Summary: zinc-RING finger domain
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RING finger domain Edit Wikipedia article
|Zinc finger, C3HC4 type (RING finger)|
Structure of the C3HC4 domain. Zinc ions are black spheres, coordinated by cysteines residues (blue).
In molecular biology, a RING (Really Interesting New Gene) finger domain is a protein structural domain of zinc finger type which contains a C3HC4 amino acid motif which binds two zinc cations (seven cysteines and one histidine arranged non-consecutively). This protein domain contains from 40 to 60 amino acids. Many proteins containing a RING finger play a key role in the ubiquitination pathway.
Zinc finger (Znf) domains are relatively small protein motifs that bind one or more zinc atoms, and which usually contain multiple finger-like protrusions that make tandem contacts with their target molecule. They bind DNA, RNA, protein and/or lipid substrates. Their binding properties depend on the amino acid sequence of the finger domains and of the linker between fingers, as well as on the higher-order structures and the number of fingers. Znf domains are often found in clusters, where fingers can have different binding specificities. There are many superfamilies of Znf motifs, varying in both sequence and structure. They display considerable versatility in binding modes, even between members of the same class (e.g. some bind DNA, others protein), suggesting that Znf motifs are stable scaffolds that have evolved specialised functions. For example, Znf-containing proteins function in gene transcription, translation, mRNA trafficking, cytoskeleton organisation, epithelial development, cell adhesion, protein folding, chromatin remodelling and zinc sensing. Zinc-binding motifs are stable structures, and they rarely undergo conformational changes upon binding their target.
Some Zn finger domains have diverged such that they still maintain their core structure, but have lost their ability to bind zinc, using other means such as salt bridges or binding to other metals to stabilise the finger-like folds.
Many RING finger domains simultaneously bind ubiquitination enzymes and their substrates and hence function as ligases. Ubiquitination in turn targets the substrate protein for degradation.
The RING finger domain has the consensus sequence C-X2-C-X[9-39]-C-X[1-3]-H-X[2-3]-C-X2-C-X[4-48]-C-X2-C. where:
- C is a conserved cysteine residue involved zinc coordination,
- H is a conserved histidine involved in zinc coordination,
- Zn is zinc atom, and
- X is any amino acid residue.
The following is a schematic representation of the structure of the RING finger domain:
x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x C C C C x \ / x x \ / x x Zn x x Zn x C / \ H C / \ C x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x
Examples of human genes which encode proteins containing a RING finger domain include:
AMFR, BBAP, BFAR, BIRC2, BIRC3, BIRC7, BIRC8, BMI1, BRAP, BRCA1, CBL, CBLB, CBLC, CBLL1, CHFR, COMMD3, DTX1, DTX2, DTX3, DTX3L, DTX4, DZIP3, HCGV, HLTF, HOIL-1, IRF2BP2, LNX1, LNX2, LONRF1, LONRF2, LONRF3, MARCH1, MARCH10, MARCH2, MARCH3, MARCH4, MARCH5, MARCH6, MARCH7, MARCH8, MARCH9, MDM2, MEX3A, MEX3B, MEX3C, MEX3D, MGRN1, MIB1, MID1, MID2, MKRN1, MKRN2, MKRN3, MKRN4, MNAT1, MYLIP, NFX1, NFX2, PCGF1, PCGF2, PCGF3, PCGF4, PCGF5, PCGF6, PDZRN3, PDZRN4, PEX10, PHRF1, PJA1, PJA2, PML, PML-RAR, PXMP3, RAD18, RAG1, RAPSN, RBCK1, RBX1, RC3H1, RC3H2, RCHY1, RFP2, RFPL1, RFPL2, RFPL3, RFPL4B, RFWD2, RFWD3, RING1, RNF2, RNF4, RNF5, RNF6, RNF7, RNF8, RNF10, RNF11, RNF12, RNF13, RNF14, RNF19A, RNF20, RNF24, RNF25, RNF26, RNF32, RNF38, RNF39, RNF40, RNF41, RNF43, RNF44, RNF55, RNF71, RNF103, RNF111, RNF113A, RNF113B, RNF121, RNF122, RNF123, RNF125, RNF126, RNF128, RNF130, RNF133, RNF135, RNF138, RNF139, RNF141, RNF144A, RNF145, RNF146, RNF148, RNF149, RNF150, RNF151, RNF152, RNF157, RNF165, RNF166, RNF167, RNF168, RNF169, RNF170, RNF175, RNF180, RNF181, RNF182, RNF185, RNF207, RNF213, RNF215, RNFT1, SH3MD4, SH3RF1, SH3RF2, SYVN1, TIF1, TMEM118, TOPORS, TRAF2, TRAF3, TRAF4, TRAF5, TRAF6, TRAF7, TRAIP, TRIM2, TRIM3, TRIM4, TRIM5, TRIM6, TRIM7, TRIM8, TRIM9, TRIM10, TRIM11, TRIM13, TRIM15, TRIM17, TRIM21, TRIM22, TRIM23, TRIM24, TRIM25, TRIM26, TRIM27, TRIM28, TRIM31, TRIM32, TRIM33, TRIM34, TRIM35, TRIM36, TRIM38, TRIM39, TRIM40, TRIM41, TRIM42, TRIM43, TRIM45, TRIM46, TRIM47, TRIM48, TRIM49, TRIM50, TRIM52, TRIM54, TRIM55, TRIM56, TRIM58, TRIM59, TRIM60, TRIM61, TRIM62, TRIM63, TRIM65, TRIM67, TRIM68, TRIM69, TRIM71, TRIM72, TRIM73, TRIM74, TRIML1, TTC3, UHRF1, UHRF2, VPS11, VPS8, ZNF179, ZNF294, ZNF313, ZNF364, ZNF650, ZNFB7, ZNRF1, ZNRF2, ZNRF3, ZNRF4, and ZSWIM2.
- Barlow PN, Luisi B, Milner A, Elliott M, Everett R (March 1994). "Structure of the C3HC4 domain by 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. A new structural class of zinc-finger". J. Mol. Biol. 237 (2): 201–11. PMID 8126734. doi:10.1006/jmbi.1994.1222.
- Borden KL, Freemont PS (1996). "The RING finger domain: a recent example of a sequence-structure family". Curr. Opin. Struct. Biol. 6 (3): 395–401. PMID 8804826. doi:10.1016/S0959-440X(96)80060-1.
- Hanson IM, Poustka A, Trowsdale J (1991). "New genes in the class II region of the human major histocompatibility complex". Genomics. 10 (2): 417–24. PMID 1906426. doi:10.1016/0888-7543(91)90327-B.
- Freemont PS, Hanson IM, Trowsdale J (1991). "A novel cysteine-rich sequence motif". Cell. 64 (3): 483–4. PMID 1991318. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(91)90229-R.
- Lovering R, Hanson IM, Borden KL, Martin S, O'Reilly NJ, Evan GI, Rahman D, Pappin DJ, Trowsdale J, Freemont PS (1993). "Identification and preliminary characterization of a protein motif related to the zinc finger". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 90 (6): 2112–6. PMC . PMID 7681583. doi:10.1073/pnas.90.6.2112.
- Klug A (1999). "Zinc finger peptides for the regulation of gene expression". J. Mol. Biol. 293 (2): 215–8. PMID 10529348. doi:10.1006/jmbi.1999.3007.
- Hall TM (2005). "Multiple modes of RNA recognition by zinc finger proteins". Curr. Opin. Struct. Biol. 15 (3): 367–73. PMID 15963892. doi:10.1016/j.sbi.2005.04.004.
- Brown RS (2005). "Zinc finger proteins: getting a grip on RNA". Curr. Opin. Struct. Biol. 15 (1): 94–8. PMID 15718139. doi:10.1016/j.sbi.2005.01.006.
- Gamsjaeger R, Liew CK, Loughlin FE, Crossley M, Mackay JP (2007). "Sticky fingers: zinc-fingers as protein-recognition motifs". Trends Biochem. Sci. 32 (2): 63–70. PMID 17210253. doi:10.1016/j.tibs.2006.12.007.
- Matthews JM, Sunde M (2002). "Zinc fingers--folds for many occasions". IUBMB Life. 54 (6): 351–5. PMID 12665246. doi:10.1080/15216540216035.
- Laity JH, Lee BM, Wright PE (2001). "Zinc finger proteins: new insights into structural and functional diversity". Curr. Opin. Struct. Biol. 11 (1): 39–46. PMID 11179890. doi:10.1016/S0959-440X(00)00167-6.
- Lorick KL, Jensen JP, Fang S, Ong AM, Hatakeyama S, Weissman AM (1999). "RING fingers mediate ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (E2)-dependent ubiquitination". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 96 (20): 11364–9. PMC . PMID 10500182. doi:10.1073/pnas.96.20.11364.
