Summary: Pertussis toxin, subunit 1
Pfam includes annotations and additional family information from a range of different sources. These sources can be accessed via the tabs below.
This is the Wikipedia entry entitled "Pertussis toxin". More...
The Wikipedia text that you see displayed here is a download from Wikipedia. This means that the information we display is a copy of the information from the Wikipedia database. The button next to the article title ("Edit Wikipedia article") takes you to the edit page for the article directly within Wikipedia. You should be aware you are not editing our local copy of this information. Any changes that you make to the Wikipedia article will not be displayed here until we next download the article from Wikipedia. We currently download new content on a nightly basis.
Does Pfam agree with the content of the Wikipedia entry ?
Pfam has chosen to link families to Wikipedia articles. In some case we have created or edited these articles but in many other cases we have not made any direct contribution to the content of the article. The Wikipedia community does monitor edits to try to ensure that (a) the quality of article annotation increases, and (b) vandalism is very quickly dealt with. However, we would like to emphasise that Pfam does not curate the Wikipedia entries and we cannot guarantee the accuracy of the information on the Wikipedia page.
Editing Wikipedia articles
Before you edit for the first time
Wikipedia is a free, online encyclopedia. Although anyone can edit or contribute to an article, Wikipedia has some strong editing guidelines and policies, which promote the Wikipedia standard of style and etiquette. Your edits and contributions are more likely to be accepted (and remain) if they are in accordance with this policy.
You should take a few minutes to view the following pages:
How your contribution will be recorded
Anyone can edit a Wikipedia entry. You can do this either as a new user or you can register with Wikipedia and log on. When you click on the "Edit Wikipedia article" button, your browser will direct you to the edit page for this entry in Wikipedia. If you are a registered user and currently logged in, your changes will be recorded under your Wikipedia user name. However, if you are not a registered user or are not logged on, your changes will be logged under your computer's IP address. This has two main implications. Firstly, as a registered Wikipedia user your edits are more likely seen as valuable contribution (although all edits are open to community scrutiny regardless). Secondly, if you edit under an IP address you may be sharing this IP address with other users. If your IP address has previously been blocked (due to being flagged as a source of 'vandalism') your edits will also be blocked. You can find more information on this and creating a user account at Wikipedia.
If you have problems editing a particular page, contact us at email@example.com and we will try to help.
The community annotation is a new facility of the Pfam web site. If you have problems editing or experience problems with these pages please contact us.
Pertussis toxin Edit Wikipedia article
|Pertussis toxin, subunit 1|
The Crystal Structure of Pertussis Toxin,
|Pertussis toxin, subunit 2 and 3|
|Pertussis toxin, subunit 4|
|Pertussis toxin, subunit 5|
Pertussis toxin (PT) is a protein-based AB5-type exotoxin produced by the bacterium Bordetella pertussis, which causes whooping cough. PT is involved in the colonization of the respiratory tract and the establishment of infection. Research suggests PT may have a therapeutic role in treating a number of common human ailments, including hypertension, viral inhibition, and autoimmune inhibition.
PT clearly plays a central role in the pathogenesis of pertussis, as this was discovered only in the early 1980s. The appearance of pertussis is quite recent, compared with other epidemic infectious diseases. The earliest mention of pertussis, or whooping cough, is of an outbreak in Paris in 1414. This was published in Moulton’s The Mirror of Health, in 1640. Another epidemic of pertussis took place in Paris in 1578 and was described by a contemporary observer, Guillaume de Baillou. Pertussis was well known throughout Europe by the middle of the 18th century. Jules Bordet and Octave Gengou described in 1900 the finding of a new “ovoid bacillus” in the sputum of a 6-month-old infant with whooping cough. They were also the first to cultivate Bordetella pertussis at the Pasteur Institute in Brussels in 1906.
One difference between the different species of Bordetella is that B. pertussis produces PT and the other species do not. Bordetella parapertussis shows the most similarity to B. pertussis and was therefore used for research determining the role of PT in causing the typical symptoms of whooping cough. Rat studies showed the development of paroxysmal coughing, a characteristic for whooping cough, occurred in rats infected with B. pertussis. Rats infected with B. parapertussis or a PT-deficient mutant of B. pertussis did not show this symptom; neither of these two strains produced PT.
