Summary: Pyridine nucleotide-disulphide oxidoreductase
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Pyridine nucleotide-disulphide oxidoreductase Provide feedback
This family includes both class I and class II oxidoreductases and also NADH oxidases and peroxidases. This domain is actually a small NADH binding domain within a larger FAD binding domain.
Mande SS, Sarfaty S, Allen MD, Perham RN, Hol WG; , Structure 1996;4:277-286.: Protein-protein interactions in the pyruvate dehydrogenase multienzyme complex: dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase complexed with the binding domain of dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase. PUBMED:8805537 EPMC:8805537
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This tab holds annotation information from the InterPro database.
InterPro entry IPR001327
FAD flavoproteins belonging to the family of pyridine nucleotide-disulphide oxidoreductases (glutathione reductase, trypanothione reductase, lipoamide dehydrogenase, mercuric reductase, thioredoxin reductase, alkyl hydroperoxide reductase) share sequence similarity with a number of other flavoprotein oxidoreductases, in particular with ferredoxin-NAD+ reductases involved in oxidative metabolism of a variety of hydrocarbons (rubredoxin reductase, putidaredoxin reductase, terpredoxin reductase, ferredoxin-NAD+ reductase components of benzene 1,2-dioxygenase, toluene 1,2-dioxygenase, chlorobenzene dioxygenase, biphenyl dioxygenase), NADH oxidase and NADH peroxidase [PUBMED:2319593, PUBMED:1404382, PUBMED:2067578]. Comparison of the crystal structures of human glutathione reductase and Escherichia coli thioredoxin reductase reveals different locations of their active sites, suggesting that the enzymes diverged from an ancestral FAD/NAD(P)H reductase and acquired their disulphide reductase activities independently [PUBMED:2067578].
Despite functional similarities, oxidoreductases of this family show no sequence similarity with adrenodoxin reductases [PUBMED:2924777] and flavoprotein pyridine nucleotide cytochrome reductases (FPNCR) [PUBMED:1748631]. Assuming that disulphide reductase activity emerged later, during divergent evolution, the family can be referred to as FAD-dependent pyridine nucleotide reductases, FADPNR.
To date, 3D structures of glutathione reductase [PUBMED:3656429], thioredoxin reductase [PUBMED:2067578], mercuric reductase [PUBMED:2067577], lipoamide dehydrogenase [PUBMED:1880807], trypanothione reductase [PUBMED:1924336] and NADH peroxidase [PUBMED:1942054] have been solved. The enzymes share similar tertiary structures based on a doubly-wound alpha/beta fold, but the relative orientations of their FAD- and NAD(P)H-binding domains may vary significantly. By contrast with the FPNCR family, the folds of the FAD- and NAD(P)H-binding domains are similar, suggesting that the domains evolved by gene duplication [PUBMED:7411611].
This entry describes a small NADH binding domain within a larger FAD binding domain described by INTERPRO. It is found in both class I and class II oxidoreductases.
The mapping between Pfam and Gene Ontology is provided by InterPro. If you use this data please cite InterPro.
|Molecular function||flavin adenine dinucleotide binding (GO:0050660)|
|oxidoreductase activity (GO:0016491)|
|Biological process||oxidation-reduction process (GO:0055114)|
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A class of redox enzymes are two domain proteins. One domain, termed the catalytic domain, confers substrate specificity and the precise reaction of the enzyme. The other domain, which is common to this class of redox enzymes, is a Rossmann-fold domain. The Rossmann domain binds nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) and it is this cofactor that reversibly accepts a hydride ion, which is lost or gained by the substrate in the redox reaction. Rossmann domains have an alpha/beta fold, which has a central beta sheet, with approximately five alpha helices found surrounding the beta sheet.The strands forming the beta sheet are found in the following characteristic order 654123. The inter sheet crossover of the stands in the sheet form the NAD+ binding site . In some more distantly relate Rossmann domains the NAD+ cofactor is replaced by the functionally similar cofactor FAD.
