Summary: S-100/ICaBP type calcium binding domain
This is the Wikipedia entry entitled "S-100 protein". More...
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S-100 protein Edit Wikipedia article
|S-100/ICaBP type calcium binding domain|
Structure of the S100B protein. Based on PyMOL rendering of PDB 1b4c.
The S-100 proteins (often styled without the hyphen, S100) are a family of low-molecular-weight proteins found in vertebrates and characterized by two calcium-binding sites that have helix-loop-helix ("EF-hand type") conformation. There are at least 21 different S-100 proteins. Their name is derived from the fact that these proteins are soluble in 100%, i.e. saturated ammonium sulfate at neutral pH. They are encoded by a family of genes whose symbols use the S100 prefix, for example, S100A1, S100A2, S100A3.
Most S100 proteins are homodimeric, consisting of two identical polypeptides, which are held together by non-covalent bonds. S100 proteins are structurally similar to calmodulin. On the other hand they differ from calmodulin on the other features. For instance, their expression pattern is cell-specific, i.e. they are expressed in particular cell types. Their expression depends on environmental factors. To contrast, calmodulin is a ubiquitous and universal intracellular Ca2+ receptor widely expressed in many cells.
S100 is normally present in cells derived from the neural crest (Schwann cells, and melanocytes), chondrocytes, adipocytes, myoepithelial cells, macrophages, Langerhans cells, dendritic cells, and keratinocytes. It may be present in some breast epithelial cells.
S100 proteins have been implicated in a variety of intracellular and extracellular functions. S100 proteins are involved in regulation of protein phosphorylation, transcription factors, Ca2+ homeostasis, the dynamics of cytoskeleton constituents, enzyme activities, cell growth and differentiation, and the inflammatory response. S100A7 (psoriasin) and S100A15 have been found to act as cytokines in inflammation, particularly in autoimmune skin conditions such as psoriasis.
Several members of the S-100 protein family are useful as markers for certain tumors and epidermal differentiation. It can be found in melanomas, 100% of schwannomas, 100% of neurofibromas (weaker than schwannomas), 50% of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (may be weak and/or focal), paraganglioma stromal cells, histiocytoma and clear cell sarcomas. Further, S100 proteins are markers for inflammatory diseases and can mediate inflammation and act as antimicrobials.
S100 proteins have been used in the lab as cell markers for anatomic pathology.
- S100A1, S100A2, S100A3, S100A4, S100A5, S100A6, S100A7 (psoriasin), S100A8, S100A9, S100A10, S100A11, S100A12, S100A13, S100A14(S100A14), S100A15 Koebnerisin, (S100A15), S100A16
- Marenholz I, Heizmann CW, Fritz G (October 2004). "S100 proteins in mouse and man: from evolution to function and pathology (including an update of the nomenclature)". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 322 (4): 1111–22. doi:10.1016/j.bbrc.2004.07.096. PMID 15336958.
- Donato R (April 2003). "Intracellular and extracellular roles of S100 proteins". Microsc. Res. Tech. 60 (6): 540–51. doi:10.1002/jemt.10296. PMID 12645002.
- Wolf R, Howard OM, Dong HF, Voscopoulos C, Boeshans K, Winston J et al. (2008). "Chemotactic activity of S100A7 (Psoriasin) is mediated by the receptor for advanced glycation end products and potentiates inflammation with highly homologous but functionally distinct S100A15.". J Immunol 181 (2): 1499–506. doi:10.4049/jimmunol.181.2.1499. PMC 2435511. PMID 18606705.
- Nonaka D, Chiriboga L, Rubin BP (November 2008). "Differential expression of S100 protein subtypes in malignant melanoma, and benign and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors". J. Cutan. Pathol. 35 (11): 1014–9. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0560.2007.00953.x. PMID 18547346.
- Wolf R, Ruzicka T, Yuspa SH (July 2010). "Novel S100A7 (psoriasin)/S100A15 (koebnerisin) subfamily: highly homologous but distinct in regulation and function". Amino Acids 41 (4): 789–96. doi:10.1007/s00726-010-0666-4. PMID 20596736.
- Wolf R, Voscopoulos CJ, FitzGerald PC, et al. (2006). "The mouse S100A15 ortholog parallels genomic organization, structure, gene expression, and protein-processing pattern of the human S100A7/A15 subfamily during epidermal maturation". J. Invest. Dermatol. 126 (7): 1600–8. doi:10.1038/sj.jid.5700210. PMID 16528363.
- Ronald Wolf, O. M. Zack Howard, Hui-Fang Dong, Christopher Voscopoulos, Karen Boeshans, Jason Winston, Rao Divi, Michele Gunsior, Paul Goldsmith, Bijan Ahvazi, Triantafyllos Chavakis, Joost J. Oppenheim and Stuart H. Yuspa (2010). "Chemotactic Activity of S100A7 (Psoriasin) Is Mediated by the Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products and Potentiates Inflammation with Highly Homologous but Functionally Distinct S100A15.". The Journal of Immunology 181 (2): 1499–1506.
- Ronald Wolf, Christopher Voscopoulos, Jason Winston, Alif Dharamsi, Paul Goldsmith Michele Gunsior, Barbara K. Vonderhaar, Melanie Olson, Peter H. Watson, and Stuart H. Yuspa. (2008). "Highly homologous hS100A15 and hS100A7 proteins are distinctly expressed in normal breast tissue and breast cancer.". J. Cancer Lett. 277 (1): 101–107. doi:10.1016/j.canlet.2008.11.032. PMC 2680177. PMID 19136201.
- Ronald Wolf, Francesca Mascia, Alif Dharamsi, O. M. Zack Howard, Christophe Cataisson, Val Bliskovski, Jason Winston, Lionel Feigenbaum, Ulrike Lichti, Thomas Ruzicka Triantafyllos Chavakis, and Stuart H. Yuspa. (2010). "Gene from a Psoriasis Susceptibility Locus Primes the Skin for Inflammation.". Science Translational Medicine 2 (61): 61ra90. doi:10.1126/scitranslmed.3001108. PMID 21148126.
S-100/ICaBP type calcium binding domain Provide feedback
The S-100 domain is a subfamily of the EF-hand calcium binding proteins.
Sastry M, Ketchem RR, Crescenzi O, Weber C, Lubienski MJ, Hidaka H, Chazin WJ; , Structure 1998;6:223-231.: The three-dimensional structure of Ca(2+)-bound calcyclin: implications for Ca(2+)-signal transduction by S100 proteins. PUBMED:9519412 EPMC:9519412
External database links
This tab holds annotation information from the InterPro database.
InterPro entry IPR013787
The calcium-binding domain found in S100 and CaBP-9k proteins is a subfamily of the EF-hand calcium-binding domain [PUBMED:15284904]. S100s are small dimeric acidic calcium and zinc-binding proteins abundant in the brain, with S100B playing an important role in modulating the proliferation and differentiation of neurons and glia cells [PUBMED:15006498]. S100 proteins have two different types of calcium-binding sites: a low affinity one with a special structure, and a 'normal' EF-hand type high-affinity site.
Calbindin-D9k (CaBP-9k) also belong to this family of proteins, but it does not form dimers. CaBP-9k is a cytosolic protein expressed in a variety of tissues. Although its precise function is unknown, it appears to be under the control of the steroid hormones oestrogen and progesterone in the female reproductive system [PUBMED:16288660]. In the intestine, CaBP-9k may be involved in calcium absorption by mediating intracellular diffusion [PUBMED:12520541].
This entry represents a subdomain of the calcium-binding domain found in S100, CaBP-9k, and related proteins.
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The EF hand is a calcium binding domain found in a wide variety of proteins .
The clan contains the following 16 members:Caleosin Dockerin_1 EF-hand_1 EF-hand_10 EF-hand_2 EF-hand_3 EF-hand_4 EF-hand_5 EF-hand_6 EF-hand_7 EF-hand_8 EF-hand_9 EF-hand_like EFhand_Ca_insen S_100 SPARC_Ca_bdg
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Curation and family details
|Seed source:||Pfam-B_242 (release 3.0)|
|Author:||Finn RD, Bateman A|
|Number in seed:||24|
|Number in full:||1006|
|Average length of the domain:||43.00 aa|
|Average identity of full alignment:||37 %|
|Average coverage of the sequence by the domain:||14.75 %|
|HMM build commands:||
build method: hmmbuild -o /dev/null HMM SEED
search method: hmmsearch -Z 23193494 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq
|Family (HMM) version:||14|
|Download:||download the raw HMM for this family|
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For those sequences which have a structure in the Protein DataBank, we use the mapping between UniProt, PDB and Pfam coordinate systems from the PDBe group, to allow us to map Pfam domains onto UniProt sequences and three-dimensional protein structures. The table below shows the structures on which the S_100 domain has been found. There are 279 instances of this domain found in the PDB. Note that there may be multiple copies of the domain in a single PDB structure, since many structures contain multiple copies of the same protein seqence.
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