A large group of bacterial exotoxins are referred to as "A/B toxins", in essence because they are formed from two subunits. The "A" subunit possesses enzyme activity, and is transferred to the host cell following a conformational change in the membrane-bound transport "B" subunit. Pertussis toxin is an exotoxin with six subunits (named S1 through S5—each complex contains two copies of S4). The subunits are arranged in A-B structure: the A component is enzymatically active and is formed from the S1 subunit, while the B component is the receptor-binding portion and is made up of subunits S2–S5. The subunits are encoded by ptx genes encoded on a large PT operon that also includes additional genes that encode Ptl proteins. Together, these proteins form the PT secretion complex.
Mechanism of pathogenesis
PT is released from B. pertussis in an inactive form. Following PT binding to a cell membrane receptor, it is taken up in an endosome, after which it undergoes retrograde transport to the trans-Golgi network and endoplasmic reticulum. At some point during this transport, the A subunit (or protomer) becomes activated, perhaps through the action of glutathione and ATP. PT catalyzes the ADP-ribosylation of the αi subunits of the heterotrimeric G protein. This prevents the G proteins from interacting with G protein-coupled receptors on the cell membrane, thus interfering with intracellular communication. The Gi subunits remain locked in their GDP-bound, inactive state, thus unable to inhibit adenylate cyclase activity, leading to increased cellular concentrations of cAMP.
Increased intracellular cAMP affects normal biological signaling. The toxin causes several systemic effects, among which is an increased release of insulin, causing hypoglycemia. Whether the effects of pertussis toxin are responsible for the paroxysmal cough remains unknown.
As a result of this unique mechanism, PT has also become widely used as a biochemical tool to ADP-ribosylate GTP-binding proteins in the study of signal transduction. It has also become an essential component of new acellular vaccines.
Effects on the immune system
PT has been shown to affect the innate immune response. It inhibits the early recruitment of neutrophils and macrophages, and interferes with the early chemokine production and the inhibition of the neutrophil chemotaxis. Chemokines are signaling molecules produced by infected cells and attract neutrophils and macrophages. Neutrophil chemotaxis is thought to be disrupted by inhibiting G-protein-coupled chemokine receptors by the ADP-ribosylation of Gi proteins.
Because of the disrupted signaling pathways, synthesis of chemokines will be affected. This will prevent the infected cell from producing them and thereby inhibiting recruitment of neutrophils. Under normal circumstances, alveolar macrophages and other lung cells produce a variety of chemokines. PT has been found to inhibit the early transcription of keratinocyte-derived chemokine, macrophage inflammatory protein 2 and LPS-induced CXC chemokine. Eventually, PT causes lymphocytosis, one of the systemic manifestations of whooping cough.
PT, a decisive virulence determinant of B. pertussis, is able to cross the blood–brain barrier by increasing its permeability. As a result, PT can cause severe neurological complications; however, recently it has been found that the medicinal usage of Pertussis toxin can promote the development of regulatory T cells and prevent central nervous system autoimmune disease, such as multiple sclerosis.
PT is known to dissociate into two parts in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER): the enzymatically active A subunit (S1) and the cell-binding B subunit. The two subunits are separated by proteolic cleavage. The B subunit will undergo ubiquitin-dependent degradation by the 26S proteasome. However, the A subunit lacks lysine residues, which are essential for ubiquitin-dependent degradation. Therefore, PT subunit A will not be metabolized like most other proteins.
