Summary: Recombination activating protein 2
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Recombination activating protein 2 Provide feedback
V-D-J recombination is the combinatorial process by which the huge range of immunoglobulin and T cell binding specificity is generated from a limited amount of genetic material. This process is synergistically activated by RAG1 and RAG2 in developing lymphocytes. Defects in RAG2 in humans are a cause of severe combined immunodeficiency B cell negative and Omenn syndrome.
Internal database links
|Similarity to PfamA using HHSearch:||Kelch_3|
External database links
This tab holds annotation information from the InterPro database.
InterPro entry IPR004321
The variable portion of the genes encoding immunoglobulins and T cell receptors are assembled from component V, D, and J DNA segments by a site-specific recombination reaction termed V(D)J recombination. V(D)J recombination is targeted to specific sites on the chromosome by recombination signal sequences (RSSs) that flank antigen receptor gene segments. The RSS consists of a conserved heptamer (consensus, 5'-CACAGTG-3') and nonamer (consensus, 5'-ACAAAAACC-3') separated by a spacer of either 12 or 23 bp. Efficient recombination occurs between a 12-RSS and a 23-RSS, a restriction known as the 12/23 rule.
V(D)J recombination can be divided into two phases, DNA cleavage and DNA joining. DNA cleavage requires two lymphocyte-specific factors, the products of the recombination activating genes, RAG1 and RAG2, which together recognise the RSSs and create double strand breaks at the RSS-coding segment junctions [PUBMED:11961538]. RAG-mediated DNA cleavage occurs in a synaptic complex termed the paired complex, which is constituted from two distinct RSS-RAG complexes, a 12-SC and a 23-SC (where SC stands for signal complex). The DNA cleavage reaction involves two distinct enzymatic steps, initial nicking that creates a 3'-OH between a coding segment and its RSS, followed by hairpin formation in which the newly created 3'-OH attacks a phosphodiester bond on the opposite DNA strand. This generates a blunt, 5' phosphorylated signal end containing all of the RSS elements, and a covalently sealed hairpin coding end.
The second phase of V(D)J recombination, in which broken DNA fragments are processed and joined, is less well characterised. Signal ends are typically joined precisely to form a signal joint, whereas joining of the coding ends requires the hairpin structure to be opened and typically involves nucleotide addition and deletion before formation of the coding joint. The factors involved in these processes include ubiquitously expressed proteins involved in the repair of DNA double strand breaks by nonhomologous end joining, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase, and Artemis protein.
In addition to their critical roles in RSS recognition and DNA cleavage, the RAG proteins may perform two distinct types of functions in the postcleavage phase of V(D)J. A structural function has been inferred from the finding that, after DNA cleavage in vitro, the DNA ends remain associated with the RAG proteins in a "four end" complex known as the cleaved signal complex. After release of the coding ends in vitro, and after coding joint formation in vivo, the RAG proteins remain in a stable signal end complex (SEC) containing the two signal ends. These postcleavage complexes may serve as essential scaffolds for the second phase of the reaction, with the RAG proteins acting to organise the DNA processing and joining events.
The second type of RAG protein-mediated postcleavage activity is the catalysis of phosphodiester bond hydrolysis and strand transfer reactions. The RAG proteins are capable of opening hairpin coding ends in vitro. The RAG proteins also show 3' flap endonuclease activity that may contribute to coding end processing/joining and can utilise the 3' OH group on the signal ends to attack hairpin coding ends (forming hybrid or open/shut joints) or virtually any DNA duplex (forming a transposition product).
The mapping between Pfam and Gene Ontology is provided by InterPro. If you use this data please cite InterPro.
|Cellular component||nucleus (GO:0005634)|
|Molecular function||DNA binding (GO:0003677)|
|Biological process||DNA recombination (GO:0006310)|
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This large clan contains proteins that contain beta propellers. These are composed of between 6 and 8 repeats. The individual repeats are composed of a four stranded sheet. The clan includes families such as WD40 Pfam:PF00400 where the individual repeats are modeled. The clan also includes families where the entire propeller is modeled such as Pfam:PF02239 usually because the individual repeats are not discernible. These proteins carry out a very wide diversity of functions including catalysis.
The clan contains the following 60 members:Apc4_WD40 Arylesterase Arylsulfotran_2 Arylsulfotrans Beta_propel CNH Coatomer_WDAD CPSF_A Cytochrom_D1 DPPIV_N DUF1513 DUF1668 DUF1900 DUF2415 DUF3312 DUF4652 DUF839 eIF2A FG-GAP FG-GAP_2 Glu_cyclase_2 Gmad1 GSDH IKI3 Kelch_1 Kelch_2 Kelch_3 Kelch_4 Kelch_5 Kelch_6 Lactonase Ldl_recept_b Lgl_C LVIVD Me-amine-dh_H MRJP Nbas_N Neisseria_PilC NHL Nucleoporin_N Nup160 PD40 Pectate_lyase22 Peptidase_S9_N Phytase-like PQQ PQQ_2 PQQ_3 RAG2 RCC1 RCC1_2 Reg_prop SBBP SBP56 SdiA-regulated SGL Str_synth TcdB_toxin_midN VCBS WD40
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1Cannot generate PP/Heatmap alignments for seeds; no PP data available
Key: available, not generated, — not available.
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Curation and family details
|Seed source:||Pfam-B_4702 (release 6.5)|
|Number in seed:||18|
|Number in full:||5792|
|Average length of the domain:||268.30 aa|
|Average identity of full alignment:||58 %|
|Average coverage of the sequence by the domain:||91.61 %|
|HMM build commands:||
build method: hmmbuild -o /dev/null HMM SEED
search method: hmmsearch -Z 23193494 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq
|Family (HMM) version:||9|
|Download:||download the raw HMM for this family|
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