The clan contains the following 181 members:2-Hacid_dh_C 3Beta_HSD 3HCDH_N adh_short adh_short_C2 ADH_zinc_N ADH_zinc_N_2 AdoHcyase_NAD AdoMet_MTase AlaDh_PNT_C Amino_oxidase ApbA AviRa B12-binding Bac_GDH Bin3 CheR CMAS CmcI CoA_binding CoA_binding_2 CoA_binding_3 Cons_hypoth95 DAO DapB_N DFP DNA_methylase DOT1 DREV DUF1442 DUF166 DUF1776 DUF2431 DUF268 DUF3321 DUF364 DUF43 DUF938 DXP_redisom_C DXP_reductoisom Eco57I ELFV_dehydrog Eno-Rase_FAD_bd Eno-Rase_NADH_b Enoyl_reductase Epimerase F420_oxidored FAD_binding_2 FAD_binding_3 FAD_oxidored Fibrillarin FMO-like FmrO FtsJ G6PD_N GCD14 GDI GDP_Man_Dehyd GFO_IDH_MocA GIDA GidB GLF Glu_dehyd_C Glyco_hydro_4 GMC_oxred_N Gp_dh_N GRAS GRDA HI0933_like HIM1 IlvN K_oxygenase KR LCM Ldh_1_N Lycopene_cycl Malic_M Mannitol_dh MCRA Met_10 Methyltrans_Mon Methyltrans_SAM Methyltransf_10 Methyltransf_11 Methyltransf_12 Methyltransf_15 Methyltransf_16 Methyltransf_17 Methyltransf_18 Methyltransf_19 Methyltransf_2 Methyltransf_20 Methyltransf_21 Methyltransf_22 Methyltransf_23 Methyltransf_24 Methyltransf_25 Methyltransf_26 Methyltransf_28 Methyltransf_29 Methyltransf_3 Methyltransf_30 Methyltransf_31 Methyltransf_32 Methyltransf_34 Methyltransf_4 Methyltransf_5 Methyltransf_7 Methyltransf_8 Methyltransf_9 Methyltransf_PK MethyltransfD12 MetW Mg-por_mtran_C Mqo MT-A70 MTS Mur_ligase N2227 N6-adenineMlase N6_Mtase N6_N4_Mtase NAD_binding_10 NAD_binding_2 NAD_binding_3 NAD_binding_4 NAD_binding_5 NAD_binding_7 NAD_binding_8 NAD_binding_9 NAD_Gly3P_dh_N NAS NmrA NNMT_PNMT_TEMT NodS Nol1_Nop2_Fmu NSP13 OCD_Mu_crystall PARP_regulatory PCMT PDH Polysacc_synt_2 Pox_MCEL Prenylcys_lyase PrmA PRMT5 Pyr_redox Pyr_redox_2 Pyr_redox_3 RmlD_sub_bind Rossmann-like rRNA_methylase RrnaAD Rsm22 RsmJ Sacchrp_dh_NADP SAM_MT SAMBD SE Semialdhyde_dh Shikimate_DH Spermine_synth TehB THF_DHG_CYH_C Thi4 ThiF TPMT TrkA_N TRM TRM13 TrmK tRNA_U5-meth_tr Trp_halogenase TylF Ubie_methyltran UDPG_MGDP_dh_N UPF0020 UPF0146 V_cholerae_RfbT XdhC_C YjeF_N
We make a range of alignments for each Pfam-A family:
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Curation and family details
|Author:||Sonnhammer ELL, Griffiths-Jones SR|
|Number in seed:||95|
|Number in full:||717|
|Average length of the domain:||75.90 aa|
|Average identity of full alignment:||23 %|
|Average coverage of the sequence by the domain:||16.70 %|
|HMM build commands:||
build method: hmmbuild -o /dev/null HMM SEED
search method: hmmsearch -Z 80369284 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq
|Family (HMM) version:||23|
|Download:||download the raw HMM for this family|
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There are 12 interactions for this family. More...
We determine these interactions using iPfam, which considers the interactions between residues in three-dimensional protein structures and maps those interactions back to Pfam families. You can find more information about the iPfam algorithm in the journal article that accompanies the website.
For those sequences which have a structure in the Protein DataBank, we use the mapping between UniProt, PDB and Pfam coordinate systems from the PDBe group, to allow us to map Pfam domains onto UniProt sequences and three-dimensional protein structures. The table below shows the structures on which the Pyr_redox domain has been found. There are 132 instances of this domain found in the PDB. Note that there may be multiple copies of the domain in a single PDB structure, since many structures contain multiple copies of the same protein seqence.
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