Summary: Axin-1 tankyrase binding domain
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AXIN1 Edit Wikipedia article
|, AXIN, PPP1R49, axin 1|
This gene encodes a cytoplasmic protein which contains a regulation of G-protein signaling (RGS) domain and a dishevelled and axin (DIX) domain. The encoded protein interacts with adenomatosis polyposis coli, catenin (cadherin-associated protein) beta 1, glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta, protein phosphatase 2, and itself. This protein functions as a negative regulator of the wingless-type MMTV integration site family, member 1 (WNT) signaling pathway and can induce apoptosis. The crystal structure of a portion of this protein, alone and in a complex with other proteins, has been resolved. Mutations in this gene have been associated with hepatocellular carcinoma, hepatoblastomas, ovarian endometriod adenocarcinomas, and medulloblastomas. Two transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been identified for this gene.
The full-length human protein comprises 862 amino acids with a (predicted) molecular mass of 96 kDa. The N-terminal RGS domain, a GSK3 kinase interacting peptide of Axin1 and homologs of the C-terminal DIX domains have been solved at atomic resolution. Large WNT-downregulating central regions have been characterized as intrinsically disordered by biophysical experiments and bioinformatic analysis. Biophysical destabilization of the folded RGS domain induces formation of nanoaggregates that expose and locally concentrate intrinsically disordered regions, which in turn misregulate Wnt signalling. Many other large IDPs are affected by missense mutations, such as BRCA1, Adenomatous polyposis coli(APC), CREB-binding protein/(CBP) and might be affected in similar ways by missense mutations of their folded domains.
AXIN1 has been shown to interact with:
- GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000103126 - Ensembl, May 2017
- GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000024182 - Ensembl, May 2017
- "Human PubMed Reference:".
- "Mouse PubMed Reference:".
- Zeng L, Fagotto F, Zhang T, Hsu W, Vasicek TJ, Perry WL, Lee JJ, Tilghman SM, Gumbiner BM, Costantini F (August 1997). "The mouse Fused locus encodes Axin, an inhibitor of the Wnt signaling pathway that regulates embryonic axis formation". Cell. 90 (1): 181–92. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(00)80324-4. PMID 9230313.
- "Entrez Gene: AXIN1 axin 1".
- Noutsou M, Duarte AM, Anvarian Z, Didenko T, Minde DP, Kuper I, de Ridder I, Oikonomou C, Friedler A, Boelens R, Rüdiger SG, Maurice MM (2011). "Critical scaffolding regions of the tumor suppressor Axin1 are natively unfolded" (PDF). J Mol Biol. 405 (3): 773–86. doi:10.1016/j.jmb.2010.11.013. PMID 21087614.
- Anvarian Z, Nojima H, van Kappel EC, Madl T, Spit M, Viertler M, Jordens I, Low TY, van Scherpenzeel RC, Kuper I, Richter K, Heck AJ, Boelens R, Vincent JP, Rüdiger SG, Maurice MM (2016). "Axin cancer mutants form nanoaggregates to rewire the Wnt signaling network". Nat Struct Mol Biol. 23: 324–32. doi:10.1038/nsmb.3191. PMID 26974125.
- Nakamura T, Hamada F, Ishidate T, Anai K, Kawahara K, Toyoshima K, Akiyama T (June 1998). "Axin, an inhibitor of the Wnt signalling pathway, interacts with beta-catenin, GSK-3beta and APC and reduces the beta-catenin level". Genes Cells. 3 (6): 395–403. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2443.1998.00198.x. PMID 9734785.
- Hocevar BA, Mou F, Rennolds JL, Morris SM, Cooper JA, Howe PH (June 2003). "Regulation of the Wnt signaling pathway by disabled-2 (Dab2)". EMBO J. 22 (12): 3084–94. doi:10.1093/emboj/cdg286. PMC . PMID 12805222.
- Zhang Y, Qiu WJ, Chan SC, Han J, He X, Lin SC (May 2002). "Casein kinase I and casein kinase II differentially regulate axin function in Wnt and JNK pathways". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (20): 17706–12. doi:10.1074/jbc.M111982200. PMID 11884395.
- Kim MJ, Chia IV, Costantini F (November 2008). "SUMOylation target sites at the C terminus protect Axin from ubiquitination and confer protein stability". FASEB J. 22 (11): 3785–94. doi:10.1096/fj.08-113910. PMC . PMID 18632848.
