted level with, for example, "No order", in both the tooltip and the lineage summary.
Unmapped species names
The tree is built by looking at each sequence in the full alignment for the family. We take the name of the species given by UniProt and try to map that to the full taxonomic tree from NCBI. In some cases, the name chosen by UniProt does not map to any node in the NCBI tree, perhaps because the chosen name is listed as a synonym or a misspelling in the NCBI taxonomy.
So that these nodes are not simply omitted from the sunburst tree, we group them together in a separate branch (or segment of the sunburst tree). Since we cannot determine the lineage for these unmapped species, we show all levels between the superkingdom and the species as "uncategorised".
Since we reduce the species tree to only the eight main taxonomic levels, sequences that are mapped to the sub-species level in the tree would not normally be shown. Rather than leave out these species, we map them instead to their parent species. So, for example, for sequences belonging to one of the Vibrio cholerae sub-species in the NCBI taxonomy, we show them instead as belonging to the species Vibrio cholerae.
Too many species/sequences
For large species trees, you may see blank regions in the outer layers of the sunburst. These occur when there are large numbers of arcs to be drawn in a small space. If an arc is less than approximately one pixel wide, it will not be drawn and the space will be left blank. You may still be able to get some information about the species in that region by moving your mouse across the area, but since each arc will be very small, it will be difficult to accurately locate a particular species.
The tree shows the occurrence of this domain across different species. More...
We show the species tree in one of two ways. For smaller trees we try to show an interactive representation, which allows you to select specific nodes in the tree and view them as an alignment or as a set of Pfam domain graphics.
Unfortunately we have found that there are problems viewing the interactive tree when the it becomes larger than a certain limit. Furthermore, we have found that Internet Explorer can become unresponsive when viewing some trees, regardless of their size. We therefore show a text representation of the species tree when the size is above a certain limit or if you are using Internet Explorer to view the site.
If you are using IE you can still load the interactive tree by clicking the "Generate interactive tree" button, but please be aware of the potential problems that the interactive species tree can cause.
For all of the domain matches in a full alignment, we count the number that are found on all sequences in the alignment. This total is shown in the purple box.
We also count the number of unique sequences on which each domain is found, which is shown in green. Note that a domain may appear multiple times on the same sequence, leading to the difference between these two numbers.
Finally, we group sequences from the same organism according to the NCBI code that is assigned by UniProt, allowing us to count the number of distinct sequences on which the domain is found. This value is shown in the pink boxes.
We use the NCBI species tree to group organisms according to their taxonomy and this forms the structure of the displayed tree. Note that in some cases the trees are too large (have too many nodes) to allow us to build an interactive tree, but in most cases you can still view the tree in a plain text, non-interactive representation. Those species which are represented in the seed alignment for this domain are highlighted.
You can use the tree controls to manipulate how the interactive tree is displayed:
- show/hide the summary boxes
- highlight species that are represented in the seed alignment
- expand/collapse the tree or expand it to a given depth
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Please note: for large trees this can take some time. While the tree is loading, you can safely switch away from this tab but if you browse away from the family page entirely, the tree will not be loaded.
For those sequences which have a structure in the Protein DataBank, we use the mapping between UniProt, PDB and Pfam coordinate systems from the PDBe group, to allow us to map Pfam domains onto UniProt sequences and three-dimensional protein structures. The table below shows the structures on which the STIL_N domain has been found. There are 4 instances of this domain found in the PDB. Note that there may be multiple copies of the domain in a single PDB structure, since many structures contain multiple copies of the same protein sequence.
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