- Joazeiro CA, Weissman AM (2000). "RING finger proteins: mediators of ubiquitin ligase activity". Cell. 102 (5): 549–52. PMID 11007473. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(00)00077-5.
- Freemont PS (2000). "RING for destruction?". Curr. Biol. 10 (2): R84–7. PMID 10662664. doi:10.1016/S0960-9822(00)00287-6.
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Internal database links
This tab holds annotation information from the InterPro database.
InterPro entry IPR001841
Zinc finger (Znf) domains are relatively small protein motifs which contain multiple finger-like protrusions that make tandem contacts with their target molecule. Some of these domains bind zinc, but many do not; instead binding other metals such as iron, or no metal at all. For example, some family members form salt bridges to stabilise the finger-like folds. They were first identified as a DNA-binding motif in transcription factor TFIIIA from Xenopus laevis (African clawed frog), however they are now recognised to bind DNA, RNA, protein and/or lipid substrates [PUBMED:10529348, PUBMED:15963892, PUBMED:15718139, PUBMED:17210253, PUBMED:12665246]. Their binding properties depend on the amino acid sequence of the finger domains and of the linker between fingers, as well as on the higher-order structures and the number of fingers. Znf domains are often found in clusters, where fingers can have different binding specificities. There are many superfamilies of Znf motifs, varying in both sequence and structure. They display considerable versatility in binding modes, even between members of the same class (e.g. some bind DNA, others protein), suggesting that Znf motifs are stable scaffolds that have evolved specialised functions. For example, Znf-containing proteins function in gene transcription, translation, mRNA trafficking, cytoskeleton organisation, epithelial development, cell adhesion, protein folding, chromatin remodelling and zinc sensing, to name but a few [PUBMED:11179890]. Zinc-binding motifs are stable structures, and they rarely undergo conformational changes upon binding their target.
This entry represents RING-type zinc finger domains. The RING-finger is a specialised type of Zn-finger of 40 to 60 residues that binds two atoms of zinc, and is probably involved in mediating protein-protein interactions [PUBMED:8317827, PUBMED:8804826, PUBMED:8744354]. There are two different variants, the C3HC4-type and a C3H2C3-type, which are clearly related despite the different cysteine/histidine pattern. The latter type is sometimes referred to as 'RING-H2 finger'. The RING domain is a protein interaction domain that has been implicated in a range of diverse biological processes. E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase activity is intrinsic to the RING domain of c-Cbl and is likely to be a general function of this domain. E3 ubiquitin-protein ligases determine the substrate specificity for ubiquitylation and have been classified into HECT and RING-finger families. More recently, however, U-box proteins, which contain a domain (the U box) of about 70 amino acids that is conserved from yeast to humans, have been identified as a new type of E3 [PUBMED:12944364]. Various RING fingers also exhibit binding to E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes (Ubc's) [PUBMED:10662664, PUBMED:10514377, PUBMED:10577187].
Several 3D-structures for RING-fingers are known [PUBMED:8804826, PUBMED:8744354]. The 3D structure of the zinc ligation system is unique to the RING domain and is referred to as the 'cross-brace' motif. The spacing of the cysteines in such a domain is C-x(2)-C-x(9 to 39)-C-x(1 to 3)-H-x(2 to 3)-C-x(2)-C-x(4 to 48)-C-x(2)-C. Metal ligand pairs one and three co-ordinate to bind one zinc ion, whilst pairs two and four bind the second.
Note that in the older literature, some RING-fingers are denoted as LIM-domains. The LIM-domain Zn-finger is a fundamentally different family, albeit with similar Cys-spacing (see INTERPRO).
The mapping between Pfam and Gene Ontology is provided by InterPro. If you use this data please cite InterPro.
|Molecular function||protein binding (GO:0005515)|
|zinc ion binding (GO:0008270)|
Below is a listing of the unique domain organisations or architectures in which this domain is found. More...
The graphic that is shown by default represents the longest sequence with a given architecture. Each row contains the following information:
- the number of sequences which exhibit this architecture
a textual description of the architecture, e.g. Gla, EGF x 2, Trypsin.
This example describes an architecture with one
Gladomain, followed by two consecutive
EGFdomains, and finally a single
- a link to the page in the Pfam site showing information about the sequence that the graphic describes
- the UniProt description of the protein sequence
- the number of residues in the sequence
- the Pfam graphic itself.
Note that you can see the family page for a particular domain by clicking on the graphic. You can also choose to see all sequences which have a given architecture by clicking on the Show link in each row.
