Summary: Proline-rich membrane anchor 1
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PRIMA1 Edit Wikipedia article
|, PRIMA, proline rich membrane anchor 1|
PRiMA functions to organize acetylcholinesterase (AChE) into tetramers, and to anchor AChE at neural cell membranes. This is accomplished by the proline rich anchor domain (PRAD) of PRIMA1 which anchors the tetramer of AChE into the plasma membrane of neural cells and myocytes. The PRAD interacts with the C-terminal T-peptide of AChE.
PRiMA plays a role in targeting AChE to the cell surface and, in neuroblastoma cells, PRiMA the limiting factor of such targeting. In both mice and humans, PRiMA exists as two alternative splice variants that differ in their cytoplasmic regions.
The severity of neurogenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s, can be related to the degradation of AChE.
- ENSG00000274089 GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000175785, ENSG00000274089 - Ensembl, May 2017
- GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000041669 - Ensembl, May 2017
- "Human PubMed Reference:".
- "Mouse PubMed Reference:".
- "Entrez Gene: proline rich membrane anchor 1".
- Perrier AL, Massoulié J, Krejci E (Jan 2002). "PRiMA: the membrane anchor of acetylcholinesterase in the brain". Neuron. 33 (2): 275–85. PMID 11804574. doi:10.1016/S0896-6273(01)00584-0.
- Xie HQ, Siow NL, Peng HB, Massoulié J, Tsim KW (Dec 2005). "Regulation of PRiMA: membrane anchor of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in neuron and muscle". Chemico-Biological Interactions. 157-158: 432. PMID 16429581. doi:10.1016/j.cbi.2005.10.093.
- Perrier NA, Khérif S, Perrier AL, Dumas S, Mallet J, Massoulié J (Oct 2003). "Expression of PRiMA in the mouse brain: membrane anchoring and accumulation of 'tailed' acetylcholinesterase". The European Journal of Neuroscience. 18 (7): 1837–47. PMID 14622217. doi:10.1046/j.1460-9568.2003.02914.x.
- Atack JR, Perry EK, Bonham JR, Perry RH, Tomlinson BE, Blessed G, Fairbairn A (Sep 1983). "Molecular forms of acetylcholinesterase in senile dementia of Alzheimer type: selective loss of the intermediate (10S) form". Neuroscience Letters. 40 (2): 199–204. PMID 6633975. doi:10.1016/0304-3940(83)90302-6.
- Vanaja DK, Ballman KV, Morlan BW, Cheville JC, Neumann RM, Lieber MM, Tindall DJ, Young CY (Feb 2006). "PDLIM4 repression by hypermethylation as a potential biomarker for prostate cancer". Clinical Cancer Research. 12 (4): 1128–36. PMID 16489065. doi:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-05-2072.
- Bonaldo MF, Lennon G, Soares MB (Sep 1996). "Normalization and subtraction: two approaches to facilitate gene discovery". Genome Research. 6 (9): 791–806. PMID 8889548. doi:10.1101/gr.6.9.791.
- Xie HQ, Choi RC, Leung KW, Chen VP, Chu GK, Tsim KW (Apr 2009). "Transcriptional regulation of proline-rich membrane anchor (PRiMA) of globular form acetylcholinesterase in neuron: an inductive effect of neuron differentiation". Brain Research. 1265: 13–23. PMID 19368807. doi:10.1016/j.brainres.2009.01.065.
- Xie HQ, Liang D, Leung KW, Chen VP, Zhu KY, Chan WK, Choi RC, Massoulié J, Tsim KW (Apr 2010). "Targeting acetylcholinesterase to membrane rafts: a function mediated by the proline-rich membrane anchor (PRiMA) in neurons". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 285 (15): 11537–46. PMC . PMID 20147288. doi:10.1074/jbc.M109.038711.
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Below is a listing of the unique domain organisations or architectures in which this domain is found. More...
The graphic that is shown by default represents the longest sequence with a given architecture. Each row contains the following information:
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There are various ways to view or download the sequence alignments that we store. We provide several sequence viewers and a plain-text Stockholm-format file for download.
We make a range of alignments for each Pfam-A family:
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You can see the alignments as HTML or in three different sequence viewers:
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We make a range of alignments for each Pfam-A family. You can see a description of each above. You can view these alignments in various ways but please note that some types of alignment are never generated while others may not be available for all families, most commonly because the alignments are too large to handle.
1Cannot generate PP/Heatmap alignments for seeds; no PP data available
Key: available, not generated, — not available.
Format an alignment
We make all of our alignments available in Stockholm format. You can download them here as raw, plain text files or as gzip-compressed files.
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HMM logos is one way of visualising profile HMMs. Logos provide a quick overview of the properties of an HMM in a graphical form. You can see a more detailed description of HMM logos and find out how you can interpret them here. More...
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This page displays the phylogenetic tree for this family's seed alignment. We use FastTree to calculate neighbour join trees with a local bootstrap based on 100 resamples (shown next to the tree nodes). FastTree calculates approximately-maximum-likelihood phylogenetic trees from our seed alignment.
