Summary: Regulatory subunit of type II PKA R-subunit
Regulatory subunit of type II PKA R-subunit Provide feedback
No Pfam abstract.
Internal database links
|Similarity to PfamA using HHSearch:||Dpy-30|
External database links
This tab holds annotation information from the InterPro database.
InterPro entry IPR003117
Protein phosphorylation, which plays a key role in most cellular activities, is a reversible process mediated by protein kinases and phosphoprotein phosphatases. Protein kinases catalyse the transfer of the gamma phosphate from nucleotide triphosphates (often ATP) to one or more amino acid residues in a protein substrate side chain, resulting in a conformational change affecting protein function. Phosphoprotein phosphatases catalyse the reverse process. Protein kinases fall into three broad classes, characterised with respect to substrate specificity [PUBMED:3291115]:
- Serine/threonine-protein kinases
- Tyrosine-protein kinases
- Dual specificity protein kinases (e.g. MEK - phosphorylates both Thr and Tyr on target proteins)
Protein kinase function is evolutionarily conserved from Escherichia coli to human [PUBMED:12471243]. Protein kinases play a role in a multitude of cellular processes, including division, proliferation, apoptosis, and differentiation [PUBMED:12368087]. Phosphorylation usually results in a functional change of the target protein by changing enzyme activity, cellular location, or association with other proteins. The catalytic subunits of protein kinases are highly conserved, and several structures have been solved [PUBMED:15078142], leading to large screens to develop kinase-specific inhibitors for the treatments of a number of diseases [PUBMED:15320712].
In the absence of cAMP, Protein Kinase A (PKA) exists as an equimolar tetramer of regulatory (R) and catalytic (C) subunits [PUBMED:11734894]. In addition to its role as an inhibitor of the C subunit, the R subunit anchors the holoenzyme to specific intracellular locations and prevents the C subunit from entering the nucleus. All R subunits have a conserved domain structure consisting of the N-terminal dimerization domain, inhibitory region, cAMP-binding domain A and cAMP-binding domain B. R subunits interact with C subunits primarily through the inhibitory site. The cAMP-binding domains show extensive sequence similarity and bind cAMP cooperatively.
Two types of regulatory (R) subunits exist - types I and I - which differ in molecular weight, sequence, autophosphorylation cabaility, cellular location and tissue distribution. Types I and II were further sub-divided into alpha and beta subtypes, based mainly on sequence similarity. This entry represents types I-alpha, I-beta, II-alpha and II-beta regulatory subunits of PKA proteins. These subunits contain the dimerisation interface and binding site for A-kinase-anchoring proteins (AKAPs).
The mapping between Pfam and Gene Ontology is provided by InterPro. If you use this data please cite InterPro.
|Molecular function||cAMP-dependent protein kinase regulator activity (GO:0008603)|
|Biological process||signal transduction (GO:0007165)|
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Curation and family details
|Seed source:||Alignment kindly provided by SMART|
|Number in seed:||13|
|Number in full:||656|
|Average length of the domain:||37.00 aa|
|Average identity of full alignment:||33 %|
|Average coverage of the sequence by the domain:||10.58 %|
|HMM build commands:||
build method: hmmbuild -o /dev/null HMM SEED
search method: hmmsearch -Z 23193494 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq
|Family (HMM) version:||12|
|Download:||download the raw HMM for this family|
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For those sequences which have a structure in the Protein DataBank, we use the mapping between UniProt, PDB and Pfam coordinate systems from the PDBe group, to allow us to map Pfam domains onto UniProt sequences and three-dimensional protein structures. The table below shows the structures on which the RIIa domain has been found. There are 33 instances of this domain found in the PDB. Note that there may be multiple copies of the domain in a single PDB structure, since many structures contain multiple copies of the same protein seqence.
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