Finally, because some families can be found in a very large number of architectures, we load only the first fifty architectures by default. If you want to see more architectures, click the button at the bottom of the page to load the next set.
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This clan includes the Ring zinc finger domains as well as the U-box domain that appears to have lost the zinc coordinating cysteine residues .
The clan contains the following 38 members:Baculo_IE-1 Baculo_RING DUF1644 FANCL_C IBR Prok-RING_1 Prok-RING_2 Prok-RING_4 RINGv Rtf2 T3SS_NleG U-box UPF1_Zn_bind zf-ANAPC11 zf-C3H2C3 zf-C3HC4 zf-C3HC4_2 zf-C3HC4_3 zf-C3HC4_4 zf-C3HC4_5 zf-MIZ zf-NOSIP zf-Nse zf-P11 zf-rbx1 zf-RING-like zf-RING_10 zf-RING_11 zf-RING_2 zf-RING_4 zf-RING_5 zf-RING_6 zf-RING_9 zf-RING_UBOX zf-UBP zf-UDP zinc_ribbon_16 Zn_ribbon_17
We store a range of different sequence alignments for families. As well as the seed alignment from which the family is built, we provide the full alignment, generated by searching the sequence database (reference proteomes) using the family HMM. We also generate alignments using four representative proteomes (RP) sets, the UniProtKB sequence database, the NCBI sequence database, and our metagenomics sequence database. More...
There are various ways to view or download the sequence alignments that we store. We provide several sequence viewers and a plain-text Stockholm-format file for download.
We make a range of alignments for each Pfam-A family:
- the curated alignment from which the HMM for the family is built
- the alignment generated by searching the sequence database using the HMM
- Representative Proteomes (RPs) at 15%, 35%, 55% and 75% co-membership thresholds
- alignment generated by searching the UniProtKB sequence database using the family HMM
- alignment generated by searching the NCBI sequence database using the family HMM
- alignment generated by searching the metagenomics sequence database using the family HMM
You can see the alignments as HTML or in three different sequence viewers:
- a Java applet developed at the University of Dundee. You will need Java installed before running jalview
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You can download (or view in your browser) a text representation of a Pfam alignment in various formats:
You can also change the order in which sequences are listed in the alignment, change how insertions are represented, alter the characters that are used to represent gaps in sequences and, finally, choose whether to download the alignment or to view it in your browser directly.
You may find that large alignments cause problems for the viewers and the reformatting tool, so we also provide all alignments in Stockholm format. You can download either the plain text alignment, or a gzipped version of it.
We make a range of alignments for each Pfam-A family. You can see a description of each above. You can view these alignments in various ways but please note that some types of alignment are never generated while others may not be available for all families, most commonly because the alignments are too large to handle.
1Cannot generate PP/Heatmap alignments for seeds; no PP data available
Key: available, not generated, — not available.
Format an alignment
We make all of our alignments available in Stockholm format. You can download them here as raw, plain text files or as gzip-compressed files.
You can also download a FASTA format file containing the full-length sequences for all sequences in the full alignment.
HMM logos is one way of visualising profile HMMs. Logos provide a quick overview of the properties of an HMM in a graphical form. You can see a more detailed description of HMM logos and find out how you can interpret them here. More...
If you find these logos useful in your own work, please consider citing the following article:
This page displays the phylogenetic tree for this family's seed alignment. We use FastTree to calculate neighbour join trees with a local bootstrap based on 100 resamples (shown next to the tree nodes). FastTree calculates approximately-maximum-likelihood phylogenetic trees from our seed alignment.
Note: You can also download the data file for the tree.
Curation and family details
This section shows the detailed information about the Pfam family. You can see the definitions of many of the terms in this section in the glossary and a fuller explanation of the scoring system that we use in the scores section of the help pages.
|Number in seed:||87|
|Number in full:||1318|
|Average length of the domain:||47.70 aa|
|Average identity of full alignment:||29 %|
|Average coverage of the sequence by the domain:||12.55 %|
|HMM build commands:||
build method: hmmbuild -o /dev/null HMM SEED
search method: hmmsearch -Z 26740544 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq
|Family (HMM) version:||5|
|Download:||download the raw HMM for this family|
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This visualisation provides a simple graphical representation of the distribution of this family across species. You can find the original interactive tree in the More....
This chart is a modified "sunburst" visualisation of the species tree for this family. It shows each node in the tree as a separate arc, arranged radially with the superkingdoms at the centre and the species arrayed around the outermost ring.