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Curation and family details
This section shows the detailed information about the Pfam family. You can see the definitions of many of the terms in this section in the glossary and a fuller explanation of the scoring system that we use in the scores section of the help pages.
|Number in seed:||8|
|Number in full:||140|
|Average length of the domain:||101.00 aa|
|Average identity of full alignment:||58 %|
|Average coverage of the sequence by the domain:||61.40 %|
|HMM build commands:||
build method: hmmbuild -o /dev/null HMM SEED
search method: hmmsearch -Z 45638612 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq
|Family (HMM) version:||5|
|Download:||download the raw HMM for this family|
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This visualisation provides a simple graphical representation of the distribution of this family across species. You can find the original interactive tree in the More....
This chart is a modified "sunburst" visualisation of the species tree for this family. It shows each node in the tree as a separate arc, arranged radially with the superkingdoms at the centre and the species arrayed around the outermost ring.
How the sunburst is generated
The tree is built by considering the taxonomic lineage of each sequence that has a match to this family. For each node in the resulting tree, we draw an arc in the sunburst. The radius of the arc, its distance from the root node at the centre of the sunburst, shows the taxonomic level ("superkingdom", "kingdom", etc). The length of the arc represents either the number of sequences represented at a given level, or the number of species that are found beneath the node in the tree. The weighting scheme can be changed using the sunburst controls.
In order to reduce the complexity of the representation, we reduce the number of taxonomic levels that we show. We consider only the following eight major taxonomic levels:
Colouring and labels
Segments of the tree are coloured approximately according to their superkingdom. For example, archeal branches are coloured with shades of orange, eukaryotes in shades of purple, etc. The colour assignments are shown under the sunburst controls. Where space allows, the name of the taxonomic level will be written on the arc itself.
As you move your mouse across the sunburst, the current node will be highlighted. In the top section of the controls panel we show a summary of the lineage of the currently highlighed node. If you pause over an arc, a tooltip will be shown, giving the name of the taxonomic level in the title and a summary of the number of sequences and species below that node in the tree.
Anomalies in the taxonomy tree
There are some situations that the sunburst tree cannot easily handle and for which we have work-arounds in place.
Missing taxonomic levels
Some species in the taxonomic tree may not have one or more of the main eight levels that we display. For example, Bos taurus is not assigned an order in the NCBI taxonomic tree. In such cases we mark the omitted level with, for example, "No order", in both the tooltip and the lineage summary.
Unmapped species names
The tree is built by looking at each sequence in the full alignment for the family. We take the name of the species given by UniProt and try to map that to the full taxonomic tree from NCBI. In some cases, the name chosen by UniProt does not map to any node in the NCBI tree, perhaps because the chosen name is listed as a synonym or a misspelling in the NCBI taxonomy.
So that these nodes are not simply omitted from the sunburst tree, we group them together in a separate branch (or segment of the sunburst tree). Since we cannot determine the lineage for these unmapped species, we show all levels between the superkingdom and the species as "uncategorised".
Since we reduce the species tree to only the eight main taxonomic levels, sequences that are mapped to the sub-species level in the tree would not normally be shown. Rather than leave out these species, we map them instead to their parent species. So, for example, for sequences belonging to one of the Vibrio cholerae sub-species in the NCBI taxonomy, we show them instead as belonging to the species Vibrio cholerae.
Too many species/sequences
For large species trees, you may see blank regions in the outer layers of the sunburst. These occur when there are large numbers of arcs to be drawn in a small space. If an arc is less than approximately one pixel wide, it will not be drawn and the space will be left blank. You may still be able to get some information about the species in that region by moving your mouse across the area, but since each arc will be very small, it will be difficult to accurately locate a particular species.
The tree shows the occurrence of this domain across different species. More...
We show the species tree in one of two ways. For smaller trees we try to show an interactive representation, which allows you to select specific nodes in the tree and view them as an alignment or as a set of Pfam domain graphics.
Unfortunately we have found that there are problems viewing the interactive tree when the it becomes larger than a certain limit. Furthermore, we have found that Internet Explorer can become unresponsive when viewing some trees, regardless of their size. We therefore show a text representation of the species tree when the size is above a certain limit or if you are using Internet Explorer to view the site.
If you are using IE you can still load the interactive tree by clicking the "Generate interactive tree" button, but please be aware of the potential problems that the interactive species tree can cause.
For all of the domain matches in a full alignment, we count the number that are found on all sequences in the alignment. This total is shown in the purple box.
We also count the number of unique sequences on which each domain is found, which is shown in green. Note that a domain may appear multiple times on the same sequence, leading to the difference between these two numbers.
Finally, we group sequences from the same organism according to the NCBI code that is assigned by UniProt, allowing us to count the number of distinct sequences on which the domain is found. This value is shown in the pink boxes.
We use the NCBI species tree to group organisms according to their taxonomy and this forms the structure of the displayed tree. Note that in some cases the trees are too large (have too many nodes) to allow us to build an interactive tree, but in most cases you can still view the tree in a plain text, non-interactive representation. Those species which are represented in the seed alignment for this domain are highlighted.
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