Summary: WD domain, G-beta repeat
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WD40 repeat Edit Wikipedia article
|WD domain, G-beta repeat|
The WD40 repeat (also known as the WD or beta-transducin repeat) is a short structural motif of approximately 40 amino acids, often terminating in a tryptophan-aspartic acid (W-D) dipeptide. Tandem copies of these repeats typically fold together to form a type of circular solenoid protein domain called the WD40 domain.
WD40 domain-containing proteins have 4 to 16 repeating units, all of which are thought to form a circularised beta-propeller structure (see figure to the right). The WD40 domain is composed of several repeats, a variable region of around 20 residues at the beginning followed by a more common repeated set of residues. These repeats typically form a four stranded anti-parallel beta sheet or blade. These blades come together to form a propeller with the most common being a 7 bladed beta propeller. The blades interlock so that the last beta strand of one repeat forms with the first three of the next repeat to form the 3D blade structure.
WD40-repeat proteins are a large family found in all eukaryotes and are implicated in a variety of functions ranging from signal transduction and transcription regulation to cell cycle control, autophagy and apoptosis . The underlying common function of all WD40-repeat proteins is coordinating multi-protein complex assemblies, where the repeating units serve as a rigid scaffold for protein interactions. The specificity of the proteins is determined by the sequences outside the repeats themselves. Examples of such complexes are G proteins (beta subunit is a beta-propeller), TAFII transcription factor, and E3 ubiquitin ligase.
According to the initial analysis of the human genome WD40 repeats are the eighth largest family of proteins. In all 277 proteins were identified to contain them. Human genes encoding proteins containing this domain include:
- AAAS, AAMP, AHI1, AMBRA1, APAF1, ARPC1A, ARPC1B, ATG16L1,
- BOP1, BRWD1, BRWD2, BRWD3, BTRC, BUB3,
- C6orf11, CDC20, CDC40, CDRT1, CHAF1B, CIAO1, CIRH1A, COPA, COPB2, CORO1A, CORO1B, CORO1C, CORO2A, CORO2B, CORO6, CORO7, CSTF1,
- DDB2, DENND3, DMWD, DMXL1, DMXL2, DNAI1, DNAI2, DNCI1, DTL, DYNC1I1, DYNC1I2, EDC4,
- EED, EIF3S2, ELP2, EML1, EML2, EML3, EML4, EML4-ALK, EML5, ERCC8,
- FBXW10, FBXW11, FBXW2, FBXW4, FBXW5, FBXW7, FBXW8, FBXW9, FZR1,
- GBL, GEMIN5, GNB1, GNB1L, GNB2, GNB2L1, GNB3, GNB4, GNB5, GRWD1, GTF3C2,
- HERC1, HIRA, HZGJ,
- IFT122, IFT140, IFT172, IFT80, IQWD1,
- KATNB1, KIAA1336, KIF21A, KIF21B, KM-PA-2,
- LLGL1, LLGL2, LRBA, LRRK1, LRRK2, LRWD1, LYST,
- MAPKBP1, MED16, MORG1,
- NBEA, NBEAL1, NEDD1, NLE1, NSMAF, NUP37, NUP43, NWD1,
- PAAF1, PAFAH1B1, PAK1IP1, PEX7, PHIP, PIK3R4, PLAA, PLRG1, PPP2R2A, PPP2R2B, PPP2R2C, PPP2R2D, PPWD1, PREB, PRPF19, PRPF4, PWP1, PWP2,
- RAE1, RAPTOR, RBBP4, RBBP5, RBBP7, RFWD2, RFWD3, RRP9,
- SCAP, SEC13, SEC31A, SEC31B, SEH1L, SHKBP1, SMU1, SPAG16, SPG, STRAP, STRN, STRN3, STRN4, STXBP5, STXBP5L,
- TAF5, TAF5L, TBL1X, TBL1XR1, TBL1Y, TBL2, TBL3, TEP1, THOC3, THOC6, TLE1, TLE2, TLE3, TLE4, TLE6, TRAF7, TSSC1, TULP4, TUWD12,
- UTP15, UTP18,