PT is heat-stable and protease-resistant, but once the A and B are separated, these properties change. The B subunit will stay heat-stable at temperatures up to 60°C, but it is susceptible to protein degradation. PT subunit A, on the other hand, is less susceptible to ubiquitin-dependent degradation, but is unstable at temperature of 37°C. This facilitates unfolding of the protein in the ER and tricks the cell into transporting the A subunit to the cytosol, where normally unfolded proteins will be marked for degradation. So, the unfolded conformation will stimulate the ERAD-mediated translocation of PT A into the cytosol. Once in the cytosol, it can bind to NAD and form a stable, folded protein again. Being thermally unstable is also the Achilles heel of PT subunit A. As always, there is an equilibrium between the folded and unfolded states. When the protein is unfolded, it is susceptible to degradation by the 20S proteasome, which can degrade only unfolded proteins.
- Stein PE, Boodhoo A, Armstrong GD, Cockle SA, Klein MH, Read RJ (January 1994). "The crystal structure of pertussis toxin". Structure 2 (1): 45–57. doi:10.1016/S0969-2126(00)00007-1. PMID 8075982.
- Ryan KJ; Ray CG (editors) (2004). Sherris Medical Microbiology (4th ed.). McGraw Hill. ISBN 0-8385-8529-9.
- Carbonetti NH, Artamonova GV, Mays RM, Worthington ZE (November 2003). "Pertussis Toxin Plays an Early Role in Respiratory Tract Colonization by Bordetella pertussis". Infect. Immun. 71 (11): 6358–66. doi:10.1128/IAI.71.11.6358-6366.2003. PMC 219603. PMID 14573656.
- Kost C, Herzer W, Li P, Jackson E (1999). "Pertussis toxin-sensitive G-proteins and regulation of blood pressure in the spontaneously hypertensive rat". Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 26 (5–6): 449–55. doi:10.1046/j.1440-1681.1999.03058.x. PMID 10386237.
- Alfano M, Pushkarsky T, Poli G, Bukrinsky M (2000). "The B-Oligomer of Pertussis Toxin Inhibits Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Replication at Multiple Stages". J Virol 74 (18): 8767–70. doi:10.1128/JVI.74.18.8767-8770.2000. PMC 116391. PMID 10954581.
- Bagley K, Abdelwahab S, Tuskan R, Fouts T, Lewis G (2002). "Pertussis toxin and the adenylate cyclase toxin from Bordetella pertussis activate human monocyte-derived dendritic cells and dominantly inhibit cytokine production through a cAMP-dependent pathway". J Leukoc Biol 72 (5): 962–9. PMID 12429718.
- Locht C, Keith JM (1986). "Pertussis toxin gene: nucleotide sequence and genetic organization". Science 232 (4755): 1258–1264. doi:10.1126/science.3704651. PMID 3704651.
- Rappuoli R, Nicosia A, Perugini M, Franzini C, Casagli MC, Borri MG, Antoni G, Almoni M, Neri P, Ratti G (1986). "Cloning and sequencing of the pertussis toxin genes: operon structure and gene duplication". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 83 (13): 4631–4635. doi:10.1073/pnas.83.13.4631. PMC 323795. PMID 2873570.
- Cherry JD (March 2007). "Historical Perspective on Pertussis and Use of Vaccines to Prevent It". Microbe Magazine.
- Parton R (June 1999). "Review of the biology of Bordetella pertussis". Biologicals 27 (2): 71–6. doi:10.1006/biol.1999.0182. PMID 10600186.
- Gibert M, Perelle S, Boquet P, Popoff MR (1993). "Characterization of Clostridium perfringens iota-toxin genes and expression in Escherichia coli". Infect. Immun. 61 (12): 5147–5156. PMC 281295. PMID 8225592.
- Kaslow HR, Burns DL (June 1992). "Pertussis toxin and target eukaryotic cells: binding, entry, and activation". FASEB J. 6 (9): 2684–90. PMID 1612292.
- Locht C, Antoine R (1995). "A proposed mechanism of ADP-ribosylation catalyzed by the pertussis toxin S1 subunit". Biochimie 77 (5): 333–40. doi:10.1016/0300-9084(96)88143-0. PMID 8527486.
- Weiss A, Johnson F, Burns D (1993). "Molecular characterization of an operon required for pertussis toxin secretion". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 90 (7): 2970–4. doi:10.1073/pnas.90.7.2970. PMC 46218. PMID 8464913.