- Li L, Yuan H, Weaver CD, Mao J, Farr GH, Sussman DJ, Jonkers J, Kimelman D, Wu D (August 1999). "Axin and Frat1 interact with dvl and GSK, bridging Dvl to GSK in Wnt-mediated regulation of LEF-1". EMBO J. 18 (15): 4233–40. doi:10.1093/emboj/18.15.4233. PMC . PMID 10428961.
- Mak BC, Takemaru K, Kenerson HL, Moon RT, Yeung RS (February 2003). "The tuberin-hamartin complex negatively regulates beta-catenin signaling activity". J. Biol. Chem. 278 (8): 5947–51. doi:10.1074/jbc.C200473200. PMID 12511557.
- Mao J, Wang J, Liu B, Pan W, Farr GH, Flynn C, Yuan H, Takada S, Kimelman D, Li L, Wu D (April 2001). "Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-5 binds to Axin and regulates the canonical Wnt signaling pathway". Mol. Cell. 7 (4): 801–9. doi:10.1016/S1097-2765(01)00224-6. PMID 11336703.
- Zhang Y, Neo SY, Han J, Lin SC (August 2000). "Dimerization choices control the ability of axin and dishevelled to activate c-Jun N-terminal kinase/stress-activated protein kinase". J. Biol. Chem. 275 (32): 25008–14. doi:10.1074/jbc.M002491200. PMID 10829020.
- Yamamoto H, Hinoi T, Michiue T, Fukui A, Usui H, Janssens V, Van Hoof C, Goris J, Asashima M, Kikuchi A (July 2001). "Inhibition of the Wnt signaling pathway by the PR61 subunit of protein phosphatase 2A". J. Biol. Chem. 276 (29): 26875–82. doi:10.1074/jbc.M100443200. PMID 11297546.
- Segditsas S, Tomlinson I (2007). "Colorectal cancer and genetic alterations in the Wnt pathway". Oncogene. 25 (57): 7531–7. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1210059. PMID 17143297.
- Flint J, Thomas K, Micklem G, Raynham H, Clark K, Doggett NA, King A, Higgs DR (1997). "The relationship between chromosome structure and function at a human telomeric region". Nat. Genet. 15 (3): 252–7. doi:10.1038/ng0397-252. PMID 9054936.
- Ikeda S, Kishida S, Yamamoto H, Murai H, Koyama S, Kikuchi A (1998). "Axin, a negative regulator of the Wnt signaling pathway, forms a complex with GSK-3beta and beta-catenin and promotes GSK-3beta-dependent phosphorylation of beta-catenin". EMBO J. 17 (5): 1371–84. doi:10.1093/emboj/17.5.1371. PMC . PMID 9482734.
- Hart MJ, de los Santos R, Albert IN, Rubinfeld B, Polakis P (1998). "Downregulation of beta-catenin by human Axin and its association with the APC tumor suppressor, beta-catenin and GSK3 beta". Curr. Biol. 8 (10): 573–81. doi:10.1016/S0960-9822(98)70226-X. PMID 9601641.
- Nakamura T, Hamada F, Ishidate T, Anai K, Kawahara K, Toyoshima K, Akiyama T (1998). "Axin, an inhibitor of the Wnt signalling pathway, interacts with beta-catenin, GSK-3beta and APC and reduces the beta-catenin level". Genes Cells. 3 (6): 395–403. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2443.1998.00198.x. PMID 9734785.
- Hsu W, Zeng L, Costantini F (1999). "Identification of a domain of Axin that binds to the serine/threonine protein phosphatase 2A and a self-binding domain". J. Biol. Chem. 274 (6): 3439–45. doi:10.1074/jbc.274.6.3439. PMID 9920888.
- Kitagawa M, Hatakeyama S, Shirane M, Matsumoto M, Ishida N, Hattori K, Nakamichi I, Kikuchi A, Nakayama K, Nakayama K (1999). "An F-box protein, FWD1, mediates ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis of beta-catenin". EMBO J. 18 (9): 2401–10. doi:10.1093/emboj/18.9.2401. PMC . PMID 10228155.
- Fagotto F, Jho Eh, Zeng L, Kurth T, Joos T, Kaufmann C, Costantini F (1999). "Domains of axin involved in protein-protein interactions, Wnt pathway inhibition, and intracellular localization". J. Cell Biol. 145 (4): 741–56. doi:10.1083/jcb.145.4.741. PMC . PMID 10330403.
