Summary: Transcription factor S-II (TFIIS)
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Transcription factor S-II (TFIIS) Provide feedback
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Internal database links
|Similarity to PfamA using HHSearch:||Ogr_Delta TF_Zn_Ribbon PhnA_Zn_Ribbon DUF2082 Baculo_LEF5_C Zn_Tnp_IS1595 zinc_ribbon_4 zinc_ribbon_5|
External database links
This tab holds annotation information from the InterPro database.
InterPro entry IPR001222
Zinc finger (Znf) domains are relatively small protein motifs which contain multiple finger-like protrusions that make tandem contacts with their target molecule. Some of these domains bind zinc, but many do not; instead binding other metals such as iron, or no metal at all. For example, some family members form salt bridges to stabilise the finger-like folds. They were first identified as a DNA-binding motif in transcription factor TFIIIA from Xenopus laevis (African clawed frog), however they are now recognised to bind DNA, RNA, protein and/or lipid substrates [PUBMED:10529348, PUBMED:15963892, PUBMED:15718139, PUBMED:17210253, PUBMED:12665246]. Their binding properties depend on the amino acid sequence of the finger domains and of the linker between fingers, as well as on the higher-order structures and the number of fingers. Znf domains are often found in clusters, where fingers can have different binding specificities. There are many superfamilies of Znf motifs, varying in both sequence and structure. They display considerable versatility in binding modes, even between members of the same class (e.g. some bind DNA, others protein), suggesting that Znf motifs are stable scaffolds that have evolved specialised functions. For example, Znf-containing proteins function in gene transcription, translation, mRNA trafficking, cytoskeleton organisation, epithelial development, cell adhesion, protein folding, chromatin remodelling and zinc sensing, to name but a few [PUBMED:11179890]. Zinc-binding motifs are stable structures, and they rarely undergo conformational changes upon binding their target.
This entry represents a zinc finger motif found in transcription factor IIs (TFIIS). In eukaryotes the initiation of transcription of protein encoding genes by polymerase II (Pol II) is modulated by general and specific transcription factors. The general transcription factors operate through common promoters elements (such as the TATA box). At least eight different proteins associate to form the general transcription factors: TFIIA, -IIB, -IID, -IIE, -IIF, -IIG, -IIH and -IIS [PUBMED:3346229]. During mRNA elongation, Pol II can encounter DNA sequences that cause reverse movement of the enzyme. Such backtracking involves extrusion of the RNA 3'-end into the pore, and can lead to transcriptional arrest. Escape from arrest requires cleavage of the extruded RNA with the help of TFIIS, which induces mRNA cleavage by enhancing the intrinsic nuclease activity of RNA polymerase (Pol) II, past template-encoded pause sites [PUBMED:10723030]. TFIIS extends from the polymerase surface via a pore to the internal active site. Two essential and invariant acidic residues in a TFIIS loop complement the Pol II active site and could position a metal ion and a water molecule for hydrolytic RNA cleavage. TFIIS also induces extensive structural changes in Pol II that would realign nucleic acids in the active centre.
TFIIS is a protein of about 300 amino acids. It contains three regions: a variable N-terminal domain not required for TFIIS activity; a conserved central domain required for Pol II binding; and a conserved C-terminal C4-type zinc finger essential for RNA cleavage. The zinc finger folds in a conformation termed a zinc ribbon [PUBMED:7626141] characterised by a three-stranded antiparallel beta-sheet and two beta-hairpins. A backbone model for Pol II-TFIIS complex was obtained from X-ray analysis. It shows that a beta hairpin protrudes from the zinc finger and complements the pol II active site [PUBMED:12914699].
Some viral proteins also contain the TFIIS zinc ribbon C-terminal domain. The Vaccinia virus protein, unlike its eukaryotic homologue, is an integral RNA polymerase subunit rather than a readily separable transcription factor [PUBMED:2398897].
More information about these proteins can be found at Protein of the Month: Zinc Fingers [PUBMED:].
The mapping between Pfam and Gene Ontology is provided by InterPro. If you use this data please cite InterPro.
|Molecular function||zinc ion binding (GO:0008270)|
|nucleic acid binding (GO:0003676)|
|Biological process||transcription, DNA-dependent (GO:0006351)|
- the number of sequences which exhibit this architecture
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A clan of zinc-binding ribbon domains.
The clan contains the following 50 members:A2L_zn_ribbon Auto_anti-p27 Baculo_LEF5_C DNA_RNApol_7kD DUF1610 DUF1936 DUF2116 DUF2180 DUF2387 DZR Elf1 GATA NinF NOB1_Zn_bind Ogr_Delta OrfB_Zn_ribbon PhnA_Zn_Ribbon Prim_Zn_Ribbon Ribosomal_L32p Ribosomal_L37ae Ribosomal_S27 Ribosomal_S27e RNA_POL_M_15KD RRN7 Spt4 TF_Zn_Ribbon TFIIS_C Tnp_zf-ribbon_2 Topo_Zn_Ribbon Toprim_Crpt Trm112p UPF0547 zf-C4_Topoisom zf-CHC2 zf-DHHC zf-dskA_traR zf-FPG_IleRS zf-GRF zf-NADH-PPase zf-RanBP zf-ribbon_3 zf-TFIIB zinc-ribbons_6 zinc_ribbon_2 zinc_ribbon_4 zinc_ribbon_5 Zn-ribbon_8 Zn_ribbon_recom Zn_Tnp_IS1 Zn_Tnp_IS1595
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Curation and family details
|Author:||Finn RD, Bateman A|
|Number in seed:||109|
|Number in full:||1781|
|Average length of the domain:||39.10 aa|
|Average identity of full alignment:||43 %|
|Average coverage of the sequence by the domain:||20.94 %|
|HMM build commands:||
build method: hmmbuild -o /dev/null HMM SEED
search method: hmmsearch -Z 23193494 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq
|Family (HMM) version:||13|
|Download:||download the raw HMM for this family|
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There are 11 interactions for this family. More...
We determine these interactions using iPfam, which considers the interactions between residues in three-dimensional protein structures and maps those interactions back to Pfam families. You can find more information about the iPfam algorithm in the journal article that accompanies the website.
For those sequences which have a structure in the Protein DataBank, we use the mapping between UniProt, PDB and Pfam coordinate systems from the PDBe group, to allow us to map Pfam domains onto UniProt sequences and three-dimensional protein structures. The table below shows the structures on which the TFIIS_C domain has been found. There are 94 instances of this domain found in the PDB. Note that there may be multiple copies of the domain in a single PDB structure, since many structures contain multiple copies of the same protein seqence.
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