- Plaut RD, Carbonetti NH (May 2008). "Retrograde transport of pertussis toxin in the mammalian cell". Cell. Microbiol. 10 (5): 1130–9. doi:10.1111/j.1462-5822.2007.01115.x. PMID 18201245.
- Finger H, von Koenig CHW (1996). "Bordetella". In Barron S; et al. Barron's Medical Microbiology (4th ed.). Univ of Texas Medical Branch. ISBN 0-9631172-1-1.
- Burns D (1988). "Subunit structure and enzymic activity of pertussis toxin". Microbiol Sci 5 (9): 285–7. PMID 2908558.
- Carbonetti NH (2010). "Pertussis toxin and adenylate cyclase toxin: key virulence factors of Bordetella pertussis and cell biology tools". Future Microbiol 5 (3): 455–69. doi:10.2217/fmb.09.133. PMC 2851156. PMID 20210554.
- Bestebroer, J., de Haas, C.J.C. & van Strijp, J.A.G. (2010). "How microorganisms avoid phagocyte attraction". Fems Microbiology Reviews 34 (3): 395–414. doi:10.1111/j.1574-6976.2009.00202.x. PMID 20059549.
- Andreasen, C. & Carbonetti, N.H. (2008). "Pertussis Toxin Inhibits Early Chemokine Production To Delay Neutrophil Recruitment in Response to Bordetella pertussis Respiratory Tract Infection in Mice". Infection and Immunity 76 (11): 5139–5148. doi:10.1128/IAI.00895-08. PMC 2573337. PMID 18765723.
- Cherry, J.D.; Baraff, LJ; Hewlett, E (1989). "The past, present, and future of pertussis. The role of adults in epidemiology and future control". Western Journal of Medicine 150 (3): 319–328. PMC 1026455. PMID 2660414.
- Kügler S, Böcker K, Heusipp G, Greune L, Kim KS, Schmidt MA (March 2007). "Pertussis toxin transiently affects barrier integrity, organelle organization and transmigration of monocytes in a human brain microvascular endothelial cell barrier model". Cell. Microbiol. 9 (3): 619–32. doi:10.1111/j.1462-5822.2006.00813.x. PMID 17002784.
- Weber MS; Benkhoucha M; Lehmann-Horn K; et al. (2010). Unutmaz, Derya, ed. "Repetitive Pertussis Toxin Promotes Development of Regulatory T Cells and Prevents Central Nervous System Autoimmune Disease". PLoS ONE 5 (12): e16009. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0016009. PMC 3012729. PMID 21209857. Unknown parameter
- Pande, A.H., Moe, D., Jamnadas, M., Tatulian, S.A. & Teter, K. (2006). "The Pertussis Toxin S1 Subunit Is a Thermally Unstable Protein Susceptible to Degradation by the 20S Proteasome". Biochemistry 45 (46): 13734–40. doi:10.1021/bi061175. PMC 2518456. PMID 17105192.
This tab holds the annotation information that is stored in the Pfam database. As we move to using Wikipedia as our main source of annotation, the contents of this tab will be gradually replaced by the Wikipedia tab.
Pertussis toxin, subunit 1 Provide feedback
No Pfam abstract.
Internal database links
|SCOOP:||HTH_Tnp_Mu_2 TaqI_C LZ_Tnp_IS481 HTH_32|
External database links
This tab holds annotation information from the InterPro database.
InterPro entry IPR003898
A large group of bacterial exotoxins are referred to as "A/B toxins", essentially because they are formed from two subunits [PUBMED:8225592]. The "A" subunit possesses enzyme activity, and is transferred to the host cell following a conformational change in the membrane-bound transport "B" subunit [PUBMED:8225592].