- Kodama S, Ikeda S, Asahara T, Kishida M, Kikuchi A (1999). "Axin directly interacts with plakoglobin and regulates its stability". J. Biol. Chem. 274 (39): 27682–8. doi:10.1074/jbc.274.39.27682. PMID 10488109.
- Jho Eh, Lomvardas S, Costantini F (2000). "A GSK3beta phosphorylation site in axin modulates interaction with beta-catenin and Tcf-mediated gene expression". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 266 (1): 28–35. doi:10.1006/bbrc.1999.1760. PMID 10581160.
- Ikeda S, Kishida M, Matsuura Y, Usui H, Kikuchi A (2000). "GSK-3beta-dependent phosphorylation of adenomatous polyposis coli gene product can be modulated by beta-catenin and protein phosphatase 2A complexed with Axin". Oncogene. 19 (4): 537–45. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1203359. PMID 10698523.
- Satoh S, Daigo Y, Furukawa Y, Kato T, Miwa N, Nishiwaki T, Kawasoe T, Ishiguro H, Fujita M, Tokino T, Sasaki Y, Imaoka S, Murata M, Shimano T, Yamaoka Y, Nakamura Y (2000). "AXIN1 mutations in hepatocellular carcinomas, and growth suppression in cancer cells by virus-mediated transfer of AXIN1". Nat. Genet. 24 (3): 245–50. doi:10.1038/73448. PMID 10700176.
- Spink KE, Polakis P, Weis WI (2000). "Structural basis of the Axin-adenomatous polyposis coli interaction". EMBO J. 19 (10): 2270–9. doi:10.1093/emboj/19.10.2270. PMC . PMID 10811618.
- Zhang Y, Neo SY, Han J, Lin SC (2000). "Dimerization choices control the ability of axin and dishevelled to activate c-Jun N-terminal kinase/stress-activated protein kinase". J. Biol. Chem. 275 (32): 25008–14. doi:10.1074/jbc.M002491200. PMID 10829020.
- Daniels RJ, Peden JF, Lloyd C, Horsley SW, Clark K, Tufarelli C, Kearney L, Buckle VJ, Doggett NA, Flint J, Higgs DR (2001). "Sequence, structure and pathology of the fully annotated terminal 2 Mb of the short arm of human chromosome 16". Hum. Mol. Genet. 10 (4): 339–52. doi:10.1093/hmg/10.4.339. PMID 11157797.
- Yamamoto H, Hinoi T, Michiue T, Fukui A, Usui H, Janssens V, Van Hoof C, Goris J, Asashima M, Kikuchi A (2001). "Inhibition of the Wnt signaling pathway by the PR61 subunit of protein phosphatase 2A". J. Biol. Chem. 276 (29): 26875–82. doi:10.1074/jbc.M100443200. PMID 11297546.
- Mao J, Wang J, Liu B, Pan W, Farr GH, Flynn C, Yuan H, Takada S, Kimelman D, Li L, Wu D (2001). "Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-5 binds to Axin and regulates the canonical Wnt signaling pathway". Mol. Cell. 7 (4): 801–9. doi:10.1016/S1097-2765(01)00224-6. PMID 11336703.
- Furuhashi M, Yagi K, Yamamoto H, Furukawa Y, Shimada S, Nakamura Y, Kikuchi A, Miyazono K, Kato M (2001). "Axin facilitates Smad3 activation in the transforming growth factor beta signaling pathway". Mol. Cell. Biol. 21 (15): 5132–41. doi:10.1128/MCB.21.15.5132-5141.2001. PMC . PMID 11438668.
- Rubinfeld B, Tice DA, Polakis P (2001). "Axin-dependent phosphorylation of the adenomatous polyposis coli protein mediated by casein kinase 1epsilon". J. Biol. Chem. 276 (42): 39037–45. doi:10.1074/jbc.M105148200. PMID 11487578.
This tab holds the annotation information that is stored in the Pfam database. As we move to using Wikipedia as our main source of annotation, the contents of this tab will be gradually replaced by the Wikipedia tab.
Axin-1 tankyrase binding domain Provide feedback
This is the N-terminal domain tankyrase binding domain of Axin-1 .
Morrone S, Cheng Z, Moon RT, Cong F, Xu W;, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:1500-1505.: Crystal structure of a Tankyrase-Axin complex and its implications for Axin turnover and Tankyrase substrate recruitment. PUBMED:22307604 EPMC:22307604
This tab holds annotation information from the InterPro database.
