Summary: Type IV leader peptidase family
Type IV leader peptidase family Provide feedback
Peptidase A24, or the prepilin peptidase as it is also known, processes the N-terminus of the prepilins . The processing is essential for the correct formation of the pseudopili of type IV bacterial protein secretion. The enzyme is found across eubacteria and archaea .
External database links
This tab holds annotation information from the InterPro database.
InterPro entry IPR000045
This group of aspartic endopeptidases belong to MEROPS peptidase family A24 (type IV prepilin peptidase family, clan AD), subfamily A24A.
Bacteria produce a number of protein precursors that undergo post-translational methylation and proteolysis prior to secretion as active proteins. Type IV prepilin leader peptidases are enzymes that mediate this type of post-translational modification. Type IV pilin is a protein found on the surface of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Neisseria gonorrhoeae and other Gram-negative pathogens. Pilin subunits attach the infecting organism to the surface of host epithelial cells. They are synthesised as prepilin subunits, which differ from mature pilin by virtue of containing a 6-8 residue leader peptide consisting of charged amino acids. Mature type IV pilins also contain a methylated N-terminal phenylalanine residue.
The bifunctional enzyme prepilin peptidase (PilD) from Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a key determinant in both type-IV pilus biogenesis and extracellular protein secretion, in its roles as a leader peptidase and methyl transferase (MTase). It is responsible for endopeptidic cleavage of the unique leader peptides that characterise type-IV pilin precursors, as well as proteins with homologous leader sequences that are essential components of the general secretion pathway found in a variety of Gram-negative pathogens. Following removal of the leader peptides, the same enzyme is responsible for the second posttranslational modification that characterises the type-IV pilins and their homologues, namely N-methylation of the newly exposed N-terminal amino acid residue [PUBMED:9224881].This entry represents the peptidase domain from the prepilin type IV endopeptidases [PUBMED:10625704]. It can be found on its own, or in the case of the bifunctional enzymes, next to a methylation domain.
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|Cellular component||membrane (GO:0016020)|
|Molecular function||aspartic-type endopeptidase activity (GO:0004190)|
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Members of this clan are peptidases that are integral membrane proteins. The catalytic aspartate is in the conserved GXGD motif.
The clan contains the following 4 members:DUF1119 Peptidase_A22B Peptidase_A24 Presenilin
We make a range of alignments for each Pfam-A family:
- the curated alignment from which the HMM for the family is built
- the alignment generated by searching the sequence database using the HMM
- Representative Proteomes (RPs) at 15%, 35%, 55% and 75% co-membership thresholds
- alignment generated by searching the NCBI sequence database using the family HMM
- alignment generated by searching the metagenomics sequence database using the family HMM
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Curation and family details
|Seed source:||Yeats C|
|Author:||Bateman A, Yeats C|
|Number in seed:||103|
|Number in full:||5022|
|Average length of the domain:||108.60 aa|
|Average identity of full alignment:||23 %|
|Average coverage of the sequence by the domain:||49.30 %|
|HMM build commands:||
build method: hmmbuild -o /dev/null HMM SEED
search method: hmmsearch -Z 23193494 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq
|Family (HMM) version:||13|
|Download:||download the raw HMM for this family|
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For those sequences which have a structure in the Protein DataBank, we use the mapping between UniProt, PDB and Pfam coordinate systems from the PDBe group, to allow us to map Pfam domains onto UniProt sequences and three-dimensional protein structures. The table below shows the structures on which the Peptidase_A24 domain has been found. There are 2 instances of this domain found in the PDB. Note that there may be multiple copies of the domain in a single PDB structure, since many structures contain multiple copies of the same protein seqence.
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