Summary: Gram-negative porin
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General bacterial porin family Edit Wikipedia article
General bacterial porins are a family of proteins from the outer membranes of Gram-negative bacteria. The porins act as molecular filters for hydrophilic compounds. They are responsible for the 'molecular sieve' properties of the outer membrane. Porins form large water-filled channels which allow the diffusion of hydrophilic molecules into the periplasmic space. Some porins form general diffusion channels that allow any solute up to a certain size (that size is known as the exclusion limit) to cross the membrane, while other porins are specific for one particular solute and contain a binding site for that solute inside the pores (these are known as selective porins). As porins are the major outer membrane proteins, they also serve as receptor sites for the binding of phages and bacteriocins.
General diffusion porins usually assemble as a trimer in the membrane, and the transmembrane core of these proteins is composed exclusively of beta strands. It has been shown that a number of porins are evolutionarily related, and these porins are:
- E.Coli PhoE phosphoporin (Phosphate anion selective TC# 1.B.1.1.2), OmpC(TC# 1.B.1.1.3) OmpF(general porins of differing pore diameter TC# 1.B.1.1.1), NmpC (TC# 1.B.1.1.4 anion selective, transporting a variety of drugs and small neutral compounds)
- Bacteriophage PA.2 LC Porin(TC# 1.B.1.1.5) (not well characterized).
- Neisseria PorA(TC# 1.B.1.5.2), PorB(TC# 1.B.1.5.4)
Structure of Porins
Porins are composed of β-strands, which are, in general, linked together by beta turns on the periplasmic side of the outer membrane and long loops on the external side of the membrane. The β strand lie in an antiparallel fashion and form a cylindrical tube, called a β-barrel. The amino acid composition of the porin β-strands are unique in that polar and non-polar residues alternate along them. This means that the non-polar residues face outwards so as to interact with the non-polar lipid membrane, whereas the polar residues face inwards into the center of the β-barrel to form the aqueous channel. The phospholipids that comprise the outer membrane give it the same semi-permeable characteristics as the cytoplasmic membrane
The porin channel is partially blocked by a loop, called the eyelet, which projects into the cavity. In general, it is found between strands 5 and 6 of each barrel, and it defines the size of solute that can traverse the channel. It is lined almost exclusively with charged amino acyl residues arranged on opposite sides of the channel, creating a transversal electric field across the pore. The eyelet has a local surplus of negative charges from four glutamic acid and seven aspartic acid residues (in contrast to one histidine, two lysine and three arginine residues) is partially compensated for by two bound calcium atoms, and this asymmetric arrangement of molecules is thought to have an influence in the selection of molecules that can pass through the channel.
Three dimensional structural analyses show that there are many(at-least 48) other families which share sufficient sequence similarity to the General Bacterial Porin(GBP) family. are homologous in structure and function to General bacterial porin family. One such family is The Sugar Porin (SP) Family. (TC# 1.B.3) The SP family includes the well characterized maltoporin of E. coli for which the three-dimensional structures with and without its substrate have been obtained by X-ray diffraction. The protein consists of an 18 β-stranded β-barrel in contrast to proteins of the general bacterial porin family (GBP) and the Rhodobacter PorCa Porin (RPP) family(TC# 1.B.7)) which consist of 16 β-stranded β-barrels. Although maltoporin contains a wider beta-barrel than the porins of the GBP (TC# 1.B.1) and RPP families(TC# 1.B.7), it exhibits a narrower channel, showing only 5% of the ionic conductance of the latter porins.
The Rhodobacter PorCa Protein, the only well characterized member of the RPP family, was the first porin to yield its three-dimensional structure by X-ray crystallography. It has a 16-stranded β-barrel structure similar to that of the members of the GBP (TC #1.B.1) family. Paupit et al. (1991) presented crystal structures of phosphoporin (PhoE; TC# 1.B.1.1.2), maltoporin (LamB; TC# 1.B.3.1.1) and Matrixporin (OmpF), all of E. coli, and found these have 3-d folds similar to that of the Rhodobacter porin, PorCa. Structural and sequence analysis provide firm evidence that the GBP, SP and RPP families together with 44 additional families in TCDB belong to a single superfamily. However, we have been able to demonstrate homology between members of families GBP and RPP using statistical means (M. Saier, unpublished results).