InterPro entry IPR032101
This is the N-terminal tankyrase binding domain described for Axin-1 [PUBMED:22307604].
Axin (axis inhibition protein) is a scaffold protein that is involved in many signalling pathways, including the Wnt, transforming growth factor-beta, MAP kinase pathways, as well as p53 activation cascades [PUBMED:18316368, PUBMED:15067197]. It controls many biological processes ranging from sugar intake, cell proliferation, and organ development to cell death [PUBMED:15067197].
Below is a listing of the unique domain organisations or architectures in which this domain is found. More...
The graphic that is shown by default represents the longest sequence with a given architecture. Each row contains the following information:
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a textual description of the architecture, e.g. Gla, EGF x 2, Trypsin.
This example describes an architecture with one
Gladomain, followed by two consecutive
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We store a range of different sequence alignments for families. As well as the seed alignment from which the family is built, we provide the full alignment, generated by searching the sequence database (reference proteomes) using the family HMM. We also generate alignments using four representative proteomes (RP) sets, the UniProtKB sequence database, the NCBI sequence database, and our metagenomics sequence database. More...
There are various ways to view or download the sequence alignments that we store. We provide several sequence viewers and a plain-text Stockholm-format file for download.
We make a range of alignments for each Pfam-A family:
- the curated alignment from which the HMM for the family is built
- the alignment generated by searching the sequence database using the HMM
- Representative Proteomes (RPs) at 15%, 35%, 55% and 75% co-membership thresholds
- alignment generated by searching the UniProtKB sequence database using the family HMM
- alignment generated by searching the NCBI sequence database using the family HMM
- alignment generated by searching the metagenomics sequence database using the family HMM
You can see the alignments as HTML or in three different sequence viewers:
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You can download (or view in your browser) a text representation of a Pfam alignment in various formats:
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You may find that large alignments cause problems for the viewers and the reformatting tool, so we also provide all alignments in Stockholm format. You can download either the plain text alignment, or a gzipped version of it.
We make a range of alignments for each Pfam-A family. You can see a description of each above. You can view these alignments in various ways but please note that some types of alignment are never generated while others may not be available for all families, most commonly because the alignments are too large to handle.
1Cannot generate PP/Heatmap alignments for seeds; no PP data available
Key: available, not generated, — not available.
Format an alignment
We make all of our alignments available in Stockholm format. You can download them here as raw, plain text files or as gzip-compressed files.
You can also download a FASTA format file containing the full-length sequences for all sequences in the full alignment.
HMM logos is one way of visualising profile HMMs. Logos provide a quick overview of the properties of an HMM in a graphical form. You can see a more detailed description of HMM logos and find out how you can interpret them here. More...
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This page displays the phylogenetic tree for this family's seed alignment. We use FastTree to calculate neighbour join trees with a local bootstrap based on 100 resamples (shown next to the tree nodes). FastTree calculates approximately-maximum-likelihood phylogenetic trees from our seed alignment.
Note: You can also download the data file for the tree.
Curation and family details
This section shows the detailed information about the Pfam family. You can see the definitions of many of the terms in this section in the glossary and a fuller explanation of the scoring system that we use in the scores section of the help pages.
|Number in seed:||24|
|Number in full:||298|
|Average length of the domain:||70.60 aa|
|Average identity of full alignment:||58 %|
|Average coverage of the sequence by the domain:||9.20 %|
|HMM build commands:||
build method: hmmbuild -o /dev/null HMM SEED
search method: hmmsearch -Z 45638612 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq
|Family (HMM) version:||5|
|Download:||download the raw HMM for this family|
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This visualisation provides a simple graphical representation of the distribution of this family across species. You can find the original interactive tree in the More....
This chart is a modified "sunburst" visualisation of the species tree for this family. It shows each node in the tree as a separate arc, arranged radially with the superkingdoms at the centre and the species arrayed around the outermost ring.
How the sunburst is generated
The tree is built by considering the taxonomic lineage of each sequence that has a match to this family. For each node in the resulting tree, we draw an arc in the sunburst. The radius of the arc, its distance from the root node at the centre of the sunburst, shows the taxonomic level ("superkingdom", "kingdom", etc). The length of the arc represents either the number of sequences represented at a given level, or the number of species that are found beneath the node in the tree. The weighting scheme can be changed using the sunburst controls.