Bordetella pertussis is the causative agent of whooping cough, and is a Gram-negative aerobic coccus. Its major virulence factor is the pertussis toxin, an A/B exotoxin that mediates both colonisation and toxaemic stages of the the disease [PUBMED:3704651, PUBMED:2873570]. Recombinant, inactive forms of the 5 subunits that make up the toxin have proven to be good vaccines. The S1 ("A") subunit of pertussis toxin causes the characteristic sound of the "whoop" in whooping cough. It achieves this through ADP-ribosylation of host Gi alpha-units, an adenylate cyclase inhibitor [PUBMED:3704651, PUBMED:2873570]. Uninhibited, this enzyme produces elevated levels of cAMP, leading to increased cell exudate and inflammation in the lungs [PUBMED:2737291].
The crystal structure of pertussis toxin has been determined to 2.9A resolution [PUBMED:8075982]. The catalytic A-subunit (S1) shares structural similarity with other ADP-ribosylating bacterial toxins, although differences in the C-terminal portion explain its unique activation mechanism. Despite its heterogeneous subunit composition, the structure of the cell-binding B-oligomer (S2, S3, two copies of S4, and S5) resembles the symmetrical B-pentamers of the cholera and shiga toxin families, but it interacts differently with the A-subunit and there is virtually no sequence similarity between B-subunits of the different toxins.
The mapping between Pfam and Gene Ontology is provided by InterPro. If you use this data please cite InterPro.
|Cellular component||extracellular region (GO:0005576)|
|Molecular function||NAD+ ADP-ribosyltransferase activity (GO:0003950)|
|Biological process||pathogenesis (GO:0009405)|
Below is a listing of the unique domain organisations or architectures in which this domain is found. More...
The graphic that is shown by default represents the longest sequence with a given architecture. Each row contains the following information:
- the number of sequences which exhibit this architecture
a textual description of the architecture, e.g. Gla, EGF x 2, Trypsin.
This example describes an architecture with one
Gladomain, followed by two consecutive
EGFdomains, and finally a single
- a link to the page in the Pfam site showing information about the sequence that the graphic describes
- the UniProt description of the protein sequence
- the number of residues in the sequence
- the Pfam graphic itself.
Note that you can see the family page for a particular domain by clicking on the graphic. You can also choose to see all sequences which have a given architecture by clicking on the Show link in each row.
Finally, because some families can be found in a very large number of architectures, we load only the first fifty architectures by default. If you want to see more architectures, click the button at the bottom of the page to load the next set.
Loading domain graphics...
The members of this clan all represent ADP-ribosylating catalytic domains. The structurally conserved regions are located at the NAD binding region . According to SCOP, the ADP-ribosylation domain is thought to have an "unusual fold".
The clan contains the following 7 members:ADPrib_exo_Tox Anthrax-tox_M ART Diphtheria_C Enterotoxin_a PARP Pertussis_S1
We store a range of different sequence alignments for families. As well as the seed alignment from which the family is built, we provide the full alignment, generated by searching the sequence database using the family HMM. We also generate alignments using four representative proteomes (RP) sets, the NCBI sequence database, and our metagenomics sequence database. More...
There are various ways to view or download the sequence alignments that we store. We provide several sequence viewers and a plain-text Stockholm-format file for download.
We make a range of alignments for each Pfam-A family:
- the curated alignment from which the HMM for the family is built
- the alignment generated by searching the sequence database using the HMM
- Representative Proteomes (RPs) at 15%, 35%, 55% and 75% co-membership thresholds
- alignment generated by searching the NCBI sequence database using the family HMM
- alignment generated by searching the metagenomics sequence database using the family HMM
You can see the alignments as HTML or in three different sequence viewers:
- a Java applet developed at the University of Dundee. You will need Java installed before running jalview
- an HTML page showing the whole alignment.Please note: full Pfam alignments can be very large. These HTML views are extremely large and often cause problems for browsers. Please use either jalview or the Pfam viewer if you have trouble viewing the HTML version
- an HTML-based representation of the alignment, coloured according to the posterior-probability (PP) values from the HMM. As for the standard HTML view, heatmap alignments can also be very large and slow to render.
