Summary: M42 glutamyl aminopeptidase
M42 glutamyl aminopeptidase Provide feedback
These peptidases are found in Archaea and Bacteria. The example in Lactococcus lactis, PepA, aids growth on milk . Pyrococcus horikoshii contain a thermostable de-blocking aminopeptidase member of this family used commercially for N-terminal protein sequencing .
l'Anson KJ, Movahedi S, Griffin HG, Gasson MJ, Mulholland F; , Microbiology 1995;141:2873-2881.: A non-essential glutamyl aminopeptidase is required for optimal growth of Lactococcus lactis MG1363 in milk. PUBMED:8535515 EPMC:8535515
Franzetti B, Schoehn G, Hernandez JF, Jaquinod M, Ruigrok RW, Zaccai G; , EMBO J 2002;21:2132-2138.: Tetrahedral aminopeptidase: a novel large protease complex from archaea. PUBMED:11980710 EPMC:11980710
External database links
This tab holds annotation information from the InterPro database.
InterPro entry IPR008007
In the MEROPS database peptidases and peptidase homologues are grouped into clans and families. Clans are groups of families for which there is evidence of common ancestry based on a common structural fold:
- Each clan is identified with two letters, the first representing the catalytic type of the families included in the clan (with the letter 'P' being used for a clan containing families of more than one of the catalytic types serine, threonine and cysteine). Some families cannot yet be assigned to clans, and when a formal assignment is required, such a family is described as belonging to clan A-, C-, M-, N-, S-, T- or U-, according to the catalytic type. Some clans are divided into subclans because there is evidence of a very ancient divergence within the clan, for example MA(E), the gluzincins, and MA(M), the metzincins.
- Peptidase families are grouped by their catalytic type, the first character representing the catalytic type: A, aspartic; C, cysteine; G, glutamic acid; M, metallo; N, asparagine; S, serine; T, threonine; and U, unknown. The serine, threonine and cysteine peptidases utilise the amino acid as a nucleophile and form an acyl intermediate - these peptidases can also readily act as transferases. In the case of aspartic, glutamic and metallopeptidases, the nucleophile is an activated water molecule. In the case of the asparagine endopeptidases, the nucleophile is asparagine and all are self-processing endopeptidases.
In many instances the structural protein fold that characterises the clan or family may have lost its catalytic activity, yet retain its function in protein recognition and binding.
Metalloproteases are the most diverse of the four main types of protease, with more than 50 families identified to date. In these enzymes, a divalent cation, usually zinc, activates the water molecule. The metal ion is held in place by amino acid ligands, usually three in number. The known metal ligands are His, Glu, Asp or Lys and at least one other residue is required for catalysis, which may play an electrophillic role. Of the known metalloproteases, around half contain an HEXXH motif, which has been shown in crystallographic studies to form part of the metal-binding site [PUBMED:7674922]. The HEXXH motif is relatively common, but can be more stringently defined for metalloproteases as 'abXHEbbHbc', where 'a' is most often valine or threonine and forms part of the S1' subsite in thermolysin and neprilysin, 'b' is an uncharged residue, and 'c' a hydrophobic residue. Proline is never found in this site, possibly because it would break the helical structure adopted by this motif in metalloproteases [PUBMED:7674922].
This group of metallopeptidases belong to MEROPS peptidase family M42 (glutamyl aminopeptidase family, clan MH). For members of this family and family M28 the predicted metal ligands occur in the same order in the sequence: H, D, E, D/E, H; and the active site residues occur in the motifs HXD and EE.
- the number of sequences which exhibit this architecture
a textual description of the architecture, e.g. Gla, EGF x 2, Trypsin.
This example describes an architecture with one
Gladomain, followed by two consecutive
EGFdomains, and finally a single
- the UniProt description of the protein sequence
- the number of residues in the sequence
- the Pfam graphic itself.
Loading domain graphics...
This clan contains peptidases belonging to MEROPS clan MH, MC and MF. We also include Nicastrin that is part of the gamma secretase complex and not known to be a peptidase.
The clan contains the following 13 members:Amidase_3 AstE_AspA DUF2817 DUF4910 Nicastrin Peptidase_M14 Peptidase_M17 Peptidase_M18 Peptidase_M20 Peptidase_M28 Peptidase_M42 Peptidase_M99 SpoIIP
We make a range of alignments for each Pfam-A family:
- the curated alignment from which the HMM for the family is built
- the alignment generated by searching the sequence database using the HMM
- Representative Proteomes (RPs) at 15%, 35%, 55% and 75% co-membership thresholds
- alignment generated by searching the NCBI sequence database using the family HMM
- alignment generated by searching the metagenomics sequence database using the family HMM
You can see the alignments as HTML or in three different sequence viewers:
- Pfam viewer
- an HTML-based viewer that uses DAS to retrieve alignment fragments on request
1Cannot generate PP/Heatmap alignments for seeds; no PP data available
Key: available, not generated, — not available.
Format an alignment
If you find these logos useful in your own work, please consider citing the following article:
Note: You can also download the data file for the tree.
Curation and family details
|Number in seed:||48|
|Number in full:||25384|
|Average length of the domain:||288.00 aa|
|Average identity of full alignment:||37 %|
|Average coverage of the sequence by the domain:||81.94 %|
|HMM build commands:||
build method: hmmbuild -o /dev/null HMM SEED
search method: hmmsearch -Z 80369284 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq
|Family (HMM) version:||10|
|Download:||download the raw HMM for this family|
Weight segments by...
Change the size of the sunburst
selected sequences to HMM
a FASTA-format file
- 0 sequences
- 0 species
How the sunburst is generated
Colouring and labels
Anomalies in the taxonomy tree
Missing taxonomic levels
Unmapped species names
Too many species/sequences
The tree shows the occurrence of this domain across different species. More...
You can use the tree controls to manipulate how the interactive tree is displayed:
- show/hide the summary boxes
- highlight species that are represented in the seed alignment
- expand/collapse the tree or expand it to a given depth
- select a sub-tree or a set of species within the tree and view them graphically or as an alignment
- save a plain text representation of the tree
There is 1 interaction for this family. More...
We determine these interactions using iPfam, which considers the interactions between residues in three-dimensional protein structures and maps those interactions back to Pfam families. You can find more information about the iPfam algorithm in the journal article that accompanies the website.
For those sequences which have a structure in the Protein DataBank, we use the mapping between UniProt, PDB and Pfam coordinate systems from the PDBe group, to allow us to map Pfam domains onto UniProt sequences and three-dimensional protein structures. The table below shows the structures on which the Peptidase_M42 domain has been found. There are 65 instances of this domain found in the PDB. Note that there may be multiple copies of the domain in a single PDB structure, since many structures contain multiple copies of the same protein seqence.
Loading structure mapping...