This is the Wikipedia entry entitled "Transaldolase". More...
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Transaldolase Edit Wikipedia article
The following chemical reaction is catalyzed by transaldolase:
The pentose phosphate pathway has two metabolic functions: (1) generation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (reduced NADPH), for reductive biosynthesis, and (2) formation of ribose, which is an essential component of ATP, DNA, and RNA. Transaldolase links the pentose phosphate pathway to glycolysis. In patients with deficiency of transaldolase, there's an accumulation of erythritol (from erythrose 4-phosphate), D-arabitol, and ribitol.
The deletion in 3 base pairs in the TALDO1 gene results in the absence of serine at position 171 of the transaldolase protein, which is part of a highly conserved region, suggesting that the mutation causes the transaldolase deficiency that is found in erythrocytes and lymphoblasts. The deletion of this amino acid can lead to liver cirrhosis and hepatosplenomegaly (enlarged spleen and liver) during early infancy. Transaldolase is also a target of autoimmunity in patients with multiple sclerosis.
Transaldolase is a single domain composed of 337 amino acids. The core structure is an α/β barrel, similar to other class I aldolases, made up of eight parallel β-sheets and seven α-helices. There are also seven additional α-helices that are not part of the barrel. Hydrophobic amino acids are located between the β-sheets in the barrel and the surrounding α-helices to contribute to packing, such as the area containing Leu-168, Phe-170, Phe-189, Gly-311, and Phe-315. In the crystal, human transaldolase forms a dimer, with the two subunits connected by 18 residues in each subunit. See mechanism to the left for details.
The active site, located in the center of the barrel, contains three key residues: lysine-142, glutamate-106, and aspartate-27. The lysine holds the sugar in place while the glutamate and aspartate act as proton donors and acceptors.
Mechanism of catalysis
The residue of lysine-142 in the active site of transaldolase forms a Schiff base with the keto group in sedoheptulose-7-phosphate after deprotonation by another active site residue, glutamate-106. The reaction mechanism is similar to the reverse reaction catalyzed by aldolase: The bond joining carbons 3 and 4 is broken, leaving dihydroxyacetone joined to the enzyme via a Schiff base. This cleavage reaction generates the unusual aldose sugar erythrose-4-phosphate. Then transaldolase catalyzes the condensation of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate with the Schiff base of dihydroxyacetone, yielding enzyme-bound fructose 6-phosphate. Hydrolysis of the Schiff base liberates free fructose 6-phosphate, one of the products of the pentose phosphate pathway.
- PDB 1F05; Thorell S, Gergely P, Banki K, Perl A, Schneider G (June 2000). "The three-dimensional structure of human transaldolase". FEBS Lett. 475 (3): 205–8. doi:10.1016/S0014-5793(00)01658-6. PMID 10869557.
- Molecular graphics images were produced using the UCSF Chimera package from the Resource for Biocomputing, Visualization, and Informatics at the University of California, San Francisco. Pettersen EF, Goddard TD, Huang CC, Couch GS, Greenblatt DM, Meng EC, Ferrin TE (October 2004). "UCSF Chimera–a visualization system for exploratory research and analysis". J Comput Chem 25 (13): 1605–12. doi:10.1002/jcc.20084. PMID 15264254.
- "Entrez Gene: transaldolase 1".
- Banki K, Eddy RL, Shows TB, Halladay DL, Bullrich F, Croce CM, Jurecic V, Baldini A, Perl A (October 1997). "The human transaldolase gene (TALDO1) is located on chromosome 11 at p15.4-p15.5". Genomics 45 (1): 233–8. doi:10.1006/geno.1997.4932. PMID 9339383.
- Verhoeven NM, Huck JH, Roos B, Struys EA, Salomons GS, Douwes AC, van der Knaap MS, Jakobs C (May 2001). "Transaldolase deficiency: liver cirrhosis associated with a new inborn error in the pentose phosphate pathway". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 68 (5): 1086–92. doi:10.1086/320108. PMC 1226089. PMID 11283793.
- Perl A (June 2007). "The pathogenesis of transaldolase deficiency". IUBMB Life 59 (6): 365–73. doi:10.1080/15216540701387188. PMID 17613166.