- Pfam viewer
- an HTML-based viewer that uses DAS to retrieve alignment fragments on request
You can download (or view in your browser) a text representation of a Pfam alignment in various formats:
You can also change the order in which sequences are listed in the alignment, change how insertions are represented, alter the characters that are used to represent gaps in sequences and, finally, choose whether to download the alignment or to view it in your browser directly.
You may find that large alignments cause problems for the viewers and the reformatting tool, so we also provide all alignments in Stockholm format. You can download either the plain text alignment, or a gzipped version of it.
We make a range of alignments for each Pfam-A family. You can see a description of each above. You can view these alignments in various ways but please note that some types of alignment are never generated while others may not be available for all families, most commonly because the alignments are too large to handle.
1Cannot generate PP/Heatmap alignments for seeds; no PP data available
Key: available, not generated, — not available.
Format an alignment
We make all of our alignments available in Stockholm format. You can download them here as raw, plain text files or as gzip-compressed files.
You can also download a FASTA format file containing the full-length sequences for all sequences in the full alignment.
MyHits provides a collection of tools to handle multiple sequence alignments. For example, one can refine a seed alignment (sequence addition or removal, re-alignment or manual edition) and then search databases for remote homologs using HMMER3.
HMM logos is one way of visualising profile HMMs. Logos provide a quick overview of the properties of an HMM in a graphical form. You can see a more detailed description of HMM logos and find out how you can interpret them here. More...
If you find these logos useful in your own work, please consider citing the following article:
This page displays the phylogenetic tree for this family's seed alignment. We use FastTree to calculate neighbour join trees with a local bootstrap based on 100 resamples (shown next to the tree nodes). FastTree calculates approximately-maximum-likelihood phylogenetic trees from our seed alignment.
Note: You can also download the data file for the tree.
Curation and family details
This section shows the detailed information about the Pfam family. You can see the definitions of many of the terms in this section in the glossary and a fuller explanation of the scoring system that we use in the scores section of the help pages.
|Seed source:||Structural domain|
|Number in seed:||2|
|Number in full:||267|
|Average length of the domain:||184.20 aa|
|Average identity of full alignment:||42 %|
|Average coverage of the sequence by the domain:||54.86 %|
|HMM build commands:||
build method: hmmbuild -o /dev/null HMM SEED
search method: hmmsearch -Z 80369284 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq
|Family (HMM) version:||10|
|Download:||download the raw HMM for this family|
Weight segments by...
Change the size of the sunburst
selected sequences to HMM
a FASTA-format file
- 0 sequences
- 0 species
This visualisation provides a simple graphical representation of the distribution of this family across species. You can find the original interactive tree in the More....
This chart is a modified "sunburst" visualisation of the species tree for this family. It shows each node in the tree as a separate arc, arranged radially with the superkingdoms at the centre and the species arrayed around the outermost ring.
How the sunburst is generated
The tree is built by considering the taxonomic lineage of each sequence that has a match to this family. For each node in the resulting tree, we draw an arc in the sunburst. The radius of the arc, its distance from the root node at the centre of the sunburst, shows the taxonomic level ("superkingdom", "kingdom", etc). The length of the arc represents either the number of sequences represented at a given level, or the number of species that are found beneath the node in the tree. The weighting scheme can be changed using the sunburst controls.
In order to reduce the complexity of the representation, we reduce the number of taxonomic levels that we show. We consider only the following eight major taxonomic levels:
Colouring and labels
Segments of the tree are coloured approximately according to their superkingdom. For example, archeal branches are coloured with shades of orange, eukaryotes in shades of purple, etc. The colour assignments are shown under the sunburst controls. Where space allows, the name of the taxonomic level will be written on the arc itself.
As you move your mouse across the sunburst, the current node will be highlighted. In the top section of the controls panel we show a summary of the lineage of the currently highlighed node. If you pause over an arc, a tooltip will be shown, giving the name of the taxonomic level in the title and a summary of the number of sequences and species below that node in the tree.
Anomalies in the taxonomy tree
There are some situations that the sunburst tree cannot easily handle and for which we have work-arounds in place.
