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0  structures 35  species 0  interactions 39  sequences 1  architecture

Family: Corazonin (PF17308)

Summary: Pro-corazonin

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This is the Wikipedia entry entitled "Corazonin". More...

Corazonin Edit Wikipedia article

Corazonin is a highly conserved neuropeptide found in many insects, in particular locusts and cockroaches.

Structure

Corazonin is an undecapeptide (11 amino-acid peptide) with the amino acid sequence carboxyl-Glu-Thr-Phe-Gln-Tyr-Ser-Arg-Gly-Trp-Thr-Asn-amine.[1] It is blocked by pGlu at its N-terminal side and amidated at its C-terminus. This form is called [Arg(7)]-corazonin. Other forms include [His(7)]-corazonin, [Thr(4), His(7)]-corazonin and [Tyr(3), Gln(7), Gln(10)]-corazonin.

Structure of Corazonin

History

Corazonin was first identified as a cardiostimulatory neuropeptide in the American cockroach (Periplaneta americana). Due to its ability to accelerate the heart beat in P. americana it was named corazonin, from 'corazon', the Spanish word for 'heart'. It was then shown to be present also in the moth Manduca sexta, another cockroach species, Nauphoeta cinerea as well as the locust Schistocerca gregaria. In the latter species the Arg residue was replaced by a His residue. Several years later the peptide was independently identified from locusts, where it was initially named 'dark-color-inducing neurohormone' or 'dark pigmentotropin' due to its ability to induce dark pigmentation in some insects.

Where corazonin is found

[Arg(7)]-corazonin was originally identified in cockroaches such as the American cockroach (Periplaneta americana) and has also been identified in the genus of flies Drosophila, the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus and the silkworm Bombyx mori and is now known to be the most common form of this peptide. [His(7)]-corazonin is found in certain locusts, including the migratory locust (Locusta migratoria) and the desert locust (Schistocerca gregaria), the stick insect Carausius morosus, and in wasps (Vespidae). [Thr(4), His(7)]-corazonin appears only to be found in bees, such as the honey bee (Apis mellifera). [Tyr(3), Gln(7), Gln(10)]-corazonin is present in wasps. Interestingly corazonin appears to be lacking in all beetle species as well as aphids. [Arg(7)]-corazonin has also been identified from the tick Ixodes scapularis, but is absent from the spider mite. It may thus well be generally present in Arhropods.

Function

The peptide is typically produced by large neuroendocrine cells in the pars lateralis of the protocerebrum that have axons into the corpora cardiaca where it is released into the hemolymph. In this respect the neuropeptide resembles its vertebrate homolog, GnRH (Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone) which is released into the pituitary gland to stimulate the release of Luteinizing hormone and Follicle Stimulating Hormone in vertebrates, like humans. Corazonin and GnRH are clear homologs, as are their receptors, but there is currently no evidence that corazonin is involved in the regulation of reproduction in insect, event though corazonin has no universally recognized function.

In the American cockroach Periplaneta americana, [Arg(7)]-corazonin acts as a cardiostimulatory neuropeptide and accelerates the heart beat.[1] It also causes contractions of the hyperneural muscle,[2] however this has not been seen in other cockroach species.

[His(7)]-corazonin acts as a hormonal factor in locusts and can cause dark pigmentation in albino migratory locusts (Locusta migratoria)[3] and in green nymphs of the desert locust Schistocerca gregaria. While corazonins found in crickets and moths have no effect on body colour of the crickets or moths themselves, they can cause dark pigmentation in albino nymphs of the migratory locust (Locusta migratoria).[4]

In silkworms (Bombyx mori), corazonin reduces the spinning rate of silk.[5]

References

  • Nässel DR (2002). "Neuropeptides in the nervous system of Drosophila and other insects: multiple roles as neuromodulators and neurohormones". Progress in Neurobiology 68 (1): 1-84. doi:10.1016/S0301-0082(02)00057-6 PMID 12427481
  1. ^ a b Veenstra JA (1989). "Isolation and structure of corazonin, a cardioactive peptide from the American cockroach". FEBS Letters 250 (2): 231-234. [1] doi:10.1016/0014-5793(89)80727-6
  2. ^ Predel R, Agricola H, Linde D, Wollweber L, Veenstra JA and Penzlin H (1994). "The insect neuropeptide corazonin: physiological and immunocytochemical studies in Blattariae". Zoology 98: 35–50.
  3. ^ Tawfik AI, Tanaka S, De Loof A, Schoofs L, Baggerman G, Waelkens E, Derua R, Milner Y, Yerushalmi Y and Pener MP (1999). "Identification of the gregarization-associated dark-pigmentotropin in locusts through an albino mutant". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 96 (12): 7083–7087. link
  4. ^ Hua YJ, Ishibashi J, Saito H, Tawfik AI, Sakakibara M, Tanaka Y, Derua R, Waelkens E, Baggerman G, De Loof A, Schoofs L, and Tanaka S (2000). "Identification of [Arg7] corazonin in the silkworm, Bombyx mori, and the cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus, as a factor inducing dark color in an albino strain of the locust, Locusta migratoria". Journal of Insect Physiology 46 (6): 853–859. [2] doi:10.1016/S0022-1910(99)00173-0
  5. ^ Tanaka Y, Huab YJ, Roller L and Tanaka S (2002). "Corazonin reduces the spinning rate in the silkworm, Bombyx mori". Journal of Insect Physiology 48 (7): 707-714. [3] doi:10.1016/S0022-1910(02)00094-X

This page is based on a Wikipedia article. The text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License.

This tab holds the annotation information that is stored in the Pfam database. As we move to using Wikipedia as our main source of annotation, the contents of this tab will be gradually replaced by the Wikipedia tab.

Pro-corazonin Provide feedback

This domain family is found in Corazonin proteins in Drosophila and other Anthropods. Corazonin (Crz)is a neuropeptide with a wide spectrum of biological functions in diverse insect groups. It was first discovered due to its myostimulatory activities on the heart muscle of Periplaneta Americana and the hyper-neural muscle of Carausius morosus [1]. In Drosophila melanogaster, Crz plays diverse roles ranging from a regulator of insulin producing cells in the brain to roles specific to tissues, life stages, and gender [2].

Literature references

  1. Hauser F, Grimmelikhuijzen CJ;, Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2014;209:35-49.: Evolution of the AKH/corazonin/ACP/GnRH receptor superfamily and their ligands in the Protostomia. PUBMED:25058364 EPMC:25058364

  2. Lee G, Kim KM, Kikuno K, Wang Z, Choi YJ, Park JH;, Cell Tissue Res. 2008;331:659-673.: Developmental regulation and functions of the expression of the neuropeptide corazonin in Drosophila melanogaster. PUBMED:18087727 EPMC:18087727


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(9)
Full
(39)
Representative proteomes UniProt
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NCBI
(116)
Meta
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RP15
(12)
RP35
(22)
RP55
(36)
RP75
(43)
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This family is new in this Pfam release.

Seed source: PRODOM:PD052247
Previous IDs: none
Type: Family
Author: El-Gebali S
Number in seed: 9
Number in full: 39
Average length of the domain: 80.10 aa
Average identity of full alignment: 38 %
Average coverage of the sequence by the domain: 61.76 %

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HMM build commands:
build method: hmmbuild -o /dev/null HMM SEED
search method: hmmsearch -Z 26740544 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq
Model details:
Parameter Sequence Domain
Gathering cut-off 25.0 25.0
Trusted cut-off 28.4 27.6
Noise cut-off 24.0 24.0
Model length: 134
Family (HMM) version: 1
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