How the sunburst is generated
The tree is built by considering the taxonomic lineage of each sequence that has a match to this family. For each node in the resulting tree, we draw an arc in the sunburst. The radius of the arc, its distance from the root node at the centre of the sunburst, shows the taxonomic level ("superkingdom", "kingdom", etc). The length of the arc represents either the number of sequences represented at a given level, or the number of species that are found beneath the node in the tree. The weighting scheme can be changed using the sunburst controls.
In order to reduce the complexity of the representation, we reduce the number of taxonomic levels that we show. We consider only the following eight major taxonomic levels:
Colouring and labels
Segments of the tree are coloured approximately according to their superkingdom. For example, archeal branches are coloured with shades of orange, eukaryotes in shades of purple, etc. The colour assignments are shown under the sunburst controls. Where space allows, the name of the taxonomic level will be written on the arc itself.
As you move your mouse across the sunburst, the current node will be highlighted. In the top section of the controls panel we show a summary of the lineage of the currently highlighed node. If you pause over an arc, a tooltip will be shown, giving the name of the taxonomic level in the title and a summary of the number of sequences and species below that node in the tree.
Anomalies in the taxonomy tree
There are some situations that the sunburst tree cannot easily handle and for which we have work-arounds in place.
Missing taxonomic levels
Some species in the taxonomic tree may not have one or more of the main eight levels that we display. For example, Bos taurus is not assigned an order in the NCBI taxonomic tree. In such cases we mark the omitted level with, for example, "No order", in both the tooltip and the lineage summary.
Unmapped species names
The tree is built by looking at each sequence in the full alignment for the family. We take the name of the species given by UniProt and try to map that to the full taxonomic tree from NCBI. In some cases, the name chosen by UniProt does not map to any node in the NCBI tree, perhaps because the chosen name is listed as a synonym or a misspelling in the NCBI taxonomy.
So that these nodes are not simply omitted from the sunburst tree, we group them together in a separate branch (or segment of the sunburst tree). Since we cannot determine the lineage for these unmapped species, we show all levels between the superkingdom and the species as "uncategorised".
Since we reduce the species tree to only the eight main taxonomic levels, sequences that are mapped to the sub-species level in the tree would not normally be shown. Rather than leave out these species, we map them instead to their parent species. So, for example, for sequences belonging to one of the Vibrio cholerae sub-species in the NCBI taxonomy, we show them instead as belonging to the species Vibrio cholerae.
Too many species/sequences
For large species trees, you may see blank regions in the outer layers of the sunburst. These occur when there are large numbers of arcs to be drawn in a small space. If an arc is less than approximately one pixel wide, it will not be drawn and the space will be left blank. You may still be able to get some information about the species in that region by moving your mouse across the area, but since each arc will be very small, it will be difficult to accurately locate a particular species.
The tree shows the occurrence of this domain across different species. More...
We show the species tree in one of two ways. For smaller trees we try to show an interactive representation, which allows you to select specific nodes in the tree and view them as an alignment or as a set of Pfam domain graphics.
Unfortunately we have found that there are problems viewing the interactive tree when the it becomes larger than a certain limit. Furthermore, we have found that Internet Explorer can become unresponsive when viewing some trees, regardless of their size. We therefore show a text representation of the species tree when the size is above a certain limit or if you are using Internet Explorer to view the site.
If you are using IE you can still load the interactive tree by clicking the "Generate interactive tree" button, but please be aware of the potential problems that the interactive species tree can cause.
For all of the domain matches in a full alignment, we count the number that are found on all sequences in the alignment. This total is shown in the purple box.
We also count the number of unique sequences on which each domain is found, which is shown in green. Note that a domain may appear multiple times on the same sequence, leading to the difference between these two numbers.
Finally, we group sequences from the same organism according to the NCBI code that is assigned by UniProt, allowing us to count the number of distinct sequences on which the domain is found. This value is shown in the pink boxes.
We use the NCBI species tree to group organisms according to their taxonomy and this forms the structure of the displayed tree. Note that in some cases the trees are too large (have too many nodes) to allow us to build an interactive tree, but in most cases you can still view the tree in a plain text, non-interactive representation. Those species which are represented in the seed alignment for this domain are highlighted.
You can use the tree controls to manipulate how the interactive tree is displayed:
- show/hide the summary boxes
- highlight species that are represented in the seed alignment
- expand/collapse the tree or expand it to a given depth
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Please note: for large trees this can take some time. While the tree is loading, you can safely switch away from this tab but if you browse away from the family page entirely, the tree will not be loaded.