Missing taxonomic levels
Some species in the taxonomic tree may not have one or more of the main eight levels that we display. For example, Bos taurus is not assigned an order in the NCBI taxonomic tree. In such cases we mark the omitted level with, for example, "No order", in both the tooltip and the lineage summary.
Unmapped species names
The tree is built by looking at each sequence in the full alignment for the family. We take the name of the species given by UniProt and try to map that to the full taxonomic tree from NCBI. In some cases, the name chosen by UniProt does not map to any node in the NCBI tree, perhaps because the chosen name is listed as a synonym or a misspelling in the NCBI taxonomy.
So that these nodes are not simply omitted from the sunburst tree, we group them together in a separate branch (or segment of the sunburst tree). Since we cannot determine the lineage for these unmapped species, we show all levels between the superkingdom and the species as "uncategorised".
Since we reduce the species tree to only the eight main taxonomic levels, sequences that are mapped to the sub-species level in the tree would not normally be shown. Rather than leave out these species, we map them instead to their parent species. So, for example, for sequences belonging to one of the Vibrio cholerae sub-species in the NCBI taxonomy, we show them instead as belonging to the species Vibrio cholerae.
Too many species/sequences
For large species trees, you may see blank regions in the outer layers of the sunburst. These occur when there are large numbers of arcs to be drawn in a small space. If an arc is less than approximately one pixel wide, it will not be drawn and the space will be left blank. You may still be able to get some information about the species in that region by moving your mouse across the area, but since each arc will be very small, it will be difficult to accurately locate a particular species.
The tree shows the occurrence of this domain across different species. More...
We show the species tree in one of two ways. For smaller trees we try to show an interactive representation, which allows you to select specific nodes in the tree and view them as an alignment or as a set of Pfam domain graphics.
Unfortunately we have found that there are problems viewing the interactive tree when the it becomes larger than a certain limit. Furthermore, we have found that Internet Explorer can become unresponsive when viewing some trees, regardless of their size. We therefore show a text representation of the species tree when the size is above a certain limit or if you are using Internet Explorer to view the site.
If you are using IE you can still load the interactive tree by clicking the "Generate interactive tree" button, but please be aware of the potential problems that the interactive species tree can cause.
For all of the domain matches in a full alignment, we count the number that are found on all sequences in the alignment. This total is shown in the purple box.
We also count the number of unique sequences on which each domain is found, which is shown in green. Note that a domain may appear multiple times on the same sequence, leading to the difference between these two numbers.
Finally, we group sequences from the same organism according to the NCBI code that is assigned by UniProt, allowing us to count the number of distinct sequences on which the domain is found. This value is shown in the pink boxes.
We use the NCBI species tree to group organisms according to their taxonomy and this forms the structure of the displayed tree. Note that in some cases the trees are too large (have too many nodes) to allow us to build an interactive tree, but in most cases you can still view the tree in a plain text, non-interactive representation. Those species which are represented in the seed alignment for this domain are highlighted.
You can use the tree controls to manipulate how the interactive tree is displayed:
- show/hide the summary boxes
- highlight species that are represented in the seed alignment
- expand/collapse the tree or expand it to a given depth
- select a sub-tree or a set of species within the tree and view them graphically or as an alignment
- save a plain text representation of the tree
Please note: for large trees this can take some time. While the tree is loading, you can safely switch away from this tab but if you browse away from the family page entirely, the tree will not be loaded.
There are 5 interactions for this family. More...
We determine these interactions using iPfam, which considers the interactions between residues in three-dimensional protein structures and maps those interactions back to Pfam families. You can find more information about the iPfam algorithm in the journal article that accompanies the website.
For those sequences which have a structure in the Protein DataBank, we use the mapping between UniProt, PDB and Pfam coordinate systems from the PDBe group, to allow us to map Pfam domains onto UniProt sequences and three-dimensional protein structures. The table below shows the structures on which the Pertussis_S1 domain has been found. There are 7 instances of this domain found in the PDB. Note that there may be multiple copies of the domain in a single PDB structure, since many structures contain multiple copies of the same protein seqence.
Loading structure mapping...