Summary: WH1 domain
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WH1 domain Edit Wikipedia article
WH1 domain is an evolutionary conserved protein domain. Therefore, it has an important function. WH1 domains are found on WASP proteins, which are often involved in actin polymerization. Hence, WH1 is important for all cellular processes involving actin, this includes cell motility, cell trafficking, cell division and cytokinesis, cell signalling, and the establishment and maintenance of cell junctions and cell shape.
The WASP protein family control actin polymerization by activating the Arp2/3 complex. WASP is defective in Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) whereby in most patient cases, the majority of point mutations occur within the N-terminal WH1 domain. The metabotropic glutamate receptors mGluR1alpha and mGluR5 bind a protein called homer, which is a WH1 domain homologue.
A subset of WH1 domains has been termed the EVH1 domain and appear to bind a polyproline motif. The EVH1 (WH1, RanBP1-WASP) domain is found in multi-domain proteins implicated in a diverse range of signalling, nuclear transport and cytoskeletal events. This domain of around 115 amino acids is present in species ranging from yeast to mammals. Many EVH1-containing proteins associate with actin-based structures and play a role in cytoskeletal organisation. EVH1 domains recognise and bind the proline-rich motif FPPPP with low-affinity, further interactions then form between flanking residues.
WASP family proteins contain an EVH1 (WH1) in their N-terminals which bind proline-rich sequences in the WASP interacting protein. Proteins of the RanBP1 family contain a WH1 domain in their N-terminal region, which seems to bind a different sequence motif present in the C-terminal part of RanGTP protein.
Tertiary structure of the WH1 domain of the Mena protein revealed structure similarities with the pleckstrin homology (PH) domain. The overall fold consists of a compact parallel beta-sandwich, closed along one edge by a long alpha-helix. A highly conserved cluster of three surface-exposed aromatic side-chains forms the recognition site for the molecules target ligands.
Human genes encoding proteins containing the WH1 domain include:
- Symons M, Derry JM, Karlak B, Jiang S, Lemahieu V, Mccormick F, Francke U, Abo A (March 1996). "Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein, a novel effector for the GTPase CDC42Hs, is implicated in actin polymerization". Cell 84 (5): 723–34. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(00)81050-8. PMID 8625410.
- Veltman DM, Insall RH (2010). "WASP family proteins: their evolution and its physiological implications.". Mol Biol Cell 21 (16): 2880–93. doi:10.1091/mbc.E10-04-0372. PMC 2921111. PMID 20573979.
- Ponting CP, Phillips C (1997). "Identification of homer as a homologue of the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein suggests a receptor-binding function for WH1 domains". J. Mol. Med. 75 (11-12): 769–71. doi:10.1007/s001090050166. PMID 9428607.
- Niebuhr K, Ebel F, Frank R, Reinhard M, Domann E, Carl UD, Walter U, Gertler FB, Wehland J, Chakraborty T (September 1997). "A novel proline-rich motif present in ActA of Listeria monocytogenes and cytoskeletal proteins is the ligand for the EVH1 domain, a protein module present in the Ena/VASP family". EMBO J. 16 (17): 5433–44. doi:10.1093/emboj/16.17.5433. PMC 1170174. PMID 9312002.
- Ball LJ, Jarchau T, Oschkinat H, Walter U (February 2002). "EVH1 domains: structure, function and interactions". FEBS Lett. 513 (1): 45–52. doi:10.1016/S0014-5793(01)03291-4. PMID 11911879.
- Callebaut I, Cossart P, Dehoux P (December 1998). "EVH1/WH1 domains of VASP and WASP proteins belong to a large family including Ran-binding domains of the RanBP1 family". FEBS Lett. 441 (2): 181–5. doi:10.1016/S0014-5793(98)01541-5. PMID 9883880.
- Beddow AL, Richards SA, Orem NR, Macara IG (April 1995). "The Ran/TC4 GTPase-binding domain: identification by expression cloning and characterization of a conserved sequence motif". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 92 (8): 3328–32. doi:10.1073/pnas.92.8.3328. PMC 42159. PMID 7724562.
- Prehoda KE, Lee DJ, Lim WA (May 1999). "Structure of the enabled/VASP homology 1 domain-peptide complex: a key component in the spatial control of actin assembly". Cell 97 (4): 471–80. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(00)80757-6. PMID 10338211.