General bacterial porin family belongs to Porin Superfamily I. The homologous families Sugar Porin(SP) family and Rhodobacter PorCa Porin (RPP) Family also belong to the Porin Superfamily I.
- Benz R, Bauer K (1988). "Permeation of hydrophilic molecules through the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria. Review on bacterial porins". Eur. J. Biochem. 176 (1): 1–19. doi:10.1111/j.1432-1033.1988.tb14245.x. PMID 2901351.
- Jap BK, Walian PJ (1990). "Biophysics of the structure and function of porins". Q. Rev. Biophys. 23 (4): 367–403. doi:10.1017/S003358350000559X. PMID 2178269.
- Pattus F, Jeanteur D, Lakey JH (1991). "The bacterial porin superfamily: sequence alignment and structure prediction". Mol. Microbiol. 5 (9): 2153–2164. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2958.1991.tb02145.x. PMID 1662760.
- Van Gelder P, Saint N, van Boxtel R, Rosenbusch JP, Tommassen J (1997). "Pore functioning of outer membrane protein PhoE of Escherichia col". Protein Eng. 10 (6): 699–706. doi:10.1093/protein/10.6.6. PMID 9278284.
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Internal database links
|SCOOP:||Autotransporter BBP2 BBP2_2 DUF2490 Gcw_chp OMP_b-brl OmpA_membrane OprD Porin_1 Porin_2 Porin_O_P Toluene_X TonB_dep_Rec YfaZ|
|Similarity to PfamA using HHSearch:||Porin_1 Campylo_MOMP|
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This clan gathers together a large set of beta barrel membrane proteins.Although these proteins have different numbers of beta strands in the barrel they have significant sequence similarity between families.
The clan contains the following 89 members:Ail_Lom Alginate_exp Autotransporter Bac_surface_Ag BBP2 BBP2_2 BBP7 BCSC_C Campylo_MOMP Caps_assemb_Wzi Channel_Tsx Chlam_OMP CopB CymA DUF2219 DUF2490 DUF2715 DUF2860 DUF3078 DUF3138 DUF3187 DUF3373 DUF3573 DUF3575 DUF4421 DUF4595 DUF481 DUF5020 DUF560 Gcw_chp HP_OMP HP_OMP_2 HpuA IAT_beta KdgM LamB Legionella_OMP Lipoprot_C MDM10 MipA MOSP_C MSP MtrB_PioB Omp_AT OMP_b-brl OMP_b-brl_2 OMP_b-brl_3 OmpA_like OmpA_membrane Omptin OmpW Opacity OpcA OprB OprD OprF OstA_C PagL PagP Phenol_MetA_deg PLA1 Pom Porin_1 Porin_10 Porin_2 Porin_3 Porin_4 Porin_5 Porin_6 Porin_7 Porin_8 Porin_O_P Porin_OmpG Porin_OmpG_1_2 Porin_OmpL1 PorP_SprF ShlB Surface_Ag_2 TbpB_B_D Toluene_X TonB_dep_Rec TraF_2 TSA UPF0164 Usher Usher_TcfC YadA_anchor YfaZ YjbH
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1Cannot generate PP/Heatmap alignments for seeds; no PP data available
Key: available, not generated, — not available.
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This page displays the phylogenetic tree for this family's seed alignment. We use FastTree to calculate neighbour join trees with a local bootstrap based on 100 resamples (shown next to the tree nodes). FastTree calculates approximately-maximum-likelihood phylogenetic trees from our seed alignment.
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|Number in seed:||108|
|Number in full:||3529|
|Average length of the domain:||323.40 aa|
|Average identity of full alignment:||18 %|
|Average coverage of the sequence by the domain:||89.92 %|
|HMM build commands:||
build method: hmmbuild -o /dev/null HMM SEED
search method: hmmsearch -Z 26740544 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq
|Family (HMM) version:||5|
|Download:||download the raw HMM for this family|
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This visualisation provides a simple graphical representation of the distribution of this family across species. You can find the original interactive tree in the More....
