Summary: Peptidase M16 inactive domain
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Peptidase M16 inactive domain Provide feedback
Peptidase M16 consists of two structurally related domains. One is the active peptidase, whereas the other is inactive. The two domains hold the substrate like a clamp .
Taylor AB, Smith BS, Kitada S, Kojima K, Miyaura H, Otwinowski Z, Ito A, Deisenhofer J; , Structure (Camb) 2001;9:615-625.: Crystal structures of mitochondrial processing peptidase reveal the mode for specific cleavage of import signal sequences. PUBMED:11470436 EPMC:11470436
External database links
This tab holds annotation information from the InterPro database.
InterPro entry IPR007863
In the MEROPS database peptidases and peptidase homologues are grouped into clans and families. Clans are groups of families for which there is evidence of common ancestry based on a common structural fold:
- Each clan is identified with two letters, the first representing the catalytic type of the families included in the clan (with the letter 'P' being used for a clan containing families of more than one of the catalytic types serine, threonine and cysteine). Some families cannot yet be assigned to clans, and when a formal assignment is required, such a family is described as belonging to clan A-, C-, M-, N-, S-, T- or U-, according to the catalytic type. Some clans are divided into subclans because there is evidence of a very ancient divergence within the clan, for example MA(E), the gluzincins, and MA(M), the metzincins.
- Peptidase families are grouped by their catalytic type, the first character representing the catalytic type: A, aspartic; C, cysteine; G, glutamic acid; M, metallo; N, asparagine; S, serine; T, threonine; and U, unknown. The serine, threonine and cysteine peptidases utilise the amino acid as a nucleophile and form an acyl intermediate - these peptidases can also readily act as transferases. In the case of aspartic, glutamic and metallopeptidases, the nucleophile is an activated water molecule. In the case of the asparagine endopeptidases, the nucleophile is asparagine and all are self-processing endopeptidases.
In many instances the structural protein fold that characterises the clan or family may have lost its catalytic activity, yet retain its function in protein recognition and binding.
Metalloproteases are the most diverse of the four main types of protease, with more than 50 families identified to date. In these enzymes, a divalent cation, usually zinc, activates the water molecule. The metal ion is held in place by amino acid ligands, usually three in number. The known metal ligands are His, Glu, Asp or Lys and at least one other residue is required for catalysis, which may play an electrophillic role. Of the known metalloproteases, around half contain an HEXXH motif, which has been shown in crystallographic studies to form part of the metal-binding site [PUBMED:7674922]. The HEXXH motif is relatively common, but can be more stringently defined for metalloproteases as 'abXHEbbHbc', where 'a' is most often valine or threonine and forms part of the S1' subsite in thermolysin and neprilysin, 'b' is an uncharged residue, and 'c' a hydrophobic residue. Proline is never found in this site, possibly because it would break the helical structure adopted by this motif in metalloproteases [PUBMED:7674922].
These metallopeptidases belong to MEROPS peptidase family M16 (clan ME). They include proteins, which are classified as non-peptidase homologues either have been found experimentally to be without peptidase activity, or lack amino acid residues that are believed to be essential for the catalytic activity.
The peptidases in this group of sequences include:
- Insulinase, insulin-degrading enzyme (EC)
- Mitochondrial processing peptidase alpha subunit, (Alpha-MPP, EC)
- Pitrlysin, Protease III precursor (EC)
- Nardilysin, (EC)
- Ubiquinol-cytochrome C reductase complex core protein I,mitochondrial precursor (EC)
- Coenzyme PQQ synthesis protein F (EC)
These proteins do not share many regions of sequence similarity; the most noticeable is in the N-terminal section. This region includes a conserved histidine followed, two residues later by a glutamate and another histidine. In pitrilysin, it has been shown [PUBMED:7990931] that this H-x-x-E-H motif is involved in enzymatic activity; the two histidines bind zinc and the glutamate is necessary for catalytic activity. The mitochondrial processing peptidase consists of two structurally related domains. One is the active peptidase whereas the other, the C-terminal region, is inactive. The two domains hold the substrate like a clamp [PUBMED:11470436].
The mapping between Pfam and Gene Ontology is provided by InterPro. If you use this data please cite InterPro.
|Molecular function||metalloendopeptidase activity (GO:0004222)|
|zinc ion binding (GO:0008270)|
|Biological process||proteolysis (GO:0006508)|
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All members of this clan are characterised by a HXXEH motif, which is is involved in zinc binding. Furthermore all members adopt an alpha and beta fold. More specifically, there us a four to six stranded antiparallel beta sheet surrounded by five helices. However, LuxS (PFAM:PF02664) is not a peptidase, although its hydrolytic mechanism of catalysis appears to be conserved .
The clan contains the following 4 members:LuxS Peptidase_M16 Peptidase_M16_C Peptidase_M44
We make a range of alignments for each Pfam-A family:
- the curated alignment from which the HMM for the family is built
- the alignment generated by searching the sequence database using the HMM
- Representative Proteomes (RPs) at 15%, 35%, 55% and 75% co-membership thresholds
- alignment generated by searching the NCBI sequence database using the family HMM
- alignment generated by searching the metagenomics sequence database using the family HMM
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Curation and family details
|Seed source:||Yeats C|
|Number in seed:||181|
|Number in full:||16090|
|Average length of the domain:||179.20 aa|
|Average identity of full alignment:||14 %|
|Average coverage of the sequence by the domain:||37.15 %|
|HMM build commands:||
build method: hmmbuild -o /dev/null HMM SEED
search method: hmmsearch -Z 23193494 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq
|Family (HMM) version:||16|
|Download:||download the raw HMM for this family|
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There are 8 interactions for this family. More...
We determine these interactions using iPfam, which considers the interactions between residues in three-dimensional protein structures and maps those interactions back to Pfam families. You can find more information about the iPfam algorithm in the journal article that accompanies the website.
For those sequences which have a structure in the Protein DataBank, we use the mapping between UniProt, PDB and Pfam coordinate systems from the PDBe group, to allow us to map Pfam domains onto UniProt sequences and three-dimensional protein structures. The table below shows the structures on which the Peptidase_M16_C domain has been found. There are 253 instances of this domain found in the PDB. Note that there may be multiple copies of the domain in a single PDB structure, since many structures contain multiple copies of the same protein seqence.
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