- Eukaryotic Linear Motif resource motif class LIG_EVH1_1
- Eukaryotic Linear Motif resource motif class LIG_EVH1_2
- Eukaryotic Linear Motif resource motif class LIG_WH1
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WASp Homology domain 1 (WH1) domain. WASP is the protein that is defective in Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS). The majority of point mutations occur within the amino- terminal WH1 domain. The metabotropic glutamate receptors mGluR1alpha and mGluR5 bind a protein called homer, which is a WH1 domain homologue . A subset of WH1 domains has been termed a "EVH1" domain  and appear to bind a polyproline motif.
Symons M, Derry JM, Karlak B, Jiang S, Lemahieu V, Mccormick F, Francke U, Abo A; , Cell 1996;84:723-734.: Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein, a novel effector for the GTPase CDC42Hs, is implicated in actin polymerization. PUBMED:8625410 EPMC:8625410
Ponting CP, Phillips C; , J Mol Med. 1997;75:769-771.: Identification of homer as a homologue of the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein suggests a receptor-binding function for WH1 domains PUBMED:9428607 EPMC:9428607
Niebuhr K, Ebel F, Frank R, Reinhard M, Domann E, Carl UD, Walter U, Gertler FB, Wehland J, Chakraborty T; , EMBO J 1997;16:5433-5444.: A novel proline-rich motif present in ActA of Listeria monocytogenes and cytoskeletal proteins is the ligand for the EVH1 domain, a protein module present in the Enas/VASP family. PUBMED:9312002 EPMC:9312002
External database links
This tab holds annotation information from the InterPro database.
InterPro entry IPR000697
The EVH1 (WH1, RanBP1-WASP) domain is found in multi-domain proteins implicated in a diverse range of signalling, nuclear transport and cytoskeletal events. This domain of around 115 amino acids is present in species ranging from yeast to mammals. Many EVH1-containing proteins associate with actin-based structures and play a role in cytoskeletal organisation. EVH1 domains recognise and bind the proline-rich motif FPPPP with low-affinity, further interactions then form between flanking residues [PUBMED:11911879, PUBMED:9312002].
WASP family proteins contain a EVH1 (WH1) in their N-terminals which bind proline-rich sequences in the WASP interacting protein. Proteins of the RanBP1 family contain a WH1 domain in their N-terminal region, which seems to bind a different sequence motif present in the C-terminal part of RanGTP protein [PUBMED:9883880,PUBMED:7724562].
Tertiary structure of the WH1 domain of the Mena protein revealed structure similarities with the pleckstrin homology (PH) domain. The overall fold consists of a compact parallel beta-sandwich, closed along one edge by a long alpha-helix. A highly conserved cluster of three surface-exposed aromatic side-chains forms the recognition site for the molecules target ligands. [PUBMED:10338211].
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Members of this clan share a PH-like fold. Many families in this clan bind to short peptide motifs in proteins and are involved in signalling.
The clan contains the following 38 members:bPH_1 bPH_2 bPH_3 bPH_4 bPH_5 bPH_6 DCP1 DUF1448 DUF1681 FERM_C GRAM ICAP-1_inte_bdg IQ_SEC7_PH IRS Mcp5_PH PH PH_10 PH_11 PH_12 PH_13 PH_2 PH_3 PH_4 PH_5 PH_6 PH_8 PH_9 PH_BEACH PH_TFIIH PID PID_2 PTB Ran_BP1 Rtt106 SSrecog Voldacs Vps36_ESCRT-II WH1
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Curation and family details
|Seed source:||Alignment kindly provided by SMART|
|Number in seed:||8|
|Number in full:||1769|
|Average length of the domain:||104.40 aa|
|Average identity of full alignment:||26 %|
|Average coverage of the sequence by the domain:||24.17 %|
|HMM build commands:||
build method: hmmbuild -o /dev/null HMM SEED
search method: hmmsearch -Z 80369284 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq
|Family (HMM) version:||19|
|Download:||download the raw HMM for this family|
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For those sequences which have a structure in the Protein DataBank, we use the mapping between UniProt, PDB and Pfam coordinate systems from the PDBe group, to allow us to map Pfam domains onto UniProt sequences and three-dimensional protein structures. The table below shows the structures on which the WH1 domain has been found. There are 27 instances of this domain found in the PDB. Note that there may be multiple copies of the domain in a single PDB structure, since many structures contain multiple copies of the same protein seqence.
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