Summary: Vomeronasal organ pheromone receptor family, V1R
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Vomeronasal receptor Edit Wikipedia article
|Vomeronasal receptor, type 1|
Pheromones have evolved in all animal phyla, to signal sex and dominance status, and are responsible for stereotypical social and sexual behaviour among members of the same species. In mammals, these chemical signals are believed to be detected primarily by the vomeronasal organ (VNO), a chemosensory organ located at the base of the nasal septum.
The VNO is present in most amphibia, reptiles and non-primate mammals but is absent in birds, adult catarrhine monkeys and apes. An active role for the human VNO in the detection of pheromones is disputed; the VNO is clearly present in the fetus but appears to be atrophied or absent in adults. Three distinct families of putative pheromone receptors have been identified in the vomeronasal organ (V1Rs, V2Rs and V3Rs). All are G protein-coupled receptors but are only distantly related to the receptors of the main olfactory system, highlighting their different role.
The V1 receptors share between 50 and 90% sequence identity but have little similarity to other families of G protein-coupled receptors. They appear to be distantly related to the mammalian T2R bitter taste receptors and the rhodopsin-like GPCRs. In rat, the family comprises 30-40 genes. These are expressed in the apical regions of the VNO, in neurons expressing Gi2. Coupling of the receptors to this protein mediates inositol trisphosphate signalling. A number of human V1 receptor homologues have also been found. The majority of these human sequences are pseudogenes  but an apparently functional receptor has been identified that is expressed in the human olfactory system.
Human proteins containing this domain
- Pantages E, Dulac C (2000). "A novel family of candidate pheromone receptors in mammals". Neuron 28 (3): 835–845. doi:10.1016/S0896-6273(00)00157-4. PMID 11163270.
- Keverne EB (1999). "The vomeronasal organ". Science 286 (5440): 716–720. doi:10.1126/science.286.5440.716. PMID 10531049.
- Josefsson LG (1999). "Evidence for kinship between diverse G-protein coupled receptors". Gene 239 (2): 333–340. doi:10.1016/S0378-1119(99)00392-3. PMID 10548735.
- Kouros-Mehr, Hosein; Pintchovski, S; Melnyk, J; Chen, YJ; Friedman, C; Trask, B; Shizuya, H (Nov 2001). "Identification of non-functional human VNO receptor genes provides evidence for vestigiality of the human VNO.". Chemical senses 26 (9): 1167–74. doi:10.1093/chemse/26.9.1167. PMID 11705802.
- Trask BJ, Giorgi D, Friedman C, Rouquier S (2000). "Characterization of nonfunctional V1R-like pheromone receptor sequences in human". Genome Res. 10 (12): 1979–1985. doi:10.1101/gr.10.12.1979. PMC 313059. PMID 11116092.
- Rodriguez I, Greer CA, Mok MY, Mombaerts P (2000). "A putative pheromone receptor gene expressed in human olfactory mucosa". Nat. Genet. 26 (1): 18–19. doi:10.1038/79124. PMID 10973240.
Vomeronasal organ pheromone receptor family, V1R Provide feedback
This family represents one of two known vomeronasal organ receptor families, the V1R family (after ).
External database links
This tab holds annotation information from the InterPro database.
InterPro entry IPR004072
G-protein-coupled receptors, GPCRs, constitute a vast protein family that encompasses a wide range of functions (including various autocrine, paracrine and endocrine processes). They show considerable diversity at the sequence level, on the basis of which they can be separated into distinct groups. We use the term clan to describe the GPCRs, as they embrace a group of families for which there are indications of evolutionary relationship, but between which there is no statistically significant similarity in sequence [PUBMED:8170923]. The currently known clan members include the rhodopsin-like GPCRs, the secretin-like GPCRs, the cAMP receptors, the fungal mating pheromone receptors, and the metabotropic glutamate receptor family. There is a specialised database for GPCRs (http://www.gpcr.org/7tm/).
The rhodopsin-like GPCRs themselves represent a widespread protein family that includes hormone, neurotransmitter and light receptors, all of which transduce extracellular signals through interaction with guanine nucleotide-binding (G) proteins. Although their activating ligands vary widely in structure and character, the amino acid sequences of the receptors are very similar and are believed to adopt a common structural framework comprising 7 transmembrane (TM) helices [PUBMED:2111655, PUBMED:2830256, PUBMED:8386361].
Pheromones have evolved in all animal phyla, to signal sex and dominance status, and are responsible for stereotypical social and sexual behaviour among members of the same species. In mammals, these chemical signals are believed to be detected primarily by the vomeronasal organ (VNO), a chemosensory organ located at the base of the nasal septum [PUBMED:11163270]. The VNO is present in most amphibia, reptiles and non-primate mammals but is absent in birds, adult catarrhine monkeys and apes [PUBMED:10531049]. An active role for the human VNO in the detection of pheromones is disputed; the VNO is clearly present in the foetus but appears to be atrophied or absent in adults. Three distinct families of putative pheromone receptors have been identified in the vomeronasal organ (V1Rs, V2Rs and V3Rs). All are G protein-coupled receptors but are only distantly related to the receptors of the main olfactory system, highlighting their different role [PUBMED:11163270].
The V1 receptors share between 50 and 90% sequence identity but have little similarity to other families of G protein-coupled receptors. They appear to be distantly related to the mammalian T2R bitter taste receptors and the rhodopsin-like GPCRs [PUBMED:10548735]. In rat, the family comprises 30-40 genes. These are expressed in the apical regions of the VNO, in neurons expressing Gi2. Coupling of the receptors to this protein mediates inositol trisphosphate signalling [PUBMED:11163270]. A number of human V1 receptor homologues have also been found. The majority of these human sequences are pseudogenes [PUBMED:11116092] but an apparently functional receptor has been identified that is expressed in the human olfactory system [PUBMED:10973240].
|Cellular component||integral to membrane (GO:0016021)|
|Molecular function||pheromone receptor activity (GO:0016503)|
|Biological process||G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway (GO:0007186)|
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This clan contains various seven-transmembrane receptors and related proteins. A major member is Pfam:PF00001, members of which have been considered to be typical members of the rhodopsin superfamily. Many members of this clan are Caenorhabditis proteins, suggesting great expansion of the relevant families in these nematode worms.
The clan contains the following 35 members:7TM-7TMR_HD 7tm_1 7tm_2 7tm_4 7TM_GPCR_Sra 7TM_GPCR_Srab 7TM_GPCR_Srb 7TM_GPCR_Srbc 7TM_GPCR_Srd 7TM_GPCR_Srh 7TM_GPCR_Sri 7TM_GPCR_Srj 7TM_GPCR_Srsx 7TM_GPCR_Srt 7TM_GPCR_Sru 7TM_GPCR_Srv 7TM_GPCR_Srw 7TM_GPCR_Srx 7TM_GPCR_Srz 7TM_GPCR_Str Bac_rhodopsin Dicty_CAR DUF1182 DUF621 Frizzled Git3 Git3_C GpcrRhopsn4 Lung_7-TM_R Ocular_alb Serpentine_r_xa Sre Srg TAS2R V1R
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Curation and family details
|Seed source:||Pfam-B_3057 (release 6.6)|
|Number in seed:||2|
|Number in full:||2399|
|Average length of the domain:||245.10 aa|
|Average identity of full alignment:||33 %|
|Average coverage of the sequence by the domain:||86.01 %|
|HMM build commands:||
build method: hmmbuild -o /dev/null HMM SEED
search method: hmmsearch -Z 23193494 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq
|Family (HMM) version:||9|
|Download:||download the raw HMM for this family|
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