This chart is a modified "sunburst" visualisation of the species tree for this family. It shows each node in the tree as a separate arc, arranged radially with the superkingdoms at the centre and the species arrayed around the outermost ring.
How the sunburst is generated
The tree is built by considering the taxonomic lineage of each sequence that has a match to this family. For each node in the resulting tree, we draw an arc in the sunburst. The radius of the arc, its distance from the root node at the centre of the sunburst, shows the taxonomic level ("superkingdom", "kingdom", etc). The length of the arc represents either the number of sequences represented at a given level, or the number of species that are found beneath the node in the tree. The weighting scheme can be changed using the sunburst controls.
In order to reduce the complexity of the representation, we reduce the number of taxonomic levels that we show. We consider only the following eight major taxonomic levels:
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Segments of the tree are coloured approximately according to their superkingdom. For example, archeal branches are coloured with shades of orange, eukaryotes in shades of purple, etc. The colour assignments are shown under the sunburst controls. Where space allows, the name of the taxonomic level will be written on the arc itself.
As you move your mouse across the sunburst, the current node will be highlighted. In the top section of the controls panel we show a summary of the lineage of the currently highlighed node. If you pause over an arc, a tooltip will be shown, giving the name of the taxonomic level in the title and a summary of the number of sequences and species below that node in the tree.
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There are some situations that the sunburst tree cannot easily handle and for which we have work-arounds in place.
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Some species in the taxonomic tree may not have one or more of the main eight levels that we display. For example, Bos taurus is not assigned an order in the NCBI taxonomic tree. In such cases we mark the omitted level with, for example, "No order", in both the tooltip and the lineage summary.
Unmapped species names
The tree is built by looking at each sequence in the full alignment for the family. We take the name of the species given by UniProt and try to map that to the full taxonomic tree from NCBI. In some cases, the name chosen by UniProt does not map to any node in the NCBI tree, perhaps because the chosen name is listed as a synonym or a misspelling in the NCBI taxonomy.
So that these nodes are not simply omitted from the sunburst tree, we group them together in a separate branch (or segment of the sunburst tree). Since we cannot determine the lineage for these unmapped species, we show all levels between the superkingdom and the species as "uncategorised".
Since we reduce the species tree to only the eight main taxonomic levels, sequences that are mapped to the sub-species level in the tree would not normally be shown. Rather than leave out these species, we map them instead to their parent species. So, for example, for sequences belonging to one of the Vibrio cholerae sub-species in the NCBI taxonomy, we show them instead as belonging to the species Vibrio cholerae.
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The tree shows the occurrence of this domain across different species. More...
We show the species tree in one of two ways. For smaller trees we try to show an interactive representation, which allows you to select specific nodes in the tree and view them as an alignment or as a set of Pfam domain graphics.
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For all of the domain matches in a full alignment, we count the number that are found on all sequences in the alignment. This total is shown in the purple box.
We also count the number of unique sequences on which each domain is found, which is shown in green. Note that a domain may appear multiple times on the same sequence, leading to the difference between these two numbers.
Finally, we group sequences from the same organism according to the NCBI code that is assigned by UniProt, allowing us to count the number of distinct sequences on which the domain is found. This value is shown in the pink boxes.
We use the NCBI species tree to group organisms according to their taxonomy and this forms the structure of the displayed tree. Note that in some cases the trees are too large (have too many nodes) to allow us to build an interactive tree, but in most cases you can still view the tree in a plain text, non-interactive representation. Those species which are represented in the seed alignment for this domain are highlighted.
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For those sequences which have a structure in the Protein DataBank, we use the mapping between UniProt, PDB and Pfam coordinate systems from the PDBe group, to allow us to map Pfam domains onto UniProt sequences and three-dimensional protein structures. The table below shows the structures on which the Porin_4 domain has been found. There are 14 instances of this domain found in the PDB. Note that there may be multiple copies of the domain in a single PDB structure, since many structures contain multiple copies of the same protein sequence.
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