In order to reduce the complexity of the representation, we reduce the number of taxonomic levels that we show. We consider only the following eight major taxonomic levels:
Colouring and labels
Segments of the tree are coloured approximately according to their superkingdom. For example, archeal branches are coloured with shades of orange, eukaryotes in shades of purple, etc. The colour assignments are shown under the sunburst controls. Where space allows, the name of the taxonomic level will be written on the arc itself.
As you move your mouse across the sunburst, the current node will be highlighted. In the top section of the controls panel we show a summary of the lineage of the currently highlighed node. If you pause over an arc, a tooltip will be shown, giving the name of the taxonomic level in the title and a summary of the number of sequences and species below that node in the tree.
Anomalies in the taxonomy tree
There are some situations that the sunburst tree cannot easily handle and for which we have work-arounds in place.
Missing taxonomic levels
Some species in the taxonomic tree may not have one or more of the main eight levels that we display. For example, Bos taurus is not assigned an order in the NCBI taxonomic tree. In such cases we mark the omitted level with, for example, "No order", in both the tooltip and the lineage summary.
Unmapped species names
The tree is built by looking at each sequence in the full alignment for the family. We take the name of the species given by UniProt and try to map that to the full taxonomic tree from NCBI. In some cases, the name chosen by UniProt does not map to any node in the NCBI tree, perhaps because the chosen name is listed as a synonym or a misspelling in the NCBI taxonomy.
So that these nodes are not simply omitted from the sunburst tree, we group them together in a separate branch (or segment of the sunburst tree). Since we cannot determine the lineage for these unmapped species, we show all levels between the superkingdom and the species as "uncategorised".
Since we reduce the species tree to only the eight main taxonomic levels, sequences that are mapped to the sub-species level in the tree would not normally be shown. Rather than leave out these species, we map them instead to their parent species. So, for example, for sequences belonging to one of the Vibrio cholerae sub-species in the NCBI taxonomy, we show them instead as belonging to the species Vibrio cholerae.
Too many species/sequences
For large species trees, you may see blank regions in the outer layers of the sunburst. These occur when there are large numbers of arcs to be drawn in a small space. If an arc is less than approximately one pixel wide, it will not be drawn and the space will be left blank. You may still be able to get some information about the species in that region by moving your mouse across the area, but since each arc will be very small, it will be difficult to accurately locate a particular species.
The tree shows the occurrence of this domain across different species. More...
We show the species tree in one of two ways. For smaller trees we try to show an interactive representation, which allows you to select specific nodes in the tree and view them as an alignment or as a set of Pfam domain graphics.
Unfortunately we have found that there are problems viewing the interactive tree when the it becomes larger than a certain limit. Furthermore, we have found that Internet Explorer can become unresponsive when viewing some trees, regardless of their size. We therefore show a text representation of the species tree when the size is above a certain limit or if you are using Internet Explorer to view the site.
If you are using IE you can still load the interactive tree by clicking the "Generate interactive tree" button, but please be aware of the potential problems that the interactive species tree can cause.
For all of the domain matches in a full alignment, we count the number that are found on all sequences in the alignment. This total is shown in the purple box.
We also count the number of unique sequences on which each domain is found, which is shown in green. Note that a domain may appear multiple times on the same sequence, leading to the difference between these two numbers.
Finally, we group sequences from the same organism according to the NCBI code that is assigned by UniProt, allowing us to count the number of distinct sequences on which the domain is found. This value is shown in the pink boxes.
We use the NCBI species tree to group organisms according to their taxonomy and this forms the structure of the displayed tree. Note that in some cases the trees are too large (have too many nodes) to allow us to build an interactive tree, but in most cases you can still view the tree in a plain text, non-interactive representation. Those species which are represented in the seed alignment for this domain are highlighted.
You can use the tree controls to manipulate how the interactive tree is displayed:
- show/hide the summary boxes
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- expand/collapse the tree or expand it to a given depth
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Please note: for large trees this can take some time. While the tree is loading, you can safely switch away from this tab but if you browse away from the family page entirely, the tree will not be loaded.
For those sequences which have a structure in the Protein DataBank, we use the mapping between UniProt, PDB and Pfam coordinate systems from the PDBe group, to allow us to map Pfam domains onto UniProt sequences and three-dimensional protein structures. The table below shows the structures on which the AXIN1_TNKS_BD domain has been found. There are 3 instances of this domain found in the PDB. Note that there may be multiple copies of the domain in a single PDB structure, since many structures contain multiple copies of the same protein sequence.
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