- WAIT1, WDF3, WDFY1, WDFY2, WDFY3, WDFY4, WDHD1, WDR1, WDR10, WDR12, WDR13, WDR16, WDR17, WDR18, WDR19, WDR20, WDR21A, WDR21C, WDR22, WDR23, WDR24, WDR25, WDR26, WDR27, WDR3, WDR31, WDR32, WDR33, WDR34, WDR35, WDR36, WDR37, WDR38, WDR4, WDR40A, WDR40B, WDR40C, WDR41, WDR42A, WDR42B, WDR43, WDR44, WDR46, WDR47, WDR48, WDR49, WDR5, WDR51A, WDR51B, WDR52, WDR53, WDR54, WDR55, WDR57, WDR59, WDR5B, WDR6, WDR60, WDR61, WDR62, WDR63, WDR64, WDR65, WDR66, WDR67, WDR68, WDR69, WDR7, WDR70, WDR72, WDR73, WDR74, WDR75, WDR76, WDR77, WDR78, WDR79, WDR8, WDR81, WDR82, WDR85, WDR86, WDR88, WDR89, WDR90, WDR91, WDR92, WDSOF1, WDSUB1, WDTC1, WSB1, WSB2,
- PDB 1erj; Sprague ER, Redd MJ, Johnson AD, Wolberger C (June 2000). "Structure of the C-terminal domain of Tup1, a corepressor of transcription in yeast". EMBO J. 19 (12): 3016–27. doi:10.1093/emboj/19.12.3016. PMC 203344. PMID 10856245.
- Neer EJ, Schmidt CJ, Nambudripad R, Smith TF (September 1994). "The ancient regulatory-protein family of WD-repeat proteins". Nature 371 (6495): 297–300. doi:10.1038/371297a0. PMID 8090199.
- Smith TF, Gaitatzes C, Saxena K, Neer EJ (May 1999). "The WD40 repeat: a common architecture for diverse functions". Trends Biochem. Sci. 24 (5): 181–5. doi:10.1016/S0968-0004(99)01384-5. PMID 10322433.
- Li D, Roberts R (December 2001). "WD-repeat proteins: structure characteristics, biological function, and their involvement in human diseases". Cell. Mol. Life Sci. 58 (14): 2085–97. doi:10.1007/PL00000838. PMID 11814058.
- Stirnimann Christian U, Petsalaki Evangelia, Russell RB, Müller CW (May 2010). "WD40 proteins propel cellular networks.". Trends Biochem. Sci. 35 (10): 565–74. doi:10.1016/j.tibs.2010.04.003. PMID 20451393.
- Lander ES, Linton LM, Birren B, et al. (February 2001). "Initial sequencing and analysis of the human genome". Nature 409 (6822): 860–921. doi:10.1038/35057062. PMID 11237011.
- Eukaryotic Linear Motif resource motif class LIG_APCC_Dbox_1
- Eukaryotic Linear Motif resource motif class LIG_APCC_KENbox_2
- Eukaryotic Linear Motif resource motif class LIG_COP1
- Eukaryotic Linear Motif resource motif class LIG_CRL4_Cdt2_1
- Eukaryotic Linear Motif resource motif class LIG_CRL4_Cdt2_2
- Eukaryotic Linear Motif resource motif class LIG_EH1_1
- Eukaryotic Linear Motif resource motif class LIG_GLEBS_BUB3_1
- Eukaryotic Linear Motif resource motif class LIG_RAPTOR_TOS_1
- Eukaryotic Linear Motif resource motif class LIG_SCF_FBW7_1
- Eukaryotic Linear Motif resource motif class LIG_SCF_FBW7_2
- Eukaryotic Linear Motif resource motif class LIG_SCF-TrCP1_1
- Eukaryotic Linear Motif resource motif class LIG_WRPW_1
- Eukaryotic Linear Motif resource motif class LIG_WRPW_2
- Eukaryotic Linear Motif resource motif class TRG_ER_diArg_1
- Eukaryotic Linear Motif resource motif class TRG_ER_diLys_1
- Eukaryotic Linear Motif resource motif class TRG_Golgi_diPhe_1
- Eukaryotic Linear Motif resource motif class TRG_PTS2
WD domain, G-beta repeat Provide feedback
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Internal database links
|Similarity to PfamA using HHSearch:||Apc4_WD40|
External database links
This tab holds annotation information from the InterPro database.
