Summary: Cauliflower mosaic virus peptidase (A3)
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Cauliflower mosaic virus peptidase (A3) Provide feedback
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Internal database links
|Similarity to PfamA using HHSearch:||Asp_protease_2|
External database links
This tab holds annotation information from the InterPro database.
InterPro entry IPR000588
In the MEROPS database peptidases and peptidase homologues are grouped into clans and families. Clans are groups of families for which there is evidence of common ancestry based on a common structural fold:
- Each clan is identified with two letters, the first representing the catalytic type of the families included in the clan (with the letter 'P' being used for a clan containing families of more than one of the catalytic types serine, threonine and cysteine). Some families cannot yet be assigned to clans, and when a formal assignment is required, such a family is described as belonging to clan A-, C-, M-, N-, S-, T- or U-, according to the catalytic type. Some clans are divided into subclans because there is evidence of a very ancient divergence within the clan, for example MA(E), the gluzincins, and MA(M), the metzincins.
- Peptidase families are grouped by their catalytic type, the first character representing the catalytic type: A, aspartic; C, cysteine; G, glutamic acid; M, metallo; N, asparagine; S, serine; T, threonine; and U, unknown. The serine, threonine and cysteine peptidases utilise the amino acid as a nucleophile and form an acyl intermediate - these peptidases can also readily act as transferases. In the case of aspartic, glutamic and metallopeptidases, the nucleophile is an activated water molecule. In the case of the asparagine endopeptidases, the nucleophile is asparagine and all are self-processing endopeptidases.
In many instances the structural protein fold that characterises the clan or family may have lost its catalytic activity, yet retain its function in protein recognition and binding.
Aspartic endopeptidases EC of vertebrate, fungal and retroviral origin have been characterised [PUBMED:1455179]. More recently, aspartic endopeptidases associated with the processing of bacterial type 4 prepilin [PUBMED:10625704] and archaean preflagellin have been described [PUBMED:16983194, PUBMED:14622420].
Structurally, aspartic endopeptidases are bilobal enzymes, each lobe contributing a catalytic Asp residue, with an extended active site cleft localised between the two lobes of the molecule. One lobe has probably evolved from the other through a gene duplication event in the distant past. In modern-day enzymes, although the three-dimensional structures are very similar, the amino acid sequences are more divergent, except for the catalytic site motif, which is very conserved. The presence and position of disulphide bridges are other conserved features of aspartic peptidases. All or most aspartate peptidases are endopeptidases. These enzymes have been assigned into clans (proteins which are evolutionary related), and further sub-divided into families, largely on the basis of their tertiary structure.
This group of sequences contain an aspartic peptidase signature that belongs to MEROPS peptidase family A3, subfamily A3A (cauliflower mosaic virus-type endopeptidase, clan AA). Cauliflower mosaic virus belongs to the Retro-transcribing viruses, which have a double-stranded DNA genome. The genome includes an open reading frame (ORF V) that shows similarities to the pol gene of retroviruses. This ORF codes for a polyprotein that includes a reverse transcriptase, which, on the basis of a DTG triplet near the N terminus, was suggested to include an aspartic protease. The presence of an aspartic protease has been confirmed by mutational studies, implicating Asp-45 in catalysis. The protease releases itself from the polyprotein and is involved in reactions required to process the ORF IV polyprotein, which includes the viral coat protein [PUBMED:7674916]. The viral aspartic peptidase signature has also been found associated with a polyprotein encoded by integrated pararetrovirus-like sequences in the genome of Nicotiana tabacum (Common tobacco) [PUBMED:10557305].
The mapping between Pfam and Gene Ontology is provided by InterPro. If you use this data please cite InterPro.
|Molecular function||aspartic-type endopeptidase activity (GO:0004190)|
|Biological process||proteolysis (GO:0006508)|
- the number of sequences which exhibit this architecture
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This clan contains aspartic peptidases, including the pepsins and retropepsins. These enzymes contains a catalytic dyad composed of two aspartates. In the retropepsins one is provided by each copy of a homodimeric protein, whereas in the pepsin-like peptidases these aspartates come from a single protein composed of two duplicated domains.
The clan contains the following 14 members:Asp Asp_protease Asp_protease_2 DUF1758 gag-asp_proteas Peptidase_A2B Peptidase_A2E Peptidase_A3 RVP RVP_2 Spuma_A9PTase TAXi_C TAXi_N Zn_protease
We make a range of alignments for each Pfam-A family:
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- alignment generated by searching the NCBI sequence database using the family HMM
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Curation and family details
|Author:||Mian N, Bateman A|
|Number in seed:||6|
|Number in full:||102|
|Average length of the domain:||173.90 aa|
|Average identity of full alignment:||29 %|
|Average coverage of the sequence by the domain:||22.75 %|
|HMM build commands:||
build method: hmmbuild -o /dev/null HMM SEED
search method: hmmsearch -Z 23193494 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq
|Family (HMM) version:||10|
|Download:||download the raw HMM for this family|
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