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0  structures 3  species 0  interactions 3  sequences 1  architecture

Family: Mfa1 (PF17445)

Summary: Mating factor A1

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Mating factor A1 Provide feedback

Many pathogenic fungi undergo morphological changes in order to infect their hosts. The Ustilago maydis pathogenic cycle starts when two mating compatible haploid yeast cells recognize each other via a pheromone-receptor system which is encoded by two sets of genes a and b [1]. The a locus (a1 and a2) controls the cell fusion by encoding intercellular recognition system consisting of precursors (mfa1 and mfa2) and receptors (pra1 and pra2) of lipopeptide pheromones [2]. The open reading frame codes for a 42-amino acid precursor, which is processed to a shorter peptide of 13 amino acids. The terminal CAAX motif is typical of farnesylated fungal pheromones, in which the last three amino acids are removed during farnesylation of the cysteine residue. This terminal cysteine is known to be Omethylated in several fungal pheromones [3]. Mating leads to the formation of a dikaryon filament, whose apical tip differentiates into a specialized structure for plant penetration known as the appressorium. Once inside the plant, U. maydis proliferates, inducing the formation of tumours and eventually develops into diploid spores [1]. This mating process requires cross-talk between cAMP and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling [2]. Upstream regulation of a locus has been demonstrated where Hos2 (Histone deacetylases (HDACs) plant homologue) directly regulates the expression of U. maydis mating-type genes downstream of the cAMP-PKA pathway [1]. Furthermore, pheromone recognition blocks cell cycle progression in U. maydis cells in order to prepare mating partners for conjugation where cells undergo arrest in G2 phase [4]. This entry relates to the domain found in Mfa1 proteins in Ustilgo maydis and U. hordei.

Literature references

  1. Elias-Villalobos A, Fernandez-Alvarez A, Moreno-Sanchez I, Helmlinger D, Ibeas JI;, PLoS Pathog. 2015;11:e1005134.: The Hos2 Histone Deacetylase Controls Ustilago maydis Virulence through Direct Regulation of Mating-Type Genes. PUBMED:26317403 EPMC:26317403

  2. Kaffarnik F, Muller P, Leibundgut M, Kahmann R, Feldbrugge M;, EMBO J. 2003;22:5817-5826.: PKA and MAPK phosphorylation of Prf1 allows promoter discrimination in Ustilago maydis. PUBMED:14592979 EPMC:14592979

  3. Sherwood JE, Kosted PJ, Anderson CM, Gerhardt SA;, Phytopathology. 1998;88:456-464.: Production of a Mating Inhibitor by Ustilago hordei. PUBMED:18944927 EPMC:18944927

  4. Perez-Martin J, Castillo-Lluva S, Sgarlata C, Flor-Parra I, Mielnichuk N, Torreblanca J, Carbo N;, Mol Genet Genomics. 2006;276:211-229.: Pathocycles: Ustilago maydis as a model to study the relationships between cell cycle and virulence in pathogenic fungi. PUBMED:16896795 EPMC:16896795


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Domain organisation

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RP35
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RP55
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RP75
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  Seed
(2)
Full
(3)
Representative proteomes UniProt
(16)
NCBI
(15)
Meta
(0)
RP15
(1)
RP35
(1)
RP55
(1)
RP75
(2)
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This family is new in this Pfam release.

Seed source: PRODOM:PD048318
Previous IDs: none
Type: Family
Author: El-Gebali S
Number in seed: 2
Number in full: 3
Average length of the domain: 36.30 aa
Average identity of full alignment: 60 %
Average coverage of the sequence by the domain: 72.19 %

HMM information View help on HMM parameters

HMM build commands:
build method: hmmbuild -o /dev/null HMM SEED
search method: hmmsearch -Z 26740544 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq
Model details:
Parameter Sequence Domain
Gathering cut-off 25.0 25.0
Trusted cut-off 41.2 40.7
Noise cut-off 21.0 18.1
Model length: 42
Family (HMM) version: 1
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