InterPro entry IPR001680
WD-40 repeats (also known as WD or beta-transducin repeats) are short ~40 amino acid motifs, often terminating in a Trp-Asp (W-D) dipeptide. WD40 repeats usually assume a 7-8 bladed beta-propeller fold, but proteins have been found with 4 to 16 repeated units, which also form a circularised beta-propeller structure. WD-repeat proteins are a large family found in all eukaryotes and are implicated in a variety of functions ranging from signal transduction and transcription regulation to cell cycle control and apoptosis. Repeated WD40 motifs act as a site for protein-protein interaction, and proteins containing WD40 repeats are known to serve as platforms for the assembly of protein complexes or mediators of transient interplay among other proteins. The specificity of the proteins is determined by the sequences outside the repeats themselves. Examples of such complexes are G proteins (beta subunit is a beta-propeller), TAFII transcription factor, and E3 ubiquitin ligase [PUBMED:11814058, PUBMED:10322433]. In Arabidopsis spp., several WD40-containing proteins act as key regulators of plant-specific developmental events.
The mapping between Pfam and Gene Ontology is provided by InterPro. If you use this data please cite InterPro.
|Molecular function||protein binding (GO:0005515)|
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a textual description of the architecture, e.g. Gla, EGF x 2, Trypsin.
This example describes an architecture with one
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- the UniProt description of the protein sequence
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This large clan contains proteins that contain beta propellers. These are composed of between 6 and 8 repeats. The individual repeats are composed of a four stranded sheet. The clan includes families such as WD40 Pfam:PF00400 where the individual repeats are modeled. The clan also includes families where the entire propeller is modeled such as Pfam:PF02239 usually because the individual repeats are not discernible. These proteins carry out a very wide diversity of functions including catalysis.
The clan contains the following 60 members:Apc4_WD40 Arylesterase Arylsulfotran_2 Arylsulfotrans Beta_propel CNH Coatomer_WDAD CPSF_A Cytochrom_D1 DPPIV_N DUF1513 DUF1668 DUF1900 DUF2415 DUF3312 DUF4652 DUF839 eIF2A FG-GAP FG-GAP_2 Glu_cyclase_2 Gmad1 GSDH IKI3 Kelch_1 Kelch_2 Kelch_3 Kelch_4 Kelch_5 Kelch_6 Lactonase Ldl_recept_b Lgl_C LVIVD Me-amine-dh_H MRJP Nbas_N Neisseria_PilC NHL Nucleoporin_N Nup160 PD40 Pectate_lyase22 Peptidase_S9_N Phytase-like PQQ PQQ_2 PQQ_3 RAG2 RCC1 RCC1_2 Reg_prop SBBP SBP56 SdiA-regulated SGL Str_synth TcdB_toxin_midN VCBS WD40
We make a range of alignments for each Pfam-A family:
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- Representative Proteomes (RPs) at 15%, 35%, 55% and 75% co-membership thresholds
- alignment generated by searching the NCBI sequence database using the family HMM
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Curation and family details
|Seed source:||Pfam-B_2 (release 1.0)|
|Number in seed:||1804|
|Number in full:||193252|
|Average length of the domain:||38.20 aa|
|Average identity of full alignment:||23 %|
|Average coverage of the sequence by the domain:||20.36 %|
|HMM build commands:||
build method: hmmbuild -o /dev/null HMM SEED
search method: hmmsearch -Z 23193494 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq
|Family (HMM) version:||27|
|Download:||download the raw HMM for this family|
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There are 15 interactions for this family. More...
We determine these interactions using iPfam, which considers the interactions between residues in three-dimensional protein structures and maps those interactions back to Pfam families. You can find more information about the iPfam algorithm in the journal article that accompanies the website.
For those sequences which have a structure in the Protein DataBank, we use the mapping between UniProt, PDB and Pfam coordinate systems from the PDBe group, to allow us to map Pfam domains onto UniProt sequences and three-dimensional protein structures. The table below shows the structures on which the WD40 domain has been found. There are 1549 instances of this domain found in the PDB. Note that there may be multiple copies of the domain in a single PDB structure, since many structures contain multiple copies of the same protein seqence.
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