- Niland B, Perl A (2004). "Evaluation of autoimmunity to transaldolase in multiple sclerosis". Methods Mol. Med. 102: 155–71. doi:10.1385/1-59259-805-6:155. PMID 15286385.
- Jia J, Schörken U, Lindqvist Y, Sprenger GA, Schneider G (January 1997). "Crystal structure of the reduced Schiff-base intermediate complex of transaldolase B from Escherichia coli: mechanistic implications for class I aldolases". Protein Sci. 6 (1): 119–24. doi:10.1002/pro.5560060113. PMC 2143518. PMID 9007983.
Transaldolase Provide feedback
No Pfam abstract.
Choi KH, Shi J, Hopkins CE, Tolan DR, Allen KN; , Biochemistry 2001;40:13868-13875.: Snapshots of catalysis: the structure of fructose-1,6-(bis)phosphate aldolase covalently bound to the substrate dihydroxyacetone phosphate. PUBMED:11705376 EPMC:11705376
Schorken U, Thorell S, Schurmann M, Jia J, Sprenger GA, Schneider G; , Eur J Biochem 2001;268:2408-2415.: Identification of catalytically important residues in the active site of Escherichia coli transaldolase. PUBMED:11298760 EPMC:11298760
External database links
This tab holds annotation information from the InterPro database.
InterPro entry IPR001585
Transaldolase (EC) catalyses the reversible transfer of a three-carbon ketol unit from sedoheptulose 7-phosphate to glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate to form erythrose 4-phosphate and fructose 6-phosphate. This enzyme, together with transketolase, provides a link between the glycolytic and pentose-phosphate pathways. Transaldolase is an enzyme of about 34 kDa whose sequence has been well conserved throughout evolution. A lysine has been implicated [PUBMED:8109173] in the catalytic mechanism of the enzyme; it acts as a nucleophilic group that attacks the carbonyl group of fructose-6-phosphate.
|Biological process||carbohydrate metabolic process (GO:0005975)|
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This large superfamily of TIM barrel enzymes all contain a common phosphate binding site. The phosphate is found in a variety of cofactors and ligands such as FMN [1,2].
The clan contains the following 57 members:Ala_racemase_N ALAD Aldolase AP_endonuc_2 BtpA CdhD CutC DAHP_synth_1 DAHP_synth_2 DeoC DHDPS DHO_dh DHquinase_I DUF1341 DUF2090 DUF556 DUF561 DUF692 DUF993 Dus F_bP_aldolase FMN_dh G3P_antiterm Glu_syn_central Glu_synthase His_biosynth HMGL-like IGPS IMPDH iPGM_N MtrH NanE NAPRTase NeuB NMO OMPdecase Orn_Arg_deC_N Oxidored_FMN PcrB PdxJ PhosphMutase PRAI Pterin_bind QRPTase_C Racemase_4 RhaA Ribul_P_3_epim SOR_SNZ Tagatose_6_P_K ThiG TIM TIM-br_sig_trns TMP-TENI Transaldolase Trp_syntA UvdE UxuA
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Curation and family details
|Seed source:||Pfam-B_787 (release 3.0)|
|Author:||Bateman A, Griffiths-Jones SR|
|Number in seed:||131|
|Number in full:||6718|
|Average length of the domain:||256.10 aa|
|Average identity of full alignment:||30 %|
|Average coverage of the sequence by the domain:||91.25 %|
|HMM build commands:||
build method: hmmbuild -o /dev/null HMM SEED
search method: hmmsearch -Z 23193494 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq
|Family (HMM) version:||14|
|Download:||download the raw HMM for this family|
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For those sequences which have a structure in the Protein DataBank, we use the mapping between UniProt, PDB and Pfam coordinate systems from the PDBe group, to allow us to map Pfam domains onto UniProt sequences and three-dimensional protein structures. The table below shows the structures on which the Transaldolase domain has been found. There are 128 instances of this domain found in the PDB. Note that there may be multiple copies of the domain in a single PDB structure, since many structures contain multiple copies of the same protein seqence.
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