Summary: Shugoshin N-terminal coiled-coil region
This is the Wikipedia entry entitled "Shugoshin N terminal protein domain". More...
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Shugoshin N terminal protein domain Edit Wikipedia article
In molecular biology, the protein domain named the Shugoshin N-terminal coiled-coil region is a domain found on the N-terminal region of the Shugoshin protein in eukaryotes. It has a role in attaching to the kinetochores, structures on the chromatids where microtubules attach. Shugoshin has a conserved coiled-coil N-terminal domain and a highly conserved C-terminal region. Shugoshin is a crucial target of Bub1 kinase that plays a central role in the cohesion of chromosomes during cell division.
The protein, Shugoshin, is actually Japanese for guardian spirit. Just as its name suggests, the Shugoshin protein guides chromosome cohesion during cell division. It does this by preventing the cohesin complex which regulates chromatid separation from prematurely dissociating. Shugoshin protein is thought to act by protecting two proteins, named Rec8 and Rad21 at the centromeres from protein degradation by the enzyme, separase. This results in the sister chromatids remaining tethered.
Shugoshin also acts as a spindle checkpoint component. It senses tension between sister chromatids during mitosis, and it degrades when they separate preventing cell cycle arrest and chromosome loss.Human shugoshin is diffusible and mediates formation of kinetochore-microtubules during bipolar spindle assembly.
N terminal domain
Recent studies indicate that the structure of the N-terminal Shugoshin may be important for centromeric localisation, this is because it has been observed that the N-terminal fragment was the only part of the protein to localise at the centromere. Another study has shown that the N-terminal region bundles short microtubules in vitro. This suggests that the N-terminal domain has a function in bundling microtubules at the centromere.
- Kitajima TS, Kawashima SA, Watanabe Y (February 2004). "The conserved kinetochore protein shugoshin protects centromeric cohesion during meiosis". Nature 427 (6974): 510–7. doi:10.1038/nature02312. PMID 14730319.
- Rivera T, Losada A (April 2009). "Shugoshin regulates cohesion by driving relocalization of PP2A in Xenopus extracts". Chromosoma 118 (2): 223–33. doi:10.1007/s00412-008-0190-4. PMID 18987869.
- Macy B, Wang M, Yu HG (2009). "The many faces of shugoshin, the "guardian spirit," in chromosome segregation.". Cell Cycle 8 (1): 35–7. doi:10.4161/cc.8.1.7327. PMID 19106605.
- Kawashima SA, Tsukahara T, Langegger M, Hauf S, Kitajima TS, Watanabe Y (February 2007). "Shugoshin enables tension-generating attachment of kinetochores by loading Aurora to centromeres". Genes Dev. 21 (4): 420–35. doi:10.1101/gad.1497307. PMC 1804331. PMID 17322402.
- Suzuki H, Akiyama N, Tsuji M, Ohashi T, Saito S, Eto Y (May 2006). "Human Shugoshin mediates kinetochore-driven formation of kinetochore microtubules". Cell Cycle 5 (10): 1094–101. doi:10.4161/cc.5.10.2747. PMID 16687935.
- Salic A, Waters JC, Mitchison TJ (2004). "Vertebrate shugoshin links sister centromere cohesion and kinetochore microtubule stability in mitosis.". Cell 118 (5): 567–78. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2004.08.016. PMID 15339662.
- Xu Z, Cetin B, Anger M, Cho US, Helmhart W, Nasmyth K et al. (2009). "Structure and function of the PP2A-shugoshin interaction.". Mol Cell 35 (4): 426–41. doi:10.1016/j.molcel.2009.06.031. PMC 2749713. PMID 19716788.
Shugoshin N-terminal coiled-coil region Provide feedback
The Shugoshin protein is found to have this conserved N-terminal coiled-coil region and a highly conserved C-terminal basic region, family Shugoshin_C PF07557. Shugoshin is a crucial target of Bub1 kinase function at kinetochores, necessary for both meiotic and mitotic localisation of shugoshin to the kinetochore . Human shugoshin is diffusible and mediates kinetochore-driven formation of kinetochore-microtubules during bipolar spindle assembly . Further, the primary role of shugoshin is to ensure bipolar attachment of kinetochores, and its role in protecting cohesion has co-developed to facilitate this process .
Suzuki H, Akiyama N, Tsuji M, Ohashi T, Saito S, Eto Y; , Cell Cycle. 2006;5:1094-1101.: Human Shugoshin mediates kinetochore-driven formation of kinetochore microtubules. PUBMED:16687935 EPMC:16687935
Kawashima SA, Tsukahara T, Langegger M, Hauf S, Kitajima TS, Watanabe Y; , Genes Dev. 2007;21:420-435.: Shugoshin enables tension-generating attachment of kinetochores by loading Aurora to centromeres. PUBMED:17322402 EPMC:17322402
External database links
This tab holds annotation information from the InterPro database.
InterPro entry IPR011516
This entry represents the N-terminal domain of Shugoshin (Sgo1) kinetochore-attachment proteins. Shugoshin has a conserved coiled-coil N-terminal domain and a highly conserved C-terminal basic region (INTERPRO). Shugoshin is a crucial target of Bub1 kinase that plays a central role in chromosome cohesion during mitosis and meiosis divisions by preventing premature dissociation of cohesin complex from centromeres after prophase, when most of cohesin complex dissociates from chromosomes arms [PUBMED:14730319, PUBMED:18987869]. Shugoshin is thought to act by protecting Rec8 and Rad21 at the centromeres from separase degradation during anaphase I (during meiosis) so that sister chromatids remain tethered [PUBMED:14730319]. Shugoshin also acts as a spindle checkpoint component required for sensing tension between sister chromatids during mitosis, its degradation when they separate preventing cell cycle arrest and chromosome loss in anaphase, a time when sister chromatids are no longer under tension. Human shugoshin is diffusible and mediates kinetochore-driven formation of kinetochore-microtubules during bipolar spindle assembly [PUBMED:16687935]. Further, the primary role of shugoshin is to ensure bipolar attachment of kinetochores, and its role in protecting cohesion has co-developed to facilitate this process [PUBMED:17322402].
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Curation and family details
|Number in seed:||52|
|Number in full:||255|
|Average length of the domain:||44.70 aa|
|Average identity of full alignment:||35 %|
|Average coverage of the sequence by the domain:||7.49 %|
|HMM build commands:||
build method: hmmbuild -o /dev/null HMM SEED
search method: hmmsearch -Z 80369284 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq
|Family (HMM) version:||7|
|Download:||download the raw HMM for this family|
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For those sequences which have a structure in the Protein DataBank, we use the mapping between UniProt, PDB and Pfam coordinate systems from the PDBe group, to allow us to map Pfam domains onto UniProt sequences and three-dimensional protein structures. The table below shows the structures on which the Shugoshin_N domain has been found. There are 1 instances of this domain found in the PDB. Note that there may be multiple copies of the domain in a single PDB structure, since many structures contain multiple